Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-pkshj Total loading time: 0.358 Render date: 2021-12-04T03:58:38.942Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Strife of the soil? Unsettling transmigrant conflicts in Indonesia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 January 2015

Abstract

Challenging conventional wisdom, this article argues that Indonesia — long home to both large-scale transmigration programmes and a range of conflicts — has not witnessed transmigrant conflicts. The vast majority of Indonesian transmigrants were resettled in parts of Sumatra which have remained peaceful. In some conflicts, the role of transmigration has been exaggerated. In others, interethnic violence has involved spontaneous migrants rather than state-led transmigrants. We conclude with a discussion of two potential outliers, where violence has been directed towards transmigrants, but only those from disaster-affected regions who arrived en masse. This article argues for a more nuanced understanding of the distinctions between different forms of internal migration, some of which have the potential to spark future violence in recipient areas and communities.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The National University of Singapore 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1 ‘Native’ refers to groups who trace their roots to a given territory to time immemorial, or at least before the arrival of others. It is a broader term than ‘indigenous’, which suggests a more specific identity, perhaps with non-state social formation.

2 Fearon, James D. and Laitin, David D., ‘Sons of the Soil, migrants, and civil war’, World Development 39, 2 (2011): 199211CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

3 This project combined fieldwork carried out by the two co-authors. Shane Barter's fieldwork focused on Aceh. Working for Forum-Asia in 2003–04, he interviewed over 100 Javanese displaced from Aceh to North Sumatra. In 2008–09, he conducted eight months of dissertation fieldwork in Aceh (primarily South Aceh, Aceh Tenggara, Aceh Besar, and Bireuen) where he conducted nearly 150 interviews in various villages, mostly open-ended group interviews with various societal groups (chiefs, ulama, women, minorities). Follow-up interviews were carried out in summer 2014 in Bireuen and Central Aceh.

Fieldwork by Isabelle Côté was conducted in Lampung, Riau, Kepri, and Jakarta from October 2010 to February 2011. It entailed informal and unstructured interviews, conversations, participant observation and general living experience within households. A total of 108 people were interviewed, including 52 elites (e.g. government officials, NGO workers, local scholars), 37 local people (e.g. pensioners, farmers, students), and 19 migrants (both spontaneous and transmigrants).

4 Hechter, Michael, Internal colonialism: The Celtic fringe in British national development, 1536–1966 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976)Google Scholar.

5 Stasiulis, Daiva and Yuval-Davis, Nira, eds., Unsettling settler societies: Articulations of gender, race, ethnicity and class (London: SAGE, 1995)Google Scholar.

6 Arndt, H.W., ‘Transmigration: Achievements, problems, prospects’, Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 19, 3 (1983): 54CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

7 Fearon and Laitin, ‘Sons of the Soil, migrants, and civil war’, p. 200.

8 See Sines, Abigail, ‘Civilizing the Middle Kingdom's Wild West’, Central Asian Survey 21, 1 (2002): 7CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

9 Isabelle Côté, ‘The enemies within: Targeting Han Chinese and Hui minorities in Xinjiang’, Asian Ethnicity (forthcoming).

10 Aphornsuvan, Thanet, Rebellion in southern Thailand: Contending histories, EWC Policy Studies 35 (Washington, DC: East–West Center, 2007), p. 57Google Scholar.

11 Eulogia Rodriguez, ‘The economic development of Mindanao’, speech by Secretary of the Department of Agriculture and Commerce before the Philippine Council (Manila, 1938), p. 4.

12 Oona Paredes, ‘Indigenous vs. native: Negotiating the place of Lumads in a Bangsamoro Homeland’, Asian Ethnicity (forthcoming).

13 Before 1950, over 50 per cent of land in Mindanao was owned by Muslims; this was reduced to 30 per cent in 1972, and 17 per cent by 1982. Bertrand, Jacques, ‘Peace and conflict in the southern Philippines: Why the 1996 Peace Agreement is fragile’, Pacific Affairs 73, 1 (2000): 44CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

14 Gunaratna, Rohan, Acharya, Arabinda, and Chua, Sabrina, Conflict and terrorism in southern Thailand (Singapore: Marshall Cavendish, 2005), pp. 56Google Scholar.

15 De Koninck, Rodolphe, ‘The peasantry as the territorial spearhead of the state in Southeast Asia: The case of Vietnam’, Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia 11, 2 (1996): 237CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

16 Fearon and Laitin, ‘Sons of the Soil, migrants, and civil war’, p. 201.

17 Mochtar Naim, Merantau: Minangkabau voluntary migration (Ph.D. diss., National University of Singapore, 1973).

18 Benoit, Daniel and Sevin, Olivier, ‘L'émigration Javanaise: Mythes et réalités’, Annales de Géographie 102, 571 (1993): 259CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

19 Pain, Marc and Benoit, Daniel, Transmigration and spontaneous migrations in Indonesia: Provinsi Lampung (Jakarta Selatan: Departemen Transmigrasi, 1989), p. 89Google Scholar.

20 Fearnside, Philip M., ‘Transmigration in Indonesia: Lessons from its environmental and social impacts’, Environmental Management 21, 4 (1997): 555CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

21 Arndt, ‘Transmigration’: 50.

22 The Republic of Indonesia Law No. 3, 1972 outlined the diverse goals of transmigration: improved living standards, balancing settlement, extracting resources, regional development, security, and national unity.

23 Fearnside, ‘Transmigration in Indonesia’: 555.

24 Interview, Harry Heriawah Saleh, Director General, Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration, Jakarta, 1 Feb. 2011.

25 Interview, Harry Heriawah Saleh, Jakarta, 1 Feb. 2011.

26 Potter, Lesley, ‘New transmigration “paradigm” in Indonesia: Examples from Kalimantan’, Asia Pacific Viewpoint 53, 3 (2012): 281CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

27 Interview with Anharudin and Pandiadi, officials at Disnakertrans, Jakarta, 7 Jan. 2011.

28 Cited in Bertrand, Jacques, Nationalism and ethnic conflict in Indonesia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), p. 95Google Scholar.

29 Arndt, ‘Transmigration’: 65–6.

30 See Whitten, Anthony J., ‘Indonesia's transmigration program and its role in the loss of tropical rain forests’, Conservation Biology 1, 3 (1987): 239–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

31 For one NGO, transmigration represented the World Bank's ‘most irresponsible’ project ever, leading to environmental destruction, the loss of indigenous rights, and ethnic conflict. Survival International, cited in Fearnside, ‘Transmigration in Indonesia’: 553.

32 Pain and Benoit, Transmigration and spontaneous migrations in Indonesia, p. 393.

33 Goss, Jon D., ‘Transmigration in Maluku: Notes on present condition and future prospects’, Cakalele: Maluku Research 3 (1992): 95Google Scholar.

34 Prior to 1998, tensions between local people and transmigrants were allegedly kept from erupting, as ‘they were part of a nation-wide government policy and as such, the local communities had no choice but to apply these policies and facilitate the integration of transmigrants’. Interview with local migration NGO, Jakarta, 30 Jan. 2011.

35 Zaman, Mohammad, ‘Resettlement and development in Indonesia’, Journal of Contemporary Asia 32, 2 (2002): 256CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

36 Cited in Elmhirst, Rebecca, ‘Space, identity politics and resource control in Indonesia's transmigration programme’, Political Geography 18 (1999): 816–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar. See, e.g., Guinness, Patrick, ‘Local society and culture’, in Indonesia's New Order: The dynamics of socio-economic transformation, ed. Hill, Hal (Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 1994), pp. 267304Google Scholar; and Widodo, Amrih, ‘The states of the state: Arts of the people and rites of homogeneisation’, in ‘Performance’, special issue, Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs 29, 1–2 (1995): 135Google Scholar. For an important critique of the Javanisation thesis, see Pemberton, John, On the subject of Java (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994)Google Scholar.

37 Errington, Shelly, ‘The cosmic theme park of the Javanese’, Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs 31, 1 (1997): 736Google Scholar.

38 Hoey, Brian A., ‘Nationalism in Indonesia: Building imagined and intentional communities through transmigration’, Ethnology 42, 2 (2003): 109–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

39 Tanasaldy, Taufiq, Regime change and ethnic politics in Indonesia: Dayak politics of West Kalimantan (Leiden: KITLV Press, 2012), pp. 3940CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

40 Cited in Tirtosudarmo, Riwanto, ‘Demography and conflict: The failure of nation-state building project?’, in Violent internal conflicts in the Asia-Pacific: Histories, political economies, and policies, ed. Anwar, Dewi Fortuna et al. (Jakarta: Yayasan Obor, 2004), p. 60Google Scholar.

41 M. Adrana Sri Adhiati and Armin Bobsien, ‘Indonesia's transmigration programme: An update’, Down to Earth, July 2001, pp. 2, 7.

42 Mike Kooistra, ‘Indonesia: Regional conflicts and state terror’ (London: Minority Rights Group, 2001), pp. 3, 5, 13. This said, the same report suggests that Aceh's rebels wrongly targeted Javanese, who were ‘unjustly branded as tools of Suharto's attempt to enforce national unity and Javanese hegemony through social engineering’.

43 This is not to say that there has been no tension or that these regions are not fraught with hidden or non-violent conflict; our concern in this article is with public, coercive violence.

44 Davidson, Jamie S., From rebellion to riots: Collective violence on Indonesian Borneo (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2008), p. 95Google Scholar.

45 Hardjono, Joan, ‘Transmigration: Looking to the future’, Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 22, 2 (1986): 39CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

46 Fearnside, ‘Transmigration in Indonesia’: 563.

47 Elmhirst, Rebecca, ‘Space, identity politics and resource control in Indonesia's transmigration programme’, Political Geography 18 (1999): 813–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

48 Benoit and Sevin, ‘L'émigration Javanaise’.

49 Gunn, Geoffrey C., East Timor and the United Nations: The case for intervention (Lawrenceville, NJ: Red Sea Press, 1997), p. 197Google Scholar; Kwiatkowski, Lynn, ‘Update on East Timor’, Cultural Survival Quarterly 7, 3 (1983): 53–5Google Scholar.

50 Lapsley, Tony, ‘East Timor’, in Handbook of markets and economies: East Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia, New Zealand, ed. Pecotich, Anthony and Schulze, Clifford J. II (New York: ME Sharpe, 2006), p. 223Google Scholar.

51 Taylor, John G., Indonesia's forgotten war: The hidden history of East Timor (London: Zed Books, 1991), p. 159Google Scholar.

52 Tirtosudarmo, Riwanto, From colonization to nation-state: The political demography of Indonesia (Jakarta: LIPI Press, 2013), p. 166Google Scholar. Despite framing transmigration as part of a military effort to erase East Timorese from their own land, Taylor notes that transmigration in the 1980s was limited to 500 Balinese and 100 East Javanese Christian families. Taylor, Indonesia's forgotten war, p. 124.

53 Bertrand, Nationalism and ethnic conflict in Indonesia, p. 140.

54 Ibid., p. 94.

Ibid

55 Kiernan, Ben, ‘The demography of genocide in Southeast Asia: The death tolls of Cambodia, 1975–79, and East Timor, 1975–80’, Critical Asian Studies 35, 4 (2003): 592CrossRefGoogle Scholar. Silove estimates that 10,000 migrants, both official and spontaneous, came to East Timor. Silove, Derrick, ‘Conflict in East Timor: Genocide or expansionist occupation?’, Human Rights Review 1, 3 (2000): 69CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

56 Carey, Peter, ‘The Catholic Church, religious revival, and the nationalist movement in East Timor, 1975–98’, Indonesia and the Malay World 27, 78 (1999): 88CrossRefGoogle Scholar. Others suggested that 1,000 Indonesians arrived per week under the New Order. Bookman, Milica Zarkovic, Ethnic groups in motion: Economic competition and migration in multiethnic states (London: Frank Cass, 2002), p. 144Google Scholar.

57 Max Gross suggests that in East Timor, as with all Christian areas of Indonesia, Suharto encouraged ‘internal Muslim transmigration’. Gross, Max L., A Muslim archipelago: Islam and politics in Southeast Asia (Washington, DC: National Defense Intelligence College, 2007), p. 119Google Scholar.

58 Riwanto Tirtosudarmo, From colonization to nation-state, p. 162.

59 Geoffrey Robinson, ‘East Timor 1999: Crimes against humanity’, a report commissioned by the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (Dili: HAK Association; Jakarta: ELSAM, 2006), p. 121.

60 Miller, Michelle Ann, Rebellion and reform in Indonesia: Jakarta's security and autonomy policies in Aceh (London: Routledge, 2008), p. 190Google Scholar. See Lilianne Fan, ‘The struggle for land rights in post-tsunami and post-conflict Aceh, Indonesia’, Report on land policies and legal empowerment for the poor, World Bank, 2–3 Nov. 2006, p. 5.

61 Barber, Richard, Aceh: The untold story (Bangkok: Forum-Asia, 1999), p. 25Google Scholar.

62 Li, Tania Murray, ‘Ethnic cleansing, recursive knowledge, and the dilemmas of sedentarism’, International Social Science Journal 54, 173 (2002): 367CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

63 Aspinall, Edward, ‘Place and displacement in the Aceh conflict’, in Conflict, violence, and displacement in Indonesia, ed. Hedman, Eva-Lotta (Ithaca: Southeast Asia Programme Publications, Cornell University, 2008), p. 134Google Scholar.

64 Reid, Anthony, Imperial alchemy: Nationalism and political identity in Southeast Asia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), p. 136Google Scholar.

65 Dawood, Dayan and Sjafrizal, , ‘Aceh: The LNG boom and enclave development’, in Unity and diversity: Regional economic development in Indonesia since 1970, ed. Hill, Hal (Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1989), p. 110Google Scholar.

66 Hardjono, ‘Transmigration: Looking to the future’: 31.

67 By 2000, 170,000 of Aceh's 300,000 Javanese resided in East Aceh (mostly in the south around Langsa), 40,000 in Central Aceh, and 20,000 in Singkil. In the Acehnese heartland, fewer than 8,000 Javanese resided in Aceh Besar, Pidie, Bireuen, and North Aceh combined.

68 di Tiro, Hasan, The price of freedom: The unfinished diary of Hasan di Tiro (n.p., self-published, 1981)Google Scholar.

69 Interview, Udin, Panglima GAM Aceh Besar, 3 Nov. 2007.

70 Interviews with village chiefs and villagers, Saree, Aceh Besar, Jan.–Feb. 2008.

71 Ramly, Ali Aulia, ‘Modes of displacement during martial law’, in Aceh under martial law: Conflict, violence, and displacement, ed. Hedman, Eva-Lotta, RSC Working Paper 24 (Oxford: Refugee Studies Centre, University of Oxford, 2005), p. 18Google Scholar.

72 Interviews with anonymous Javanese internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Sei Lapan, North Sumatra, Sept. 2003.

73 Interview, Teungku Abdullah, Saree, Aceh Besar, 28 Jan. 2008.

74 Ethnic Acehnese are spontaneous migrants to Gayo districts in Aceh's interior and Malay districts in the south, their numbers rivalling those of migrant Javanese. On Acehnese migration to Gayo areas, see Bowen, John R., Muslims through discourse: Religion and ritual in Gayo society (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993), p. 33Google Scholar.

75 Martinkus, John, Indonesia's secret war in Aceh (Milson's Point: Random House, 2004), p. 262Google Scholar.

76 Nessen, William, ‘Why not Independence?’, Inside Indonesia 81 (2005): 47Google Scholar.

77 Interview, Abdul Wahab, Imeum Mukim of Gunung Seulawah, Aceh Besar, 1 Nov. 2007.

78 Barter, Shane Joshua, Civilian strategy in civil war: Insights from Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014), pp. 51CrossRefGoogle Scholar, 52, 108.

79 John Saltford, ‘UNTEA and UNRWI: United Nations involvement in West New Guinea during the 1960s’ (Ph.D. diss., University of Hull, 2000), p. 155.

80 McGibbon, Rodd, Plural society in peril: Migration, economic change, and the Papua Conflict, EWC Policy Studies 13 (Washington, DC: East–West Center, 2004), p. 20Google Scholar.

81 Manning, Chris and Rumbiak, Michael, ‘Irian Jaya: Economic change, migrants and indigenous welfare’, in Unity and diversity, ed. Hill, , p. 98Google Scholar.

82 Manning and Rumbiak, ‘Irian Jaya: Economic change’, p. 98.

83 McGibbon, ‘Plural society in peril’, p. 23; Stuart Upton, ‘The impact of migration on the people of Papua, Indonesia’ (Ph.D. diss., University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2009), pp. 300–307.

84 McGibbon, ‘Plural society in peril’, p. 23.

85 Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS), Hasil sensus penduduk 2000 [Results population census 2000] (Jakarta: BPS, 2000)Google Scholar; Jim Elmslie, ‘West Papuan demographic transition and the 2010 Indonesian census: Slow motion genocide or not?’, CPACS Working Paper 11/1 (Sydney: Center for Peace and Conflict Studies, University of Sydney, 2010).

86 International Crisis Group, ‘Indonesia: Communal tensions in Papua’, ICG Asia Report 154 (2008): 1112Google Scholar.

87 McGibbon, ‘Plural society in peril’, p. 24.

88 Ibid.

Ibid

89 The Papuan population alone consists of 312 tribes, the largest of which are the Lani and Dani/Ndani, inhabiting Papua's densely populated hinterlands, and the Biaks, who inhabit the coastal regions. The composition of Papua's migrants is similarly diverse: 38 per cent from Java, 25 per cent from Sulawesi, 7 per cent from Maluku, and 30 per cent from other regions (including Chinese and Sumatran Bataks). McGibbon, ‘Plural society in peril’, p. 35.

90 Bertrand, Nationalism and ethnic conflict in Indonesia, pp. 93, 152.

91 Chauvel, Richard, ‘Refuge, displacement and dispossession: Responses to Indonesian rule and conflict in Papua’, in Conflict, violence and displacement in Indonesia, ed. Hedman, , p. 150Google Scholar.

92 McGibbon, ‘Plural society in peril’, p. 36.

93 Hardjono, ‘Transmigration: Looking to the future’: 31.

94 Potter, ‘New Transmigration “paradigm” in Indonesia’: 275.

95 Tanasaldy, Regime change and ethnic politics in Indonesia: 189.

96 Li, ‘Ethnic cleansing, recursive knowledge, and the dilemmas of sedentarism’: 365.

97 Davidson, From rebellion to riots, p. 14.

98 Tanasaldy, Regime change and ethnic politics in Indonesia, p. 233.

99 International Crisis Group, ‘Indonesia: Managing decentralisation and conflict in South Sulawesi’, ICG Asia Report 60 (2003): 10Google Scholar.

100 van Klinken, Gerry, ‘What caused the Ambon violence?’, Inside Indonesia 60 (1999): 126Google Scholar.

101 Bertrand, Nationalism and ethnic conflict in Indonesia, p. 122.

102 Goss, ‘Transmigration in Maluku’: 89–91.

103 Duncan, Christopher R., Violence and vengeance: Religious conflict and its aftermath in Eastern Indonesia (Ithaca: Cornell University Press), pp. 54Google Scholar, 85.

104 Badan Pusat Statistik, Hasil sensus penduduk 2000.

105 Elmhirst, Rebecca, ‘Daughters and displacement: Migration dynamics in an Indonesian transmigration area’, Journal of Development Studies 38, 5 (2002): 143–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

106 Several of the candidates running for office during the April 2014 gubernatorial elections were Lampungese, including the newly elected governor Bachtiar Basri, his running-mate M. Ridho Ficardo (on his mother's side), and the first runner-up, Herman HK, the mayor of Bandar Lampung. This is a particularly large representation of a group that comprises only 12 per cent of the provincial population. Côté, Isabelle, ‘Internal migration and the politics of place: A comparative analysis of China and Indonesia’, Asian Ethnicity 15, 1 (2014): 116–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

107 Interview with Anshori Djauzal, head of Bunga Mayang, Bandar Lampung, 20 Jan. 2011.

108 Hans Nicholas Jong, ‘Poor ties worsen tensions despite peace accord’, Jakarta Post, 6 Nov. 2012.

109 Jong, ‘Poor ties worsen tensions’.

110 Oyos H.N. Saroso and Slamet Susanto, ‘Lampung locals want Balinese out’, Jakarta Post, 2 Nov. 2012.

111 Secrett, Charles, ‘The environmental impact of transmigration’, The Ecologist 16, 2/3 (1986): 7788Google Scholar; Colchester, M., ‘The struggle for land: Tribal people in the face of the transmigration program’, The Ecologist 16, 2/3 (1986): 99110Google Scholar.

112 Indeed, critics have pointed out that the transmigration sites are too remote, overlooking the conflict-preventing logic of this practice.

113 Interview with Pandiadi and Anharudin, officials at Disnakertrans, Jakarta, 7 Jan. 2011.

114 Interview with leader, Bunga Mayang, Bandar Lampung, 20 Jan. 2011.

115 Bertrand, Nationalism and ethnic conflict in Indonesia, p. 93. Along with this, Bertrand also notes the importance of ethnoreligious differences.

116 For more on the concept of ‘dominant migrants’, see Isabelle Côté, ‘Unsettling migrants? The impact of internal migration on Sons of the Soil conflict in China and Indonesia’ (Ph.D. diss., University of Toronto, 2014).

117 Interview with leader, Majelis Puyimbang Adat Lampung, Bandar Lampung, 11 Jan. 2011, and a sociology professor, Universitas Lampung, Bandar Lampung, 14 Jan. 2011.

118 Interview, unofficial leader, Lampung Sai, Bandar Lampung, 13 Jan. 2011.

119 Interview, Sugiarto Sumas, Director of Community Participation, Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration, Jakarta, 1 Feb. 2011.

7
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Strife of the soil? Unsettling transmigrant conflicts in Indonesia
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Strife of the soil? Unsettling transmigrant conflicts in Indonesia
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Strife of the soil? Unsettling transmigrant conflicts in Indonesia
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *