Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-8bbf57454-wdwc2 Total loading time: 0.403 Render date: 2022-01-24T04:29:25.668Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Mayo Normative Studies: Regression-Based Normative Data for the Auditory Verbal Learning Test for Ages 30–91 Years and the Importance of Adjusting for Sex

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 August 2020

Nikki H. Stricker*
Affiliation:
Division of Neurocognitive Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
Teresa J. Christianson
Affiliation:
Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
Emily S. Lundt
Affiliation:
Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
Eva C. Alden
Affiliation:
Division of Neurocognitive Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
Mary M. Machulda
Affiliation:
Division of Neurocognitive Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
Julie A. Fields
Affiliation:
Division of Neurocognitive Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
Walter K. Kremers
Affiliation:
Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
Clifford R. Jack Jr.
Affiliation:
Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
David S. Knopman
Affiliation:
Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
Michelle M. Mielke
Affiliation:
Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
Ronald C. Petersen
Affiliation:
Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
*
*Correspondence and reprint requests to: Nikki H. Stricker, PhD, LP, Division of Neurocognitive Disorders, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Tel: +1 507-284-2649; Fax: +1 507-284-4158. Email: stricker.nikki@mayo.edu

Abstract

Objective:

Rey’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is a widely used word list memory test. We update normative data to include adjustment for verbal memory performance differences between men and women and illustrate the effect of this sex adjustment and the importance of excluding participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normative samples.

Method:

This study advances the Mayo’s Older Americans Normative Studies (MOANS) by using a new population-based sample through the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, which randomly samples residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, from age- and sex-stratified groups. Regression-based normative T-score formulas were derived from 4428 cognitively unimpaired adults aged 30–91 years. Fully adjusted T-scores correct for age, sex, and education. We also derived T-scores that correct for (1) age or (2) age and sex. Test-retest reliability data are provided.

Results:

From raw score analyses, sex explained a significant amount of variance in performance above and beyond age (8–10%). Applying original age-adjusted MOANS norms to the current sample resulted in significantly fewer-than-expected participants with low delayed recall performance, particularly in women. After application of new T-scores adjusted only for age, even in normative data derived from this sample, these age-adjusted T-scores showed scores <40 T occurred more frequently among men and less frequently among women relative to T-scores that also adjusted for sex.

Conclusions:

Our findings highlight the importance of using normative data that adjust for sex with measures of verbal memory and provide new normative data that allow for this adjustment for the AVLT.

Type
Regular Research
Copyright
Copyright © INS. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

Table 1 and Appendix used with permission of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; all rights reserved.

Portions of this manuscript were presented as a poster at the 17th Annual American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, Chicago, Illinois, June 5–8, 2019. Portions of this manuscript were presented at the 39th Annual National Academy of Neuropsychology Conference, San Diego, California, November 14, 2019. Portions of this manuscript and the figures were presented at the internal Mayo Clinic Neuropsychology Multi-Site Seminar, April 8, 2020, Rochester, Minnesota.

References

Aartsen, M.J., Martin, M., Zimprich, D., & Longitudinal Aging Study, A. (2004). Gender differences in level and change in cognitive functioning. Results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Gerontology, 50(1), 3538. doi: 10.1159/000074387 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Asperholm, M., Nagar, S., Dekhtyar, S., & Herlitz, A. (2019) The magnitude of sex differences in verbal episodic memory increases with social progress: Data from 54 countries across 40 years. PLoS ONE 14(4): e0214945. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0214945.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bondi, M.W., Edmonds, E.C., Jak, A.J., Clark, L.R., Delano-Wood, L., McDonald, C.R., … Salmon, D.P. (2014). Neuropsychological criteria for mild cognitive impairment improves diagnostic precision, biomarker associations, and progression rates. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 42(1), 275289. doi: 10.3233/JAD-140276 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boyle, P.A., Yang, J., Yu, L., Leurgans, S.E., Capuano, A.W., Schneider, J.A., … Bennett, D.A. (2017). Varied effects of age-related neuropathologies on the trajectory of late life cognitive decline. Brain, 140(3), 804812. doi: 10.1093/brain/aww341 Google ScholarPubMed
Boyle, P.A., Yu, L., Wilson, R.S., Leurgans, S.E., Schneider, J.A., & Bennett, D.A. (2018). Person-specific contribution of neuropathologies to cognitive loss in old age. Annals of Neurology, 83(1), 7483. doi: 10.1002/ana.25123 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Casaletto, K.B., Umlauf, A., Beaumont, J., Gershon, R., Slotkin, J., Akshoomoff, N., & Heaton, R.K. (2015). Demographically Corrected Normative Standards for the English Version of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 21(5), 378391. doi: 10.1017/S1355617715000351 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caselli, R.J., Dueck, A.C., Locke, D.E., Baxter, L.C., Woodruff, B.K., & Geda, Y.E. (2015). Sex-based memory advantages and cognitive aging: a challenge to the cognitive reserve construct? Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 21(2), 95104. doi: 10.1017/S1355617715000016 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delis, D.C., Kramer, J., Kaplan, E., & Ober, B.A. (2017). California Verbal Learning Test Third Edition (CVLT3) (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Delis, D.C., Kramer, J., Kaplan, E., & Ober, B.A. (2000). CVLT-II : California verbal learning test (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corp. Harcourt Brace Corp.Google Scholar
Di Carlo, A., Lamassa, M., Baldereschi, M., Inzitari, M., Scafato, E., Farchi, G., & Inzitari, D. (2007). CIND and MCI in the Italian elderly: frequency, vascular risk factors, progression to dementia. Neurology, 68(22), 19091916. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000263132.99055.0d CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferman, T.J., Lucas, J.A., Ivnik, R.J., Smith, G.E., Willis, F.B., Petersen, R.C., & Graff-Radford, N.R. (2005). Mayo’s Older African American Normative Studies: auditory verbal learning test norms for African American elders. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 19(2), 214228. doi: 10.1080/13854040590945300 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guilmette, T.J., Sweet, J.J., Hebben, N., Koltai, D., Mahone, E.M., Spiegler, B.J., Stucky, K., Westerveld, M. & Conference Participants (2020). American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology consensus conference statement on uniform labeling of performance test scores. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, doi: 10.1080/13854046.2020.1722244 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harrington, K.D., Schembri, A., Lim, Y.Y., Dang, C., Ames, D., Hassenstab, J., … Group, A.R. (2018). Estimates of age-related memory decline are inflated by unrecognized Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 70, 170179. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2018.06.005 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harris, M.E., Ivnik, R.J., & Smith, G.E. (2002). Mayo’s Older Americans Normative Studies: expanded AVLT Recognition Trial norms for ages 57 to 98. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24(2), 214220. doi: 10.1076/jcen.24.2.214.995 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heaton, R.K. (2004). Revised comprehensive norms for an expanded Halstead-Reitan battery: demographically adjusted neuropsychological norms for african american and caucasian adults : professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
Hessel, P., Kinge, J.M., Skirbekk, V., & Staudinger, U.M. (2018). Trends and determinants of the Flynn effect in cognitive functioning among older individuals in 10 European countries. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 72(5), 383389. doi: 10.1136/jech-2017-209979 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ivnik, R.J. (2005). Normative psychology: a professional obligation? Clinical Neuropsychologist, 19(2), 159161. doi: 10.1080/13854040590945247 Google ScholarPubMed
Ivnik, R.J., Malec, J.F., Smith, G.E., Tangalos, E.G., Petersen, R.C., Kokmen, E., & Kurland, L.T. (1992a). Mayo’s older americans normative studies: Updated AVLT norms for ages 56 to 97. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 6(sup001), 83104. doi: 10.1080/13854049208401880 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ivnik, R.J., Malec, J.F., Smith, G.E., Tangalos, E.G., Petersen, R.C., Kokmen, E., & Kurland, L.T. (1992b). Mayo’s older americans normative studies: WAIS-R norms for ages 56 to 97. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 6(sup001), 130. doi: 10.1080/13854049208401877 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ivnik, R.J., Malec, J.F., Smith, G.E., Tangalos, E.G., Petersen, R.C., Kokmen, E., & Kurland, L.T. (1992c). Mayo’s older americans normative studies: WMS-R norms for ages 56 to 94. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 6(sup001), 4982. doi: 10.1080/13854049208401879 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jack, C.R. Jr, Bennett, D.A., Blennow, K., Carrillo, M.C., Feldman, H.H., Frisoni, G.B., … Dubois, B. (2016). A/T/N: An unbiased descriptive classification scheme for Alzheimer disease biomarkers. Neurology, 87(5), 539547. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000002923 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jack, C.R. Jr, Wiste, H.J., Weigand, S.D., Knopman, D.S., Vemuri, P., Mielke, M.M., … Petersen, R.C. (2015). Age, Sex, and APOE epsilon4 Effects on Memory, Brain Structure, and beta-Amyloid Across the Adult Life Span. JAMA Neurology, 72(5), 511519. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.4821 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jak, A.J., Bondi, M.W., Delano-Wood, L., Wierenga, C., Corey-Bloom, J., Salmon, D.P., & Delis, D.C. (2009). Quantification of five neuropsychological approaches to defining mild cognitive impairment. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(5), 368375. doi: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e31819431d5 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kokmen, E., Smith, G.E., Petersen, R.C., Tangalos, E., & Ivnik, R.C. (1991). The short test of mental status. Correlations with standardized psychometric testing. Archives of Neurology, 48(7), 725728. doi: 10.1001/archneur.1991.00530190071018 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kramer, J.H., Delis, D.C., Kaplan, E., O’Donnell, L., & Prifitera, A. (1997). Developmental sex differences in verbal learning. Neuropsychology, 11(4), 577584. doi: 10.1037//0894-4105.11.4.577 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loring, D.W., Strauss, E., Hermann, B.P., Barr, W.B., Perrine, K., Trenerry, M.R., … Bowden, S.C. (2008). Differential neuropsychological test sensitivity to left temporal lobe epilepsy. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 14(3), 394400. doi: 10.1017/S1355617708080582 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Malec, J.F., Ivnik, R.J., Smith, G.E., Tangalos, E.G., Petersen, R.C., Kokmen, E., & Kurland, L.T. (1992). Mayo’s older americans normative studies: Utility of corrections for age and education for the WAIS-R. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 6(sup001), 3147. doi: 10.1080/13854049208401878 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morris, J.C. (1993). The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR): current version and scoring rules. Neurology, 43(11), 24122414. doi: 10.1212/wnl.43.11.2412-a CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petersen, R.C. (2004). Mild cognitive impairment as a diagnostic entity. Journal of Internal Medicine, 256(3), 183194. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2004.01388.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petersen, R.C., Lopez, O., Armstrong, M.J., Getchius, T.S.D., Ganguli, M., Gloss, D., … Rae-Grant, A. (2018). Practice guideline update summary: mild cognitive impairment: report of the guideline development, dissemination, and implementation subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology, 90(3), 126135. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000004826 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petersen, R.C., Roberts, R.O., Knopman, D.S., Boeve, B.F., Geda, Y.E., Ivnik, R.J., … Jack, C.R. Jr. (2009). Mild cognitive impairment: ten years later. Archives of Neurology, 66(12), 14471455. doi: 10.1001/archneurol.2009.266 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petersen, R.C., Roberts, R.O., Knopman, D.S., Geda, Y.E., Cha, R.H., Pankratz, V.S., … Rocca, W.A. (2010). Prevalence of mild cognitive impairment is higher in men. The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Neurology, 75(10), 889897. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181f11d85 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petersen, R.C., Smith, G.E., Waring, S.C., Ivnik, R.J., Tangalos, E.G., & Kokmen, E. (1999). Mild cognitive impairment: clinical characterization and outcome. Archives of Neurology, 56(3), 303308. doi: 10.1001/archneur.56.3.303 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rey, A. (1964). L’ examen clinique en psychologie (2. éd.). Paris: Presses universitaires de France.Google Scholar
Ricci, M., Graef, S., Blundo, C., & Miller, L.A. (2012). Using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) to differentiate alzheimer’s dementia and behavioural variant fronto-temporal dementia. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 26(6), 926941. doi: 10.1080/13854046.2012.704073 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roberts, R.O., Geda, Y.E., Knopman, D.S., Cha, R.H., Pankratz, V.S., Boeve, B.F., … Rocca, W.A. (2008). The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging: design and sampling, participation, baseline measures and sample characteristics. Neuroepidemiology, 30(1), 5869. doi: 10.1159/000115751 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, R.O., Geda, Y.E., Knopman, D.S., Cha, R.H., Pankratz, V.S., Boeve, B.F., … Petersen, R.C. (2012). The incidence of MCI differs by subtype and is higher in men: the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Neurology, 78(5), 342351. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182452862 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salthouse, T.A. (2010). Selective review of cognitive aging. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16(5), 754760. doi: 10.1017/S1355617710000706 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schmidt, M. (1996). Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
Sliwinski, M.J., Hofer, S.M., Hall, C., Buschke, H., & Lipton, R.B. (2003). Modeling memory decline in older adults: the importance of preclinical dementia, attrition, and chronological age. Psychology and Aging, 18(4), 658671. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.18.4.658 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shrout, P.E., & Fleiss, J.L. (1979), Intraclass correlation: uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 420428.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Slick, D.J. (2006). Psychometrics in neuropsychological assessment. In Strauss, E., Sherman, E.M.S. & Spreen, O. (Eds.), A Compendium Of Neuropsychological Tests: Administration, Norms, And Commentary (3rd ed.) (pp. 331). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Smith, G.E., & Ivnik, R.J. (2003). Normative neuropsychology. In Petersen, R.C. (Ed.), Mild cognitive impairment : aging to Alzheimer’s disease (pp. 6388). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
St Sauver, J.L., Grossardt, B.R., Yawn, B.P., Melton, L.J., 3rd, & Rocca, W.A. (2011). Use of a medical records linkage system to enumerate a dynamic population over time: the Rochester epidemiology project. American Journal of Epidemiology, 173(9), 10591068. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwq482 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steinberg, B.A., Bieliauskas, L.A., Smith, G.E., Ivnik, R.J., & Malec, J.F. (2005). Mayo’s Older Americans Normative Studies: age- and IQ-adjusted norms for the auditory verbal learning test and the visual spatial learning test. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 19(3–4), 464523. doi: 10.1080/13854040590945193 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Strauss, E., Sherman, E.M.S., Spreen, O., & Spreen, O. (2006). A compendium of neuropsychological tests : administration, norms, and commentary (3rd ed.). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Sundermann, E.E., Biegon, A., Rubin, L.H., Lipton, R.B., Landau, S., Maki, P.M., & Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging, I. (2017). Does the female advantage in verbal memory contribute to underestimating Alzheimer’s disease pathology in women versus men? Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 56(3), 947957. doi: 10.3233/JAD-160716 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sundermann, E.E., Biegon, A., Rubin, L.H., Lipton, R.B., Mowrey, W., Landau, S., … Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging, I. (2016). Better verbal memory in women than men in MCI despite similar levels of hippocampal atrophy. Neurology, 86(15), 13681376. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000002570 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sundermann, E.E., Maki, P., Biegon, A., Lipton, R.B., Mielke, M.M., Machulda, M., … Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging, I. (2019). Sex-specific norms for verbal memory tests may improve diagnostic accuracy of amnestic MCI. Neurology. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000008467 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thomas, K.R., Eppig, J., Edmonds, E.C., Jacobs, D.M., Libon, D.J., Au, R., … Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging, I. (2018). Word-list intrusion errors predict progression to mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychology, 32(2), 235245. doi: 10.1037/neu0000413 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Uchiyama, C.L., D’Elia, L.F., Dellinger, A.M., Becker, J.T., Selnes, O.A., Wesch, J.E., … Miller, E.N. (1995). Alternate forms of the Auditory-Verbal Learning Test: issues of test comparability, longitudinal reliability, and moderating demographic variables. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 10(2), 133145.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van der Elst, W., van Boxtel, M.P., van Breukelen, G.J., & Jolles, J. (2005). Rey’s verbal learning test: normative data for 1855 healthy participants aged 24-81 years and the influence of age, sex, education, and mode of presentation. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11(3), 290302. doi: 10.1017/S1355617705050344 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Verhaeghen, P., & Salthouse, T.A. (1997). Meta-analyses of age-cognition relations in adulthood: estimates of linear and nonlinear age effects and structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 122(3), 231249. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.122.3.231 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weiner, M.W., Veitch, D.P., Aisen, P.S., Beckett, L.A., Cairns, N.J., Green, R.C., … Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging, I. (2017). The Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging initiative 3: continued innovation for clinical trial improvement. Alzheimers Dement, 13(5), 561571. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2016.10.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weissberger, G.H., Strong, J.V., Stefanidis, K.B., Summers, M.J., Bondi, M.W., & Stricker, N.H. (2017). Diagnostic accuracy of memory measures in Alzheimer’s dementia and mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuropsychology Review, 27(4), 354388. doi: 10.1007/s11065-017-9360-6 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wennberg, A.M.V., Hagen, C.E., Machulda, M.M., Hollman, J.H., Roberts, R.O., Knopman, D.S., … Mielke, M.M. (2018). The association between peripheral total IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and functional and cognitive outcomes in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Neurobiology of Aging, 66, 6874. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.11.017 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yu, L., Boyle, P.A., Segawa, E., Leurgans, S., Schneider, J.A., Wilson, R.S., & Bennett, D.A. (2015). Residual decline in cognition after adjustment for common neuropathologic conditions. Neuropsychology, 29(3), 335343. doi: 10.1037/neu0000159 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: File

Stricker et al. supplementary material

Tables S1-S4 and Figures S1-S2

Download Stricker et al. supplementary material(File)
File 2 MB
Supplementary material: File

Stricker et al. supplementary material

Appendix

Download Stricker et al. supplementary material(File)
File 62 KB
4
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Mayo Normative Studies: Regression-Based Normative Data for the Auditory Verbal Learning Test for Ages 30–91 Years and the Importance of Adjusting for Sex
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Mayo Normative Studies: Regression-Based Normative Data for the Auditory Verbal Learning Test for Ages 30–91 Years and the Importance of Adjusting for Sex
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Mayo Normative Studies: Regression-Based Normative Data for the Auditory Verbal Learning Test for Ages 30–91 Years and the Importance of Adjusting for Sex
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *