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The impact of HIV-associated neuropsychological impairment on everyday functioning

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 May 2004

ROBERT K. HEATON
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California VA San Diego Health Care System, San Diego, California
THOMAS D. MARCOTTE
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California
MONICA RIVERA MINDT
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Fordham University, New York, New York
JOSEPH SADEK
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California
DAVID J. MOORE
Affiliation:
San Diego State University/University of California, San Diego Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, San Diego, California
HEATHER BENTLEY
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California
J. ALLEN MCCUTCHAN
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California
CARLA REICKS
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California
IGOR GRANT
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California VA San Diego Health Care System, San Diego, California

Abstract

HIV-1 infection can be associated with neuropsychological (NP) deficits ranging from subtle to severe. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional, or “real-world” impact of HIV-associated NP impairment in a group of 267 HIV-infected participants. All participants received comprehensive NP, neuromedical, and standardized functional evaluations that included laboratory measures of shopping, cooking, financial management, medication management and vocational abilities. Compared to NP-normal participants, those with NP impairment performed significantly worse on all laboratory measures of everyday functioning. Multivariate analyses revealed that the NP ability domains of Abstraction/Executive Function, Learning, Attention/Working Memory and Verbal abilities most strongly and consistently predicted failures on the functional battery. Both NP impairment and impairment on the functional battery were significantly associated with subjective experiences of cognitive difficulties, as well as unemployment and increased dependence in activities of daily living; multivariate prediction models that also considered depressed mood and biological measures of disease progression revealed that impairment on the functional battery and depression were the only unique predictors of all three indicators of “real-world” functioning. The current results add to growing evidence concerning the clinical significance of HIV-associated NP impairment. Objective, laboratory based functional measures, such as those used here, may compliment NP testing in future studies directed at understanding the impact on life quality of central nervous system disorders and their treatments. Finally, there is a need for additional research investigating the apparently independent effect of depression on level of everyday functioning in HIV infected persons.NOTE: Dr. Erin D. Bigler served as action editor during the course of this review. (JINS, 2004, 10, 317–331.)

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© 2004 The International Neuropsychological Society

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