Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-747cfc64b6-zm8ws Total loading time: 0.378 Render date: 2021-06-13T03:33:03.810Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

The Neuropsychology of Traumatic Brain Injury: Looking Back, Peering Ahead

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 December 2017

Keith Owen Yeates
Department of Psychology, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, & Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Harvey S. Levin
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Baylor College of Medicine, and the Michael E. De Bakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, Texas
Jennie Ponsford
School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University & the Monash-Epworth Rehabilitation Research Centre, Epworth Healthcare, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
E-mail address:


The past 50 years have been a period of exciting progress in neuropsychological research on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuropsychologists and neuropsychological testing have played a critical role in these advances. This study looks back at three major scientific advances in research on TBI that have been critical in pushing the field forward over the past several decades: The advent of modern neuroimaging; the recognition of the importance of non-injury factors in determining recovery from TBI; and the growth of cognitive rehabilitation. Thanks to these advances, we now have a better understanding of the pathophysiology of TBI and how recovery from the injury is also shaped by pre-injury, comorbid, and contextual factors, and we also have increasing evidence that active interventions, including cognitive rehabilitation, can help to promote better outcomes. The study also peers ahead to discern two important directions that seem destined to influence research on TBI over the next 50 years: the development of large, multi-site observational studies and randomized controlled trials, bolstered by international research consortia and the adoption of common data elements; and attempts to translate research into health care and health policy by the application of rigorous methods drawn from implementation science. Future research shaped by these trends should provide critical evidence regarding the outcomes of TBI and its treatment, and should help to disseminate and implement the knowledge gained from research to the betterment of the quality of life of persons with TBI. (JINS, 2017, 23, 806–817)

Section 2 – Neurological Disorders
Copyright © The International Neuropsychological Society 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.


Adelson, P.D. (2010). Clinical trials for pediatric traumatic brain injury. In V.A. Anderson & K.O. Yeates (Eds.), Pediatric traumatic brain injury: New frontiers in clinical and translational research (pp 5467). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alway, Y., Gould, K.R., Johnston, L., McKenzie, D., & Ponsford, J. (2016). A prospective examination of Axis I psychiatric disorders in the first 5 years following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Psychological Medicine, 46, 13311441.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alway, Y., McKay, A., Gould, K.R., Johnston, L., & Ponsford, J. (2016). Factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: A prospective study. Depression and Anxiety, 33, 1926.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anderson, V., Catroppa, C., Morse, S., Haritou, F., & Rosenfeld, J. (2000). Recovery of intellectual ability following traumatic brain injury: Impact of injury severity and age at injury. Pediatric Neurosurgery, 32, 282290.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bayley, M., Tate, R., Douglas, J., Turkstra, L.S., Ponsford, J., Stergiou-Kita, M., & Bragge, P. (2014). INCOG guidelines for cognitive rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury: Methods and overview. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 29, 290306.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bloom, D.R., Levin, H.S., Ewing-Cobbs, L., Saunders, A.E., Song, J., Fletcher, J.M., && Kowatch, R.A. (2001). Lifetime and novel psychiatric disorders after pediatric traumatic brain injury. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 572579.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bombardier, C.H., Fann, J.R., Temkin, N.R., Esselman, P.C., Barber, J., & Dikmen, S.S. (2010). Rates of major depressive disorder and clinical outcomes following traumatic brain injury. Journal of the American Medical Association, 303, 19381945.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Braga, L.W., Da Paz Júnior, A.C., & Ylvisaker, M. (2005). Direct clinician-delivered versus indirect family-supported rehabilitation of children with traumatic brain injury: A randomized controlled trial. Brain Injury, 19, 819831.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Broglio, S. (2015, October). The National Collegiate Athletic Association and Department of Defense Grand Alliance: The Concussion Assessment, Research and Education Consortium. Paper presented at the International Initiative for Traumatic Brain Injury Research (InTBIR) meeting, Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
Brown, G., Chadwick, O., Shaffer, D., Rutter, M., & Traub, M. (1981). A prospective study of children with head injuries: III. Psychiatric sequelae. Psychological Medicine, 11, 6378.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bryant, R.A., & Harvey, A.G. (1999). Postconcussive symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder after mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 18, 302305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bullmore, E., & Sporns, O. (2009). Complex brain networks: Graph theoretical analysis of structural and functional systems. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, 186198.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bullmore, E., & Sporns, O. (2012). The economy of brain network organization. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13, 336349.Google ScholarPubMed
Cattelani, R., Zettin, M., & Zoccolotti, P. (2010). Rehabilitation treatments for adults with behavioral and psychosocial disorders following ABI: A systematic review. Neuropsychology Review, 20, 5285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cicerone, K.D., Dahlberg, C., Kalmar, K., Langenbahn, D.M., Malec, J.F., Bergquist, T.F., & Morse, P.A. (2000). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Recommendations for clinical practice. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81, 15961615.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicerone, K.D., Dahlberg, C., Malec, J.F., Langenbahn, D.M., Felicetti, T., Kneipp, S., & Catanese, J. (2005). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Updated review of the literature from 1998 through 2002. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86, 16811692.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicerone, K.D., Langenbahn, D.M., Braden, C., Malec, J.F., Kalmar, K., Fraas, M., & Ashman, T. (2011). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Updated review of the literature from 2003 through 2008. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92, 519530.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coelho, C., Ylvisaker, M., & Turkstra, L. (2005). Nonstandardized assessment approaches for individuals with traumatic brain injuries. Seminars in Speech & Language, 4, 223241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dawson, D.R., Gaya, A., Hunt, A., Levine, B., Lemsky, C., & Polatajko, H.J. (2009). Using the Cognitive Orientation to Occupational Performance (CO-OP) with adults with executive dysfunction following traumatic brain injury. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 76, 115127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dennis, M., Yeates, K.O., Taylor, H.G., & Fletcher, J.M. (2007). Brain reserve capacity, cognitive reserve capacity, and age-based functional plasticity after congenital and acquired brain injury in children. In Y. Stern (Ed.), Cognitive reserve (pp 5383). New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
Dikmen, S., Machamer, J., Fann, J.R., & Temkin, N.R. (2010). Rates of symptom reporting following traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16, 401411.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dickstein, D.L., Pullman, M.Y., Fernandez, C., Short, J.A., Kostakoglu, L., Knesaurek, K., & Gandy, S. (2016). Cerebral [18F]T807/AV1451 retention pattern in clinically probable CTE resembles pathognomonic distribution of CTE tauopathy. Translational Psychiatry, 6, e900.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duhaime, A.C., Gean, A.D., Haacke, E.M., Hicks, R., Wintermark, M., Mukherjee, P., ... Common Data Elements Neuroimaging Workgroup Members, Pediatric Working Group Members. (2010). Common data elements in radiologic imaging of traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 91, 16611666.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eames, P., & Wood, R. (1985). Rehabilitation after severe brain injury: A follow-up study of a behaviour modification approach. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 48, 613619.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ehlhardt, L.A., Sohlberg, M.M., Kennedy, M., Coelho, C., Ylvisaker, M., Turkstra, L., && Yorkston, K. (2008). Evidence-based practice guidelines for instructing individuals with neurogenic memory impairments: What have we learned in the last 20 years? Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 18, 300342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eisenberg, H.M., Gary, H.E. Jr, Aldrich, E.F., Saydjari, C., Turner, B., Foulkes, M.A., & Young, H.F. (1990). Initial CT findings in 753 patients with severe head injury. A report from the NIH Traumatic Coma Data Bank. Journal of Neurosurgery, 73, 688698.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ewing-Cobbs, L., Prasad, M.R., Swank, P., Kramer, L., Cox, C.S. Jr, Fletcher, J.M., & Hasan, K.M. (2008). Arrested development and disrupted callosal microstructure following pediatric traumatic brain injury: Relation to neurobehavioral outcomes. Neuroimage, 42, 13051315.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fay, T.B., Yeates, K.O., Taylor, H.G., Bangert, B., Dietrich, A., Nuss, K.E., & Wright, M. (2010). Cognitive reserve as a moderator of postconcussive symptoms in children with complicated and uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16, 94105.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fleming, J.M., & Ownsworth, T. (2006). A review of awareness interventions in brain injury rehabilitation. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 16, 474500.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fox, M.D., Snyder, A.Z., Vincent, J.L., Corbetta, M., Van Essen, D.C., & Raichle, M.E. (2005). The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 96739678.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gardner, R.C., Burke, J.F., Nettiksimmons, J., Kaup, A., Barnes, D.E., & Yaffe, K. (2014). Dementia risk after traumatic brain injury vs nonbrain trauma: The role of age and severity. JAMA Neurology, 71, 14901497.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gatson, J.W., Stebbins, C., Mathews, D., Harris, T.S., Madden, C., Batjer, H., & Minei, J.P. (2016). Evidence of increased brain amyloid in severe TBI survivors at 1, 12, and 24 months after injury: Report of 2 cases. Journal of Neurosurgery, 124, 16461653.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Govindarajan, K.A., Narayana, P.A., Hasan, K.M., Wilde, E.A., Levin, H.S., Hunter, J.V., & McCarthy, J.J. (2016). Cortical thickness in mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 33, 18091817.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grant, M., Ponsford, J., & Bennett, P.C. (2012). The application of goal management training to aspects of financial management in individuals with traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 22, 852873.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grimshaw, J.M., Eccles, M.P., Lavis, J.N., Hill, S.J., & Squires, J.E. (2012). Knowledge translation of research findings. Implementation Science, 7, 50.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hayes, J.P., Bigler, E.D., & Verfaellie, M. (2016). Traumatic brain injury as a disorder of brain connectivity. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 22, 120137.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hicks, R., Giacino, J., Harrison-Felix, C., Manley, G., Valadka, A., & Wilde, E.A. (2013). Progress in developing common data elements for traumatic brain injury research: Version two--the end of the beginning. Journal of Neurotrauma, 30, 18521861.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Himanen, L., Portin, R., Isoniemi, H., Helenius, H., Kurkj, T., & Tenovuo, O. (2006). Longitudinal cognitive changes in traumatic brain injury: A 30-year follow-up study. Neurology, 66, 187192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoge, C.W., McGurk, D., Thomas, J.L., Cox, A.L., Engel, C.C., & Castro, C.A. (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. soldiers returning from Iraq. New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 453463.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoofien, D., Gilboa, A., Vakil, E., & Donovick, P.J. (2001). Traumatic brain injury 10-20 years later: A comprehensive outcome study of psychiatric symptomatology, cognitive abilities, and psychosocial functioning. Brain Injury, 15, 189209.Google ScholarPubMed
Hukkelhoven, C.W., Steyerberg, E.W., Rampen, A.J., Farace, E., Habbema, J.D., & Maas, A.I. (2003). Patient age and outcome following severe traumatic brain injury: An analysis of 5600 patients. Journal of Neurosurgery, 99, 666673.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hulkower, M.B., Poliak, D.B., Rosenbaum, S.B., Zimmerman, M.E., & Lipton, M.L. (2013). A decade of DTI in traumatic brain injury: 10 years and 100 articles later. AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology, 34, 20642074.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Humphreys, I., Wood, R.L., Phillips, C.J., & Macey, S. (2013). The costs of traumatic brain injury: A literature review. Clinico Economics and Outcomes Research, 5, 281287.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jankowitz, B.T., & Adelson, P.D. (2006). Pediatric traumatic brain injury: Past, present, and future. Developmental Neuroscience, 28, 264275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keris, V., Lavendelis, E., & Macane, I. (2007). Association between implementation of clinical practice guidelines and outcome for traumatic brain injury. World Journal of Surgery, 31, 13521355.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kreutzer, J.S., Stejskal, T.M., Ketchum, J.M., Marwitz, J.H., Taylor, L.A., & Menzel, J.C. (2009). A preliminary investigation of the brain injury family intervention: Impact on family members. Brain Injury, 23, 535547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kurowski, B., Martin, L.J., & Wade, S.L. (2012). Genetics and outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI): What do we know about pediatric TBI? Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, 5, 217231.Google Scholar
Laatsch, L., Harrington, D., Hotz, G., Maracantuomo, J., Mozzoni, M., Walsh, V., && Hersey, K.P. (2007). An evidence-based review of cognitive and behavioural rehabilitation treatment studies in children with acquired brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 22, 248256.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larsen, G.Y., Schober, M., Fabio, A., Wisniewski, S.R., Grant, M.J., Shafi, N., & Bell, M.J. (2016). Structure, process, and culture differences of pediatric trauma centers participating in an international comparative effectiveness study of children with severe traumatic brain injury. Neurocritical Care, 24, 353360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawson, M.J., & Rice, D.N. (1989). Effects of training in use of executive strategies on a verbal memory problem resulting from closed head injury. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Neuropsychology, 11, 942–854.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levin, H.S., Benavidez, D.A., Verger-Maestre, K., Perachio, N., Song, J., Mendelsohn, D.B., && Fletcher, J.M. (2000). Reduction of corpus callosum growth after severe traumatic brain injury in children. Neurology, 54, 647653.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levin, H.S., Gary, H.E. Jr., & Eisenberg, H.M. (1989). Duration of impaired consciousness in relation to side of lesion after severe head injury. NIH Traumatic Coma Data Bank Research Group. Lancet, 1, 10011003.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levin, H.S., Madison, C.F., Bailey, C.B., Meyers, C.A., Eisenberg, H.M., & Guinto, F.C. (1983). Mutism after closed head injury. Archives of Neurology, 40, 601606.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levine, B., Schweizer, T.A., O’Connor, C., Turner, G., Gillingham, S., Stuss, D.T., & Robertson, I.H. (2011). Rehabilitation of executive functioning in patients with frontal lobe brain damage with goal management training. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 5, 19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lew, H.L., Otis, J.D., Tun, C., Kerns, R.D., Clark, M.E., & Cifu, D.X. (2009). Prevalence of chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder, and persistent postconcussive symptoms in OIF/OEF veterans: Polytrauma clinical triad. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 46, 697702.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marshall, L.F., Marshall, S.B., Klauber, M.R., Van Berkum Clark, M., Eisenberg, H., Jane, J.A., & Foulkes, M.A. (1992). The diagnosis of head injury requires a classification based on computed axial tomography. Journal of Neurotrauma, 9(Suppl 1), S287S292.Google Scholar
Mateer, C.A., & Sira, C.S. (2006). Cognitive and emotional consequences of TBI: Intervention strategies for vocational rehabilitation. NeuroRehabilitation, 21, 315326.Google ScholarPubMed
Mayer, A.R., Ling, J.M., Dodd, A.B., Gasparovic, C., Klimaj, S.D., & Meier, T.B. (2015). A longitudinal assessment of structural and chemical alterations in mixed martial arts fighters. Journal of Neurotrauma, 32, 17591767.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McAllister, T.W. (2015). Genetic factors in traumatic brain injury. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 128, 723739.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McAllister, T.W., Saykin, A.J., Flashman, L.A., Sparling, M.B., Johnson, S.C., Guerin, S.J., & Yanofsky, N. (1999). Brain activation during working memory 1 month after mild traumatic brain injury: A functional MRI study. Neurology, 53, 13001308.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCauley, S.R., Wilde, E.A., Anderson, V.A., Bedell, G., Beers, S.R., Campbell, T.F., & Yeates, K.O. (2012). Recommendations for the use of common outcome measures in pediatric traumatic brain injury research. Journal of Neurotrauma, 29, 678705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McDonald, S., Togher, L., Tate, R., Randall, R., English, T., & Gowland, A. (2013). A randomised controlled trial evaluating a brief intervention for deficits in recognising emotional prosody following severe ABI. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 23, 267286.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Medd, J., & Tate, R.L. (2000). Evaluation of an anger management therapy programme following acquired brain injury: A preliminary study. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 10, 185201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nampiaparampil, D.E. (2008). Prevalence of chronic pain after traumatic brain injury: A systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 300, 711719.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newsome, M.R., Li, X., Lin, X., Wilde, E.A., Ott, S., Biekman, B., & Levin, H.S. (2016). Functional connectivity is alterted in concussed adolescent athletes despite medical clearance to return to play: A preliminary report. Frontiers in Neurology, 7, 116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newsome, M.R., Scheibel, R.S., Hanten, G., Chu, Z., Steinberg, J.L., Hunter, J.V., & Levin, H.S. (2010). Brain activation while thinking about the self from another person’s perspective after traumatic brain injury in adolescents. Neuropsychology, 24, 139147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nguyen, S., McKay, A., Wong, D., Spitz, G., Mansfield, D., Williams, G., & Ponsford, J. (2017). Cognitive behavior therapy to treat sleep disturbance and fatigue following traumatic brain injury: A pilot randomized study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
Paniak, C.S., Reynolds, S., Toller-Lobe, G., Melnyk, A., Nagy, J., & Schmidt, D. (2002). A longitudinal study of the relationship between financial compensation and symptoms after treated mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24, 187193.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Podell, K., Gifford, K., Bougakov, D., & Goldberg, E. (2014). Neuropsychological assessment in traumatic brain injury. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 33, 855876.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ponsford, J., Bayley, M., Wiseman-Hakes, C., Togher, L., Velikonja, D., McIntyre, A., & Tate, R. (2014). INCOG recommendations for management of cognition following TBI Part II: Attention and information processing speed. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 29, 321337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ponsford, J.L., Downing, M., Olver, J., Ponsford, M., Acher, R., Carty, M., && Spitz, G. (2014). Longitudinal follow-up of patients with traumatic brain injury: Outcome at two, five, and ten years post-injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 31, 6477.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ponsford, J., Lee, N., McKay, A., Wong, D., Haines, K., Alway, Y., & O’Donnell, M. (2016). Efficacy of motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and depression symptoms following traumatic brain injury. Psychological Medicine, 46, 10791090.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ponsford, J.L., Ziino, C., Parcell, D.L., Shekleton, J.A., Roper, M., Redman, J.R., & Rajaratnam, S.M. (2012). Fatigue and sleep disturbance following traumatic brain injury – Their nature, causes and potential treatments. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 27, 224233.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Radice-Neumann, D., Zupan, B., Tomita, M., & Willer, B. (2009). Training emotional processing in persons with brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 24, 313323.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roebuck-Spencer, T., & Sherer, M. (2008). Moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. In J.E. Morgan & J.H. Ricker (Eds.), Textbook of clinical neuropsychology (pp 411429). New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
Roozenbeek, B., Lingsma, H.F., Lecky, F.E., Lu, J., Weir, J., Butcher, I., & Steyerberg, E.W., on behalf of the International Mission on Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in Traumatic Brain Injury (IMPACT) Study Group, the Corticosteroid Randomisation After Significant Head Injury (CRASH) Trial Collaborators, and the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN). (2012). Prediction of outcome after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: External validation of the IMPACT and CRASH Prognostic Models. Critical Care Medicine, 40, 16091617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roozenbeek, B., Maas, A.I., & Menon, D.K. (2013). Changing patterns in the epidemiology of traumatic brain injury. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9, 231236.Google ScholarPubMed
Saatman, K.E., Duhaime, A.C., Bullock, R., Maas, A.I., Valadka, A., & Manley, G.T., Workshop Scientific Team and Advisory Panel Members. (2008). Classification of traumatic brain injury for targeted therapies. Journal of Neurotrauma, 25, 719738.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sander, A.M., Caroselli, J.S., High, W.M. Jr., Becker, C., Neese, L., & Scheibel, R. (2002). Relationship of family functioning to progress in a post-acute rehabilitation programme following traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 16, 649657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Savage, R.C., DePompei, R., Tyler, J., & Lash, M. (2005). Paediatric traumatic brain injury: A review of pertinent issues. Paediatric Rehabilitation, 8, 92103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scheibel, R.S., Newsome, M.R., Troyanskaya, M., Steinberg, J.L., Goldstein, F.C., Mao, H., && Levin, H.S. (2009). Effects of severity of traumatic brain injury and brain reserve on cognitive-control related brain activation. Journal of Neurotrauma, 26, 14471461.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sharp, D.J., Scott, G., & Leech, R. (2014). Network dysfunction after traumatic brain injury. Nature Reviews Neurology, 10, 156166.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sherer, M., & Sander, A.M. (2014). Handbook on the neuropsychology of traumatic brain injury. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sherer, M., Sander, A.M., Nick, T.G., High, W.M., Malec, J.F., & Rosenthal, M. (2002). Early cognitive status and productivity outcome after traumatic brain injury: Findings from the TBI Model Systems. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 83, 183192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sherman, K.B., Goldberg, M., & Bell, K.R. (2006). Traumatic brain injury and pain. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 17, 473490.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shum, D., Fleming, J., Gill, H., Gullo, M.J., & Strong, J. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of prospective memory rehabilitation in adults with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 43, 216223.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sinclair, K.L., Ponsford, J.L., Taffe, J., Lockley, S.W., & Rajaratnam, S.M.W. (2014). Randomized controlled trial of light therapy for fatigue following traumatic brain injury. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 28, 303313.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sohlberg, M.M., Kennedy, M., Avery, J., Coelho, C., Turkstra, L., Ylvisaker, M., && Yorkston, K. (2007). Evidence-based practice for the use of external aids as a memory compensation technique. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 5.Google Scholar
Spikman, J.M., Boelen, D.H.E., Lamberts, K.F., Brouwer, W.H., & Fasotti, L. (2010). Effects of a multifaceted treatment program for executive dysfunction after acquired brain injury on indications of executive functioning in daily life. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16, 118129.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stern, Y. (2000). Cognitive reserve. Neuropsychologia, 47, 20152028.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tate, R., Kennedy, M., Ponsford, J., Douglas, J., Velikonja, D., Bayley, M., && Stergiou-Kita, M. (2014). INCOG Recommendations for management of cognition following traumatic brain injury. Part III: Executive function and self-awareness. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 29(4), 338352.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, H.G., Yeates, K.O., Wade, S.L., Drotar, D., Klein, S.K., & Stancin, T. (1999). Influences on first-year recovery from traumatic brain injury in children. Neuropsychology, 13, 7689.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, H.G., Yeates, K.O., Wade, S.L., Drotar, D., Stancin, T., & Minich, M. (2002). A prospective study of short- and long-term outcomes after traumatic brain injury in children: Behavior and achievement. Neuropsychology, 16, 1527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Teasdale, G., & Jennett, B. (1974). Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. A practical scale. Lancet, 13, 8184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tham, S.W., Palermo, T.M., Wang, J., Jaffe, K.M., Temkin, N., Durbin, D., && Rivara, F.P. (2013). Persistent pain in adolescents following traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Pain, 14, 12421249.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Togher, L., Wiseman-Hakes, C., Douglas, J., Stergiou-Kita, M., Ponsford, J., Teasell, R., & Turkstra, L.S. (2014). INCOG Recommendations for management of cognition following traumatic brain injury: Part IV. Cognitive communication. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 29, 353368.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tosetti, P., Hicks, R.R., Theriault, E., Phillips, A., Koroshetz, W., & Draghia-Akli, R., workshop participants. (2013). Toward an international initiative for traumatic brain injury research. Journal of Neurotrauma, 30, 12111222.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Treble-Barna, A., Zang, H., Zhang, N., Martin, L.J., Yeates, K.O., Taylor, H.G., & Kurowski, B.G. (2016). Does Apolipoprotein e4 status moderate the association of family environment with long-term child functioning following early moderate to severe traumatic brain injury? A preliminary study. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 22, 859864.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Turkheimer, E., Cullum, C.M., Hubler, D.W., Paver, S.W., Yeo, R.A., & Bigler, E.D. (1984). Quantifying cortical atrophy. Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 47, 13141318.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Velikonja, D., Tate, R., Ponsford, J., McIntyre, A., Janzen, S., & Bayley, M. (2014). INCOG recommendations for management of cognition following traumatic brain injury, Part V: Memory. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 29, 369386.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wade, S., Walz, N., Carey, J., McMullen, K., Cass, J., Mark, E., && Yeates, K.O. (2011). Effect on behavior problems of teen online problem-solving for adolescent traumatic brain injury. Pediatrics, 128, e947e953.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Washington, P.M., Vilapol, S., & Burns, M.P. (2016). Polypathology and dementia after brain trauma: Does brain injury trigger distinct neurodegenerative diseases or should it be classified together as traumatic encephalopathy? Experimental Neurology, 275, 8188.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilde, E.A., Bouix, S., Tate, D.F., Lin, A.P., Newsome, M.R., Taylor, B.A., & York, G. (2015). Advanced neuroimaging applied to veterans and service personnel with traumatic brain injury: State of the art and potential benefits. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 9, 367402.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Williams, D.H., Levin, H.S., & Eisenberg, H.M. (1990). Mild head injury classification. Neurosurgery, 27, 422428.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilson, B.A., Emslie, H.C., Quirk, K., & Evans, J.J. (2001). Reducing everyday memory and planning problems by means of a paging system: A randomised control crossover study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 70, 477482.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeates, K.O. (2010). Traumatic brain injury. In K.O. Yeates, M.D. Ris, H.G. Taylor & B.F. Pennington (Eds.), Pediatric neuropsychology: Research, theory, and practice (2nd ed, pp 112146). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Yeates, K.O., Armstrong, K., Janusz, J., Taylor, H.G., Wade, S., Stancin, T., && Drotar, D. (2005). Long-term attention problems in children with traumatic brain injury. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 574584.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeates, K.O., Taylor, H.G., Drotar, D., Wade, S., Klein, S., & Stancin, T. (1997). Premorbid family environment as a predictor of neurobehavioral outcomes following pediatric TBI. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 3, 617630.Google Scholar
Yeates, K.O., Taylor, H.G., Walz, N.C., Stancin, T., & Wade, S.L. (2010). The family environment as a moderator of psychosocial outcomes following traumatic brain injury in young children. Neuropsychology, 24, 345356.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ylvisaker, M., Adelson, D., Braga, L.W., Burnett, S.M., Glang, A., Feeney, T., & Todis, B. (2005). Rehabilitation and ongoing support after pediatric TBI: Twenty years of progress. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20, 90104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ylvisaker, M., Jacobs, H., & Feeney, T.J. (2003). Positive supports for people who experience behavioral and cognitive disability after brain injury: A review. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 18, 732.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ylvisaker, M., Todis, B., Glang, A., Urbanczyk, B., Franklin, C., DePompei, R., & Tyler, J.S. (2001). Educating students with TBI: Themes and recommendations. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 16, 7693.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ylvisaker, M., Turkstra, L.S., & Coelho, C. (2005). Behavioral and social interventions for individuals with traumatic brain injury: A summary of the research with clinical implications. Seminars in Speech & Language, 26, 256267.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ylvisaker, M., Turkstra, L., Coehlo, C., Yorkston, K., Kennedy, M., Sohlberg, M.M., && Avery, J. (2007). Behavioural interventions for children and adults with behaviour disorders after TBI: A systematic review of the evidence. Brain Injury, 21, 769805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yue, J.K., Vassar, M.J., Lingsma, H.F., Cooper, S.R., Okonkwo, D.O., Valadka, A.B., & Manley, G.T., TRACK-TBI Investigators. (2013). Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury (TRACK-TBI) pilot: Multicenter implementation of the common data elements for traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 30, 18311844.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yuh, E.L., Mukherjee, P., Lingsma, H.F., Yue, J.K., Ferguson, A.R., Gordon, W.A., & Manley, G.T., TRACK-TBI Investigators. (2013). Magnetic resonance imaging improves 3-month outcome prediction in mild traumatic brain injury. Annals of Neurology, 73, 224235.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zatzick, D.F., Rivara, F.P., Jurkovich, G.J., Hoge, C.W., Wang, J., Fan, M.Y., & Mackenzie, E.J. (2010). Multisite investigation of traumatic brain injuries, posttraumatic stress disorder, and self-reported health and cognitive impairments. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 12911300.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zemek, R., Osmond, M.H., & Barrowman, N., on behalf of Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC) concussion team. (2013). Predicting and preventing postconcussive problems in paediatrics (5P) study: Protocol for a prospective multicenter clinical prediction rule derivation study in children with concussion. BMJ Open, 3, e003550. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The Neuropsychology of Traumatic Brain Injury: Looking Back, Peering Ahead
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

The Neuropsychology of Traumatic Brain Injury: Looking Back, Peering Ahead
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

The Neuropsychology of Traumatic Brain Injury: Looking Back, Peering Ahead
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *