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Instructions for authors


The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era accepts manuscripts through the ScholarOne online submission system. Please note that we do not accept submissions via postal mail.

When uploading your paper, please include a title page as a separate file. The title page should include your name, academic affiliation including country, preferred mailing address, email, and telephone number. As the journal uses anonymous, double peer review, authors should avoid placing their names on the first page, in a header, or anywhere in the text. Avoid personal references in the text or notes and omit acknowledgements until the article is accepted. Cite your own work as you would cite any author.

The target length for manuscripts is between 8,000 and 10,000 words, including notes—with one-inch margins and 12-point type. If the manuscript exceeds 12,500 words including notes, please inquire before submitting it.

Authors may submit citations in the form of endnotes or footnotes, formatted in accordance with the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition. Some basic formatting guidelines follow. If the manuscript is accepted for publication, authors will need to convert footnotes to endnotes.

Please include an abstract of 150 to 200 words in the space provided by the online system. Please enter 5-10 keywords or short phrases (for example: Foreign Relations, World War I, Capitalism, Courts, and Land Ownership) when prompted by the online system. Upon acceptance of an article, authors should also submit a few sentences about themselves for the contributor's page. After acceptance, authors may add acknowledgements, which should take the form of footnote 1, right at the end of the title.

Illustrations, tables, and figures are welcome. Please submit a list of possible captions, credit lines, and placement in the text with images and legends with figures. Please upload illustrations as separate files in black and white and in a low-resolution format that is easy to download, preferably JPEG or TIFF and enter a caption for each file. Once a manuscript is accepted, authors will need to provide copies of images in a high-resolution electronic format—for example, JPEG or TIFF with a resolution of at least 300 dpi, scanned at 4x6 in. or greater. Direct any questions about illustrations and figures to the editor.

Authors should be prepared to secure permission for images from the copyright owner, unless the material is public domain. Long quotations and quotations from poetry or song lyrics may also require permission. Authors will receive a copy of the journal and a PDF of the article. Authors should expect to sign our standard publishing agreement, which assures authors the ability to use portions of their articles in subsequent research and publication, contingent upon a routine request for permission to Cambridge University Press.

All authors will be asked to submit a competing interest declaration in the online submission site. This declaration will be subject to editorial review and may be published in the article. Competing interests are situations that could be perceived to exert an undue influence on the content or publication of an author’s work. They may include, but are not limited to, financial, professional, contractual or personal relationships or situations. If the manuscript has multiple authors, the author submitting must include competing interest declarations relevant to all contributing authors.

Example wording for a declaration is as follows: “Competing interests: Author A is employed at company B. Author C owns shares in company D, is on the Board of company E and is a member of organisation F. Author G has received grants from company H.” If no competing interests exist, the declaration should state “Competing interests: The author(s) declare none”.


The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era welcomes letters to the editors that comment, respond to, or expand on an article or review published in the Journal.  We ask writers to limit their letters to five hundred words.  It is the policy of JGAPE to print letters to the editors in their original form, except for corrections of spelling and other formal matters.  JGAPE and the Society for the History of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era disclaim responsibility for statements, whether of fact or opinion, made by all writers.  We reserve the right to remove passages that may expose JGAPE to legal action.  


What follows are some basic formatting guidelines. For other matters, contact the editor or consult the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS). The journal departs in a few minor ways from the CMS. At times, that venerable manual seems too fussy or arbitrary. Cambridge University Press has its own copyediting guidelines, but all relevant points are covered in the journal's own guidelines or will be familiar to authors with a working knowledge of Chicago Manual style.


  • Follow American practice regarding quotations—double quotation marks and most punctuation (i.e. periods/commas) inside the quotation marks. Place semicolons, colons, exclamation points, and question marks outside, unless part of quoted material.
    • The teacher said, "take your book." Or: "Take your book," said the teacher.
  • For dashes: — rather than --
  • Ellipses: leave one space on both sides—e.g., "said … nothing"
  • Numbers: spell out up to 100; use numerals for 100 and above; and use numerals for percents—e.g., 5 percent.
  • Do not use superscripts for ordinals in the text or notes—i.e., 108th rather than 108th.
  • If ordinals can be spelled out in one or two words, do so—e.g., second or twenty-second.
  • Italicize book, journal, magazine, and newspaper titles.
  • Italicize foreign-language words.
  • One space between sentences rather than two.
  • Use a for all indefinite articles preceding a word starting with a hard consonant sound and an for words starting with a vowel sound (including abbreviations and no matter how the word is spelled)—e.g. a historian,a eulogy; and, an LSAT exam, an hour ago.
  • Follow American spelling conventions—e.g., favor, realize.
  • Follow American practices regarding serial commas—e.g., hop, skip, and jump.
  • Format dates according to American practice: Sept. 16, 2011. Abbreviate all months except May, June, and July.
  • Follow American practice regarding quotations—i.e., double quotation marks and punctuation inside the quotation marks:
    • The teacher said, "Take your book."
    • Or: "Take your book," said the teacher, "before I lose my patience."
  • Hyphenate compound adjectives with "century" as follows:
    • Nineteenth-century politicians; early twentieth-century feminists; late nineteenth-century fashion. But no hyphens in nouns: "In the late nineteenth century, people began to bicycle."
  • Ethnic/Racial compounds: A debate is currently underway as to whether this should be an exception to the rule of hyphenating compound adjectives. CMS expresses ambivalence about the matter. For consistency's sake among this journal's authors, please omit the hyphen:
    • African American literature; Italian American neighborhoods.
    • Of course, no hyphen in noun form: Irish Americans.
  • Unless there is a reason to do otherwise, use "U.S." as an adjective and "United States" as a noun:
    • "Blundering U.S. diplomacy" versus "The United States sometimes engages in diplomacy."
  • Permutations of populist and progressive: Over time, the journal has adopted the practice of capitalizing only the proper noun forms of these pervasive terms, to wit:
    • The Progressive Era, the Progressive Party, but progressivism, progressive ideas
    • "James Weaver was the Populist candidate in 1892," but "The Farmers' Alliances formulated numerous populist proposals."



Like most people, if not the CMS, we now use "MA" as opposed to "Mass." For smaller cities with well-known universities, omit the state—e.g., Chapel Hill, Urbana, New Haven, Princeton. On the other hand, include state abbreviations where needed to differentiate: e.g., Bloomington, IL, vs. Bloomington, IN. Cambridge, England, can stand alone as Cambridge, but Cambridge, MA, should include the state.

Book with a single author:

  • First citation: Christine Stansell, American Moderns: Bohemian New York and the Creation of a New Century (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2000), 120–37.
  • Subsequent citations: Stansell, American Moderns, 47, 309.

Book with an author and editor/translator:

  • First citation: Randolph Bourne, The History of a Literary Radical and Other Papers, ed. Van Wyck Brooks (New York: S.A. Russell, 1956), 127–29.
  • Subsequent citations: Bourne, History of a Literary Radical, 134.

Book with multiple authors:

  • First citation: Walter Muir Whitehill and Lawrence Kennedy, Boston: A Topographical History, 3rd ed. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000), 18–19.
  • Subsequent citations: Whitehill and Kennedy, Boston, 243–47.

*Note: For books (or articles) with more than three authors/editors, list only the first, followed by et al.—e.g., Smith et al., Book Title (City, year).

A citation with multiple sources:

Treat such notes as a complete sentence; when listing many citations in a row, separate each with a semicolon. An exception: Several books from one author may be separated with a comma. Restate only the author's last name:

  • See esp. Stephen Ambrose, Undaunted Courage (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1998), and Ambrose, Band of Brothers (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2004).

Multivolume works:

Always use Arabic numerals to indicate volume numbers. Omit the word vol. if the volume number is immediately followed by a page number.

To cite a particular volume:

  • First citation: Wilhelmus Bogart Bryan, A History of the National Capital, vol. 2 (New York: Macmillan, 1916), 574; or, alternatively: Wilhelmus Bogart Bryan, A History of the National Capital (New York: Macmillan, 1916), 2:574.
  • Subsequent citations: Bryan, History of the National Capital, 2:574.

Journal articles:

Give the volume number, month (or, if applicable, the season in upper case: Spring, Summer, etc.) of publication, and the year. For the first citation, use a colon after the close parentheses and then give the page number. In general, omit the issue number. If, however, you accessed the article via an online service that does not provide the month of publication, and that information is not evident from the online version of the article, then issue numbers are acceptable in the format: Vol.:no. (Year): pp; for example, 8:3 (2009): 367.

  • First citation: Kyle E. Ciani, "Hidden Laborers: Female Day Workers in Detroit, 1870–1920," Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 4 (Jan. 2005): 23–51.
  • Subsequent citations: Ciani, "Hidden Laborers," 29–32. {Note: Use a comma, not a colon, between abbreviated title and page number.}

Article from an edited collection:

  • First citation: Thomas J. Schlereth, "Burnham's Plan and Moody's Manual: City Planning as Progressive Reform" in The American Planner: Biographies and Recollections, ed. Donald A. Krueckeberg (New York, 1983), 75–99. {Note: no comma before "in"}
  • Subsequent citations: Schlereth, "Burnham's Plan," 88.


  • First citation: Melissa McLoud, "Craftsmen and Entrepreneurs: Washington, D.C.'s Late Nineteenth-Century Builders" (PhD diss., George Washington University, 1988), 87–104.
  • Subsequent citations: McLoud, "Craftsmen and Entrepreneurs," ch. 4.

Website and electronic citations:

When a URL begins with "www," omit the prefix "http://" The date in parentheses is the access date. Be aware of the decay of online sources:

  • Timothy Mahoney, "Gilded Age Plains City: The Great Sheedy Murder Trial and the Booster Ethos of Lincoln, Nebraska," (accessed Sept. 17, 2011).
  • The 1877 Strike at "Railroads and the Making of Modern America," (accessed May 24, 2010).

*Note: The 16th Edition of the CMS contains updated information regarding citation of electronic sources. In addition, The College of William & Mary offers detailed examples of online citations here. However, please note that while both the CMS and The College of William & Mary website can help with what type of information to include in citation, authors should follow as closely as possible the format and style of the above examples.

Newspaper citations:

Omit The from the names of newspapers. For newspapers from before World War I, in almost all cases authors may omit section and page numbers, but should indicate when an article comes from a supplement. If there is a reason to think specificity necessary, then do add, for example, B, 7. In most cases, a newspaper may be cited without author, article name, or page:

  • New York Times, Dec. 3, 1914.
  • Occasionally, one will want to cite a newspaper article by author and title:

Monica Davey and Jodi Wilgoren, "Signs of Danger Were Missed in Troubled Teenager's Life," New York Times, Mar. 24, 2005, B, 1.

  • When the city is not on the masthead: Oregonian (Portland), Dec. 21, 1913, Sun (New York), July 26, 1901.
  • When the paper comes from a smaller or lesser-known city: Aberdeen (South Dakota) Daily News, Dec. 15, 1913.
  • For a string of articles from the same newspaper: New York Times, Apr. 2, 1875, June 3, 1876, and May 25, 1892.

Mass-Circulation Magazines:

Treat similarly to newspapers, omitting volume information.

  • Harper's Monthly, June 1896, 372–76; Nation, Nov. 7, 1872, 24.

Professional or organizational publications:

These can be a judgment call in terms of treating them as magazines or as specialized periodicals.

  • James H. Eckels, "The Association of Credit Men as Viewed by the Banker," The Lawyer and Credit Man 8 (May 1898): 8; or
  • James H. Eckels, "The Association of Credit Men as Viewed by the Banker," The Lawyer and Credit Man, May 1898, 8.

Manuscript collections:

These have no hard or fast citation rules. The CMS requires only that a subsequent researcher should be able to find the item. Folder numbers are preferred. At a minimum, supply a box number, reel number, or similar locating information for unpublished documents. Use common sense and streamline where possible.

  • First citation from a collection: Lewis Hine to Frank Manny, Aug. 7, 1910, folder 6, box 3, Lewis Hine Collection, George Eastman House.
  • Subsequent citations: Lewis Hine to Alfred Stieglitz, Nov. 9, 1911; Hine to Frank Manny, Dec. 12, 1912, folder 7, box 4, Hine Collection.

Documents from the National Archives:

The National Archives is a fertile source of convolution and inconsistency. After the first citation from any National Archives collection in an article, please abbreviate citations from all other collections as NA or NA–College Park. After the first citation of a record group, omit the collection name and abbreviate as RG x. For example, Records of the District of Columbia, RG 351, can become simply RG 351. If you have all the information, a full citation from a National Archives document may take the form:

  • Division of Venereal Diseases to Oregon Social Hygiene Society, Nov. 25, 1918, folder 1918–19, file 235.4, box 90, entry 42, U.S. Public Health Service, Record Group 90, National Archives, College Park, MD.

At a minimum, this will suffice:

  • Charles Brand to Samuel Harrison, Feb. 17, 1917, box 285, Records of the Office of the Secretary of Agriculture, Record Group 16, National Archives, College Park, MD.

Congressional Globe or Congressional Record:

  • Congressional Record, 61st Cong., 2nd sess. (May 5, 1910), 5823–30.

Congressional Serial Sets:

For shorter Serial Set documents

  • "Expenses of the Government of the District of Columbia," 66th Cong., 2nd sess. (Jan. 5, 1920), H rept. 531.

For full-length reports or books published in the Serial Set

  • Charles Moore, ed., Improvement of the Park System of the District of Columbia, 57th Cong., 1st sess. (Jan. 15, 1902), S rept. 166, 44–45; or Charles Moore, ed., Improvement of the Park System of the District of Columbia (Washington, 1902), 44–45. {*Note: In the second case, the Government Printing Office serves as the publisher.}

Language Editing Services

Contributions written in English are welcomed from all countries. Authors, particularly those whose first language is not English, may wish to have their English-language manuscripts checked by a native speaker before submission. This is optional, but may help to ensure that the academic content of the paper is fully understood by the editor and any reviewers. Cambridge offers a service which authors can learn about here. Please note that the use of any of these services is voluntary, and at the author's own expense. Use of these services does not guarantee that the manuscript will be accepted for publication, nor does it restrict the author to submitting to a Cambridge published journal.


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