Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-n7x5d Total loading time: 0.369 Render date: 2021-12-06T22:02:45.480Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

RECIPROCITY AND HENRY C. CAREY’S TRAVERSES ON “THE ROAD TO PERFECT FREEDOM OF TRADE”

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 September 2011

Abstract

Free trade and protectionist doctrines have long had ambiguous relationships to bilateral trade deals, known throughout the nineteenth century as “reciprocity” arrangements. Henry C. Carey, “the Ajax of Protection” in the nineteenth-century United States, embodies the ambiguity from one side of the controversy. Carey’s early adulthood in the mid- to late 1820s was a time when the forerunners of the Whig Party pursued reciprocity at least partly as a means of fostering protection. In the 1830s, Carey, too, endorsed reciprocity—because he stood for free trade and believed reciprocity would promote it. In the 1840s and 1850s Carey changed his mind, decided that protection was the real “road to perfect freedom of trade,” and for that reason opposed reciprocity with Canada. In the 1870s he remained a protectionist but reconciled his doctrine with reciprocity. This article attempts to explain the changes in the disposition toward reciprocity of America’s foremost protectionist thinker from the Second Party System to the generation after the Civil War.

Type
Research Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The History of Economics Society 2011

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Allen, Treb, and Meardon, Stephen. 2007. “Reciprocity in Retrospect: Progressive and Pernicious Bilateralism in Nineteenth Century U.S. Trade Policy.” Paper read at the 2007 meetings of the Economic History Association, Austin, Texas, September 9.Google Scholar
Baird, Henry Carey. 1891. “Carey and Two of His Recent Critics, Eugen V. Böhm-Bawerk and Alfred Marshall.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 29, 136(Jul.–Dec.): 166173.Google Scholar
Bradsher, Earl L. 1912. Mathew Carey: Editor, Author and Publisher. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Carey, Henry C. 1837–40. Principles of Political Economy. Three volumes. Philadelphia: Carey, Lea & Blanchard / Lea & Blanchard.Google Scholar
Carey, Henry C. [1847] 1872. The Past, the Present, and the Future. Philadelphia: Henry Carey Baird.Google Scholar
Carey, Henry C. 1851. The Harmony of Interests: Agricultural, Manufacturing, and Commercial. In Elder, William, ed., Miscellaneous Works of Henry C. Carey. Volume 1. Philadelphia: Henry Carey Baird & Co., 1883.Google Scholar
Carey, Henry C. 1852. The Working of British Free Trade. New York: Myron Finch.Google Scholar
Carey, Henry C. 1853. The Slave Trade, Domestic and Foreign: Why It Exists, and How It May be Extinguished. Philadelphia: A. Hart.Google Scholar
Carey, Henry C. 1854. The North and the South: Reprinted from the New York Tribune. New York: Office of the Tribune.Google Scholar
Carey, Henry C. 1858. Principles of Social Science. Three volumes. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co.Google Scholar
Carey, Henry C. 1874. “The British Treaties of 1871 & 1874: Letters to the President of the United States.” In Elder, William, ed., Miscellaneous Works of Henry C. Carey., Volume 2. Philadelphia: Henry Carey Baird & Co., 1883.Google Scholar
Carey, Henry C. 1876. “To the Friends of the Union Throughout the Union.” In Elder, William, ed., Miscellaneous Works of Henry C. Carey. Volume 2. Philadelphia: Henry Carey Baird & Co., 1883.Google Scholar
Carey, Matthew. 1820. The New Olive Branch, or, An Attempt to Establish an Identity of Interest Between Agriculture, Manufactures, and Commerce. Philadelphia: M. Carey & Son.Google Scholar
Carter, Susan B., et al. . 2006. Historical Statistics of the United States. Millennial edition. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Clay, Henry. 1832. “Defence of the American System.” In Swain, James B., ed., Life and Speeches of Henry Clay. Two volumes. New York: Greeley & McElrath, 1843, pp. 967.Google Scholar
Congressional Record. 1873–. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Cramp, Charles H. 1908. “Carey’s ‘Vespers’.” Typescript. Henry C. Carey Papers, Edward Carey Gardiner Collection, part B, vol. 21. Philadelphia: Historical Society of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
Cross, Michael S. 1971. Free Trade, Annexation and Reciprocity, 1846–54. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, Limited.Google Scholar
Culbertson, William Smith. 1925. International Economic Policies: A Survey of the Economics of Diplomacy. New York: D. Appleton and Company.Google Scholar
Del Mar, Alex. 1897. “Henry C. Carey’s Round Table.” Gunton’s Magazine (August): 99108.Google Scholar
Dorfman, Joseph. 1946–59. The Economic Mind in American Civilization. Five volumes. New York: Viking Press.Google Scholar
Eckes, Alfred E. 1999. Opening America’s Market: U.S. Foreign Trade Policy Since 1776. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Elder, William. 1880. “A Memoir of Henry C. Carey.” In Elder, William, ed., Miscellaneous Works of Henry C. Carey. Volume 1. Philadelphia: Henry Carey Baird & Co., 1883.Google Scholar
Hart, Michael. 2002. A Trading Nation: Canadian Trade Policy from Colonialism to Globalization. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
Holt, Michael F. 1999. The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party: Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hopkins, James F., et al. . 1959–91. Papers of Henry Clay. Ten volumes. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press.Google Scholar
Johnson, Emory R., et al. . 1915. History of Domestic and Foreign Commerce of the United States. Two volumes. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington.Google Scholar
Laughlin, J. Laurence, and Parker Willis, H.. 1903. Reciprocity. New York: The Baker & Taylor Co.Google Scholar
Malloy, William M., ed. 1909. Treaties, Conventions, International Acts, Protocols and Agreements Between the United States of America and Other Powers, 1776–1909. Two volumes. Sen. Doc. No. 357, 61st Cong., 2d Sess.Google Scholar
Manning, William R. 1925. Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States concerning the Independence of the Latin American Republics. Three volumes. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Morrison, Rodney J. 1978. “The Canadian–American Reciprocal Trade Agreement of 1874: A Pennsylvanian’s View.” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 102(October): 457468.Google Scholar
Morrison, Rodney J. 1986. “Henry C. Carey and American Economic Development.” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 76, 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pahre, Robert. 2008. Politics and Trade Cooperation in the Nineteenth Century: The ‘Agreeable Customs’ of 1815–1914. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Parisi, Daniela. 2004. “Advocacy of Freedom and Justification of Governmental Interference in Western Economic Thought—the Case of Two Liberal Economists: Francesco Ferrara and Henry C. Carey.” In Barens, Ingo, Caspari, Volker, and Schefold, Bertram, eds., Political Events and Economic Ideas. Northampton: Edward Elgar, pp. 238246.Google Scholar
Rhodes, Carolyn. 1993. Reciprocity, U.S. Trade Policy, and the GATT Regime. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Ricardo, David. 1921. Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. Third edition. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
Rippy, J. Fred. 1929. Rivalry of the United States and Great Britain over Latin America (1808–1830). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
Robinson, Chalfant. 1904. A History of Two Reciprocity Treaties: The Treaty with Canada in 1854; The Treaty with the Hawaiian Islands in 1876; With a Chapter on The Treaty-Making Power of the House of Representatives. New Haven: The Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor Press.Google Scholar
Rowe, Kenneth Wyer. 1933. Mathew Carey, a Study in American Economic Development. The Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science, Series LI, Number 4. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
Schumpeter, Joseph. 1954. History of Economic Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Setser, Vernon. 1937. The Commercial Reciprocity Policy of the United States, 1774–1829. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skinner, J. S., et al. . 1848–1857. The Plough, the Loom, and the Anvil. Ten volumes. Philadelphia: J.S. Skinner & Son (vols. 1–3); New York: Myron Finch (vols. 4–10).Google Scholar
Smith, Adam. [1789] 1936. An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, edited by Cannan, Edwin. New York: The Modern Library.Google Scholar
Smith, George Winston. 1951. Henry C. Carey and American Sectional Conflict. Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
Stanwood, Edward. 1903. American Tariff Controversies in the Nineteenth Century. Two volumes. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Company.Google Scholar
Stone, Richard Gabriel. 1933. Hezekiah Niles as an Economist. The Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science, Series LI, Number 5. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
Stowe, Charles Edward, and Beecher Stowe, Lyman. 1911. Harriet Beecher Stowe: The Story of Her Life. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
Swain, James B, ed. 1843. Life and Speeches of Henry Clay. Two volumes. New York: Greeley & McElrath.Google Scholar
Tarbell, Ida. 1912. The Tariff in Our Time. New York: The Macmillan Company.Google Scholar
Taussig, Frank W. 1892. The Tariff History of the United States. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.Google Scholar
United States. 1789–. Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America.Google Scholar
United States Tariff Commission. 1919. Reciprocity and Commercial Treaties. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Vince, Charles A. 1898. John Bright. Chicago: Herbert S. Stone & Company.Google Scholar
Wells, David A. 1873. Speech of the Hon. David A. Wells, Being a Retrospect of the Results of Protection in the United States of America. In Free Trade and Free Enterprise: Report of the Proceedings at the Dinner of the Cobden Club, June 28, 1873. London: Cassel, Petter, & Galbin.Google Scholar
Wells, David A. 1882. Freer Trade Essential to Future National Prosperity and Development: A Lecture by David A. Wells, February 8th, 1882, before the Young Men’s Democratic Club, of Brooklyn. New York: Wm. C. Martin’s Steam Printing House.Google Scholar
Wolman, Paul. 1992. Most Favored Nation: The Republican Revisionists and U.S. Tariff Policy, 1897–1912. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
6
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

RECIPROCITY AND HENRY C. CAREY’S TRAVERSES ON “THE ROAD TO PERFECT FREEDOM OF TRADE”
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

RECIPROCITY AND HENRY C. CAREY’S TRAVERSES ON “THE ROAD TO PERFECT FREEDOM OF TRADE”
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

RECIPROCITY AND HENRY C. CAREY’S TRAVERSES ON “THE ROAD TO PERFECT FREEDOM OF TRADE”
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *