Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-dnltx Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-20T14:57:34.028Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Sites, survey, and ceramics: Settlement patterns of the first to ninth centuries CE in the Upper Mun River Valley, northeast Thailand

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 September 2016


Our understanding of the transition from the last centuries of prehistory to the Pre-Angkorian period in northeast Thailand has been limited by a lack of projects bridging both periods. This article examines settlement patterns of the first to the ninth centuries CE in the Upper Mun River Valley based on recent (2012–14) surveys. The findings highlight the gradual settlement trends in the region, with a focus on local modification rather than the sudden adoption of external ideas. Results reinforce the fourth to sixth centuries CE as a pivotal period, when large centres consolidated and cautiously expanded upriver, into previously uninhabited regions. A relatively modest, flexible, and resilient settlement strategy developed, attuned to wider supra-regional trends, but allowing for the demands of the local cultural and physical landscape.

Research Article
Copyright © The National University of Singapore 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


1 Alluvial floodplains (123–140 m asl), shallow alluvial floodplains (140–160 m asl), low-mid terraces (160–200 m asl), and uplands (200–262 m asl), were surveyed using 50 m transects. Survey area D was based on notes from the earlier Khorat Basin Archaeological Project (KBAP). See Caitlin Evans, ‘Sites, ceramics, and settlement: New survey in the Upper Mun River Valley, northeast Thailand’ (Ph.D. diss., James Cook University, 2016). This survey was undertaken with the assistance of Jitlada Innanchai, Earthwatch volunteers, National Research Council of Thailand, and the Fine Arts Department of Thailand (FAD).

2 On SEBA, see Boyd, Bill and Chang, Nigel, ‘Integrating social and environmental change in prehistory: A discussion of the role of landscape as a heuristic in defining prehistoric possibilities in NE Thailand’, in Terra Australia 32. Altered ecologies: Fire, climate and human influence on terrestrial landscapes, ed. Haberle, Simon, Stevenson, Janelle and Prebble, Matthew (Canberra: ANU E Press, 2010), pp. 273–97Google Scholar. Ceramics referenced from Sarjeant, Carmen, ‘A characterization of mortuary ceramics from Ban Non Wat, northeast Thailand’, Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association (BIPPA) 30 (2010): 163–77Google Scholar; Higham, Charles, The origins of the civilization of Angkor, vol. 6, pt 4. The excavation of Ban Non Wat: The Iron Age, summary and conclusions (Bangkok: FAD, 2009), pp. 187249 Google Scholar; Indrawooth, ‘Phasook, Index pottery of the Dvaravati period (in Thai) (Bangkok: Silpakorn University, 1985)Google Scholar; See also Higham et al., The origins of the civilization of Angkor, vols. 4 and 5, and Higham (this vol.) on the ceramics at Ban Non Wat.

3 Sites were grouped using the ArcGIS distance-density function. See Peterson, Christian E. and Drennan, Robert D., ‘Communities, settlements, sites, and surveys: Regional-scale analysis of prehistoric human interaction’, American Antiquity 70, 1 (2005): 530 Google Scholar. For a discussion of the term ‘site’ see Binford, Lewis R. et al. , ‘Archaeology at Hatchery West’, Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology 24 (1970): i91 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Dunnell, Robert C. and Dancey, William S., ‘The siteless survey: A regional scale data collection strategy’, Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 6 (1983): 267–87Google Scholar; and Bevan, Andrew and Conolly, James, ‘GIS, archaeological survey, and landscape archaeology on the island of Kythera, Greece’, Journal of Field Archaeology 29, 1–2 (2004): 123–38Google Scholar; Burger, Oskar and Todd, Lawrence C., ‘Grain, extent, and intensity: The components of scale in archaeological survey’, in Confronting scale in archaeology, ed. Lock, Gary and Molyneaux, Brian L. (New York: Springer, 2006), pp. 235–55Google Scholar; Dunnell, Robert C., ‘The notion site’, in Space, time, and archaeological landscapes, ed. Rossignol, Jacqueline and Wandsnider, LuAnn (New York: Springer, 1992), pp. 2141 Google Scholar.

4 Brumfiel, Elizabeth M., ‘Heterarchy and the analysis of complex societies: Comments’, Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Society 6, (1995): 125–31Google Scholar; O'Reilly, Dougald, ‘From the Bronze Age to the Iron Age: Applying the heterarchical approach’, Asian Perspectives 39, 1–2 (2000): 119 Google Scholar; Charles Higham, ‘Noen U-Loke and the implications for early states’, paper presented at the 16th Congress of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, Melaka, 1–7 July 1988.

5 Eyre, Chureekamol Onsuwan, ‘Social variation and dynamics in metal age and protohistoric central Thailand: A regional perspective’, Asian Perspectives 49, 1 (2010): 4384 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

6 Kealhofer, Lisa, ‘The human environment during the terminal Pleistocene and Holocene in northeastern Thailand: Phytolith evidence from Lake Kumphawapi’, Asian Perspectives 35, 2 (1996): 229–54Google Scholar; Boyd, William E. and McGrath, Roger J., ‘Iron Age vegetation dynamics and human impacts on the vegetation of Upper Mun River floodplain, N.E. Thailand’, New Zealand Geographer 57, 2 (2001): 2132 Google Scholar.

7 See Stephen Murphy, ‘The Buddhist boundary markers of northeast Thailand and central Laos, 7th–12th centuries CE: Towards an understanding of the archaeological, religious, and artistic landscapes of the Khorat Plateau’ (Ph.D. diss., University of London, 2010), p. 41. This period has been considered by Welch, David J., ‘Archaeology of northeast Thailand in relation to the Pre-Khmer and Khmer historical records’, International Journal of Historical Archaeology 2, 3 (1998): 222 Google Scholar, and Higham, Charles, ‘The long and winding road that leads to Angkor’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 22, 2 (2012): 265–89Google Scholar.

8 Glover, Ian, ‘Ban Don Ta Phet and its relevance to problems in the pre- and protohistory of Thailand’, BIPPA 2 (1980): 1630 Google Scholar.

9 Jean I. Kennedy, ‘A course towards diversity: Economic interaction and cultural differentiation in prehistoric mainland Southeast Asia’ (Ph.D. diss., University of Hawai'i, 1977), p. 20; Welch, David J., ‘Late prehistoric and early historic exchange patterns in the Phimai region, Thailand’, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies (JSEAS) 20, 1 (1989): 1126 Google Scholar.

10 Stark, Miriam T. and Allen, S. Jane, ‘The transition to history in Southeast Asia: An introduction’, International Journal of Historical Archaeology 2, 3 (1998): 163–74Google Scholar; Glover, Ian and Bellina, Bérénice, ‘Ban Don Ta Phet and Khao Sam Kaeo: The earliest Indian contacts re-assessed’, in Early interactions between South and Southeast Asia: Reflections of cross-cultural exchange, ed. Manguin, Pierre-Yves, Mani, A. and Wade, Geoff (Singapore: ISEAS, 2011): 1745 Google Scholar; Stark, Miriam T., ‘Early mainland Southeast Asian landscapes in the first millennium AD’, Annual Review of Anthropology 35 (2006): 407–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Higham, Charles et al. , ‘The excavation of Non Ban Jak, northeast Thailand: A report on the first three seasons’, Journal of Indo-Pacific Archaeology 34 (2014): 141 Google Scholar.

11 Eyre, ‘Social variation and dynamics’: 43–81.

12 Higham, Charles F.W. and Rispoli, Fiorella, ‘The Mun Valley and central Thailand in prehistory: Integrating two cultural sequences’, Open Archaeology 1 (2014): 228 Google Scholar.

13 In 1984 and 1989, KBAP I and KBAP II examined a series of 1:42000 scale black and white aerial photographs taken in April 1954, for evidence of large archaeological mounds located within an area of 1,600 sq km surrounding the town of Phimai (the regional centre of Vimayapura during the Angkor period).

14 Welch, David J. and McNeill, Judith R., ‘Excavations at Ban Tamyae and Non Ban Kham, Phimai region, northeast Thailand’, Asian Perspectives 28, 2 (1988): 99123 Google Scholar.

15 Boyd, William E., ‘Social change in Late Holocene mainland SE Asia: A response to gradual climate change or a critical climatic event?’, Quaternary International 184, 1 (2008): 13 Google Scholar.

16 McNeill, Judith R. and Welch, David J., ‘Regional and interregional exchange on the Khorat Plateau’, BIPPA 10 (1991): 327–40Google Scholar; Welch and McNeill, ‘Excavations at Ban Tamyae and Non Ban Kham’.

17 Kowalewski, Stephen A., Blanton, Richard E., Feinman, Gary, and Finsten, Laura, ‘Boundaries, scale, and organisation’, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 2, 1 (1983): 3256 Google Scholar.

18 The Phimai Black period is identified by Solheim, Wilhelm and Ayres, Marti, ‘The late prehistoric and early historic pottery from the Khorat Plateau with special reference to Phimai’, in Early South East Asia, ed. Smith, Ralph B. and Watson, William (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979), pp. 6377 Google Scholar; Welch, David J. and McNeill, Judith R., ‘The original Phimai Black site: A new look at Ban Suai, Phimai, Thailand’, Southeast Asian Archaeology: Wilhelm G. Solheim II Festschrift, ed. Paz, Victor (Manila: University of the Philippines Press, 2004), pp. 522–43Google Scholar; David J. Welch, ‘Adaptation to environmental unpredictability: Intensive agriculture and regional exchange at late prehistoric centers in the Phimai region, Thailand’ (Ph.D. diss., University of Hawai'i, 1985), pp. 194–9; for an overview of Iron Age material see Higham, Charles F.W., ‘The Iron Age of the Mun Valley, Thailand’, Antiquaries Journal 91 (2011): 101–44Google Scholar; Glover, Ian C., ‘The late prehistoric period in west-central Thailand’, BIPPA 10 (1991): 349–56Google Scholar.

19 O'Reilly, Dougald J.W., von den Driesch, Angela, and Voeun, Vuthy, ‘Archaeology and archaeozoology of Phum Snay: A late prehistoric cemetery in northwestern Cambodia’, Asian Perspectives 45, 2 (2006): 195 Google Scholar; Pisnupong, Pirapon, History and archaeology of Muang Si Mahosot (in Thai) (Bangkok: FAD, 1992)Google Scholar; Bronson, Bennet and Dales, George, ‘Excavations at Chansen, Thailand, 1968, 1969: A preliminary report’, Asian Perspectives 15 (1972): 1546 Google Scholar.

20 See also Higham et al., ‘The excavation of Non Ban Jak’.

21 Higham, Charles, Kijngam, Amphan and Talbot, Sarah, The origins of the civilisation of Angkor, vol. 2: The excavation of Noen-U-Loke and Non Muang Kao (Bangkok: FAD, 2007)Google Scholar; O'Reilly, ‘From the Bronze Age to the Iron Age’.

22 Welch, ‘Archaeology of northeast Thailand’: 222.

23 Higham et al., ‘The excavation of Non Ban Jak’.

24 Sarah Talbot, ‘The analysis of the mortuary record’, in Higham et al., The origins of the civilisation of Angkor, vol. 2, pp. 305–51.

25 Higham, ‘The long and winding road that leads to Angkor’: 283.

26 Boyd, William E., McGrath, Roger J., and Higham, Charles F.W., ‘The geoarchaeology of Iron Age “moated” sites of the Upper Mae Nam Mun Valley, NE Thailand. 1: Palaeodrainage, site-landscape relationships and the origins of the “moats”’, Geoarchaeology 14, 7 (1999): 675716 Google Scholar; O'Reilly, ‘From the Bronze Age to the Iron Age’: 7–8.

27 Boyd, ‘Social change in late Holocene mainland SE Asia’: 11–23.

28 See Higham et al., ‘The excavation of Non Ban Jak’; Talbot, ‘The analysis of the mortuary record’, pp. 305–51; Welch and McNeill, ‘The original Phimai Black site’; Khemica Wangsuk, ‘The cultural development in the Mun River Basin: A case study of the archaeological site at Muang Sema, Sung Noen district, Nakhon Ratchasima Province’ (M.A. thesis, Silpakorn University, Bangkok, 2000).

29 Higham, ‘The long and winding road’: 272–7; Higham and Rispoli, ‘The Mun Valley’.

30 Higham et al., The origins of the civilisation of Angkor, vol. 2.

31 Higham and Rispoli, ‘The Mun Valley’: 17.

32 Observed by the authors on site, during the excavation of Non Ban Jak, Jan. 2014.

33 Higham et al., ‘The excavation of Non Ban Jak’.

34 See Higham, ‘The long and winding road’.

35 Fine Arts Department, The excavation of Phon Songkhram (in Thai) (Bangkok: FAD); translated courtesy Jitlada Innanchai.

36 FAD, ‘Plan and report of the survey and excavations of ancient monuments in north-eastern Thailand, Thailand’ (in Thai) (Bangkok: FAD, 1959); Welch, ‘Archaeology of northeast Thailand’: 223–5.

37 Wangsuk, ‘The cultural development in the Mun River Basin’, p. 209.

38 Murphy, Stephen, ‘Buddhism and its relationship to Dvaravati period settlement patterns and material culture in northeast Thailand and central Laos ca. sixth–eleventh centuries A.D.: A historical ecology approach to the landscape of the Khorat Plateau’, Asian Perspectives 52, 2 (2013): 300326 Google Scholar.

39 An exception to this are the upland sites of ‘forest monasticism’ described by Murphy, ‘Buddhism and its relationship to Dvaravati period’, p. 301.

40 Higham, ‘The long and winding road’: 272–7; Bennet Bronson, ‘The late prehistory and early history of central Thailand with special reference to Chansen’, in Smith and Watson, Early South East Asia, pp. 327–8; Welch, ‘Adaptation’, p. 150; Talbot, Sarah and Chutima, Janthed, ‘Northeast Thailand before Angkor: Evidence from an archaeological excavation at the Prasat Hin Phimai’, Asian Perspectives 40, 2 (2001): 183 Google Scholar.

41 Bronson, ‘The late prehistory and early history’, p. 327.

42 Pichard, Pierre, Pimay: Étude architecturale du temple (Paris: EFEO, 1976), p. 22 Google Scholar; Talbot and Chutima, ‘Northeast Thailand before Angkor’: 188; Buranrak, ‘Report on the restoration of Prasat Hin Phanom Wan. Tambon Ban Pho, Amphoe Muang, Changwa Nakhon Ratchasima’ (in Thai, unpub., 2000).

43 Bennet Bronson, ‘Excavations at Chansen and the cultural chronology of protohistoric central Thailand’ (Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1976); Indrawooth, Index pottery of Dvaravati; see also Murphy, this vol.

44 Welch and McNeil, ‘Excavations at Ban Tamyae’.

45 Solheim and Ayres, ‘The late prehistoric and early historic pottery’; Welch, ‘Adaptation’, pp. 130–32; Higham, ‘The Iron Age’: 104.

46 Higham and Rispoli, ‘The Mun Valley’.

47 Welch, ‘Late prehistoric and early historic exchange’.

48 Welch, David J. and Judith R. McNeil, ‘Settlement, agriculture and population changes in the Phimai region, Thailand’, BIPPA 11, 2 (1991): 210–28Google Scholar; Patreau, Jean-Pierre, Pauk, U. Pauk and Domett, Kate, ‘Le cimetiere de Hnaw Kan, Malhaing (Mandalay), Note preliminaire’, Aseanie 8 (2001): 73102 Google Scholar.

49 For information on salt-making see Nitta, Eiji, ‘Iron-smelting and salt-making industries in northeast Thailand’, Journal of Indo-Pacific Archaeology 16 (1997): 153–60Google Scholar; Welch, ‘Late prehistoric and early historic exchange’; van Liere, W.J., ‘Salt and settlement in northeast Thailand’, Muang Boran Journal 8 (1982): 112–16Google Scholar; Higham, Charles F.W., ‘The prehistory of the southern Khorat Plateau, with particular reference to Roi Et province’, Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia, 3 (1977): 103–42Google Scholar. Iron production from lateritic nodules is noted in Indrawooth, P., Krabuansang, S., and Barjwake, P., ‘Archaeological survey at Ban Krabuang Nok’, SPAFA Digest 12, 2 (1990): 1220 Google Scholar; Bronson, Bennet, ‘Notes on the history of iron in Thailand’, Journal of the Siam Society 73, 1 (1985): 2 Google Scholar.

50 Complete distance-to-salt results can be found in Evans, ‘Sites, ceramics, and settlement’. Evidence for salt production in UMRV can be found in Yankowski, Andrea, and Kerdsap, Puangthip, ‘Salt-making in northeast Thailand: An ethnoarchaeological study in Tambon Phan Song Khram, Nakhon Rachasima province, northeast Thailand’, Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts 13, 1 (2013): 231–52Google Scholar; Duke, Belinda, Carter, Alison and Chang, Nigel, ‘The excavation of Iron Age working floors and small-scale industry at Ban Non Wat, Thailand’, Papers from the Institute of Archaeology 20 (2010): 123–30Google Scholar.

51 Welch, ‘Late prehistoric and early historic exchange’.

52 However, if the Pre-Angkorian period results are a component of a much larger pan-regional settlement system and we have not included the largest site size, these results might not be representative.

53 This culture is characterised by displays of post-Gupta and Pala Indian art styles of Indian origin; Coedès, George, The Indianised states of Southeast Asia (Honolulu: East-West Center Press, 1968)Google Scholar; Hutterer, Karl, ‘Early Southeast Asia: Old wine in new skins? A review article’, Journal of Asian Studies 41, 3 (1982): 559–70Google Scholar; Paul Wheatley, ‘Urban genesis in mainland Southeast Asia’, in Smith and Watson, Early Southeast Asia, pp. 288–303; see also Murphy, this vol.

54 Dvaravati is also described on a seventh-century coin, see Vallibhotama, Srisakra, ‘Political and cultural continuities at Dvaravati sites’, in Southeast Asia in the 9th to 14th centuries, ed. Marr, David G. and Milner, Anthony C. (Singapore: ISEAS, 1986), p. 229 Google Scholar; Diskul, M.C. Subhadradis, Art in Thailand: A brief history (Bangkok: Amarin Press, 1972), pp. 45 Google Scholar.

55 Vallibhotama, ‘Political and cultural continuities’, p. 229; Brown, Robert, The Dvaravati wheels of the law and the Indianization of South East Asia (Leiden: Brill 1996)Google Scholar; Revire, this vol.

56 Wales, H.G. Quaritch, Dvaravati: The earliest kingdom of Siam (London: B. Quaritch, 1969)Google Scholar; Diskul, Subhadradis, ‘Mueng Fa Dæd: An ancient town in northeast Thailand’, Artibus Asiae (1956): 362–7Google Scholar.

57 Brown, The Dvaravati wheels of the law; Murphy, Stephen A. and Pongkasetkan, Pimchanok, ‘Fifty years of archaeological research at Dong Mae Nang Muang, an ancient gateway to the Upper Chao Phraya Basin’, Journal of the Siam Society 98, (2010): 4974 Google Scholar; Talbot and Chutima, ‘Northeast Thailand before Angkor’: 182.

58 Wesley Clarke, Ohio University, pers. comm., 16 June 2014.

59 ‘Unique early Cambodian sculptures discovered’, Illustrated London News, 28 Aug. 1965; Boisselier, Jean, ‘Notes sur l'art du bronze dans l'ancien Cambodge’, Artibus Asiae 2 (1967): 275334 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Lerner, Martin, The flame and the lotus: Indian and Southeast Asian art from the Kronos Collections (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1984)Google Scholar; Talbot, Sarah, ‘Before Angkor: Early historic communities in northeast Thailand’, Journal of the Siam Society 91 (2003): 7589 Google Scholar; Bunker, Emma, ‘The Prakhon Chai story: Facts and fiction’, Arts of Asia 32, 2 (2002): 106–25Google Scholar.

60 Vallibhotama, ‘Political and cultural continuities’, pp. 229–36.

61 Ibid., p. 231.

62 Hanwong, T., ‘Reclining Buddha at Wat Thammachak Semaram’, Silpakorn Journal 34, 6 (1991): 6177 Google Scholar; Saraya, Dhida, The hinterland state of Sri Thep Sri Deva: A reconstruction. Early metallurgy, trade and urban centers in Thailand and Southeast Asia (Bangkok: White Lotus, 1992), pp. 131–47Google Scholar.

63 Also translated as ‘inside Kambudesa’ by some; see Brown, The Dvaravati wheels of the law, p. 26.

64 Coedès, George, Inscriptions du Cambodge, vol. 6 (Paris: EFEO, 1954), pp. 83–5Google Scholar; Brown, The Dvaravati wheels of the law, pp. 25–6.

65 Although it should be noted that Chinese records describe the 8th century CE capital of Wendan (Land Chenla), as located in northeast Thailand, likely along the Mun (mul) River. Ferlus, Michel, ‘Linguistic evidence of the trans-peninsular trade route from North Vietnam to the Gulf of Thailand (3rd–8th centuries)’, Mon-Khmer Studies 41 (2012): 1019 Google Scholar; Woodward, Hiram, ‘Dvaravati, Sri Thep, and Wendan’, BIPPA 30 (2010): 8797 Google Scholar. The exact location of this centre, however, is unknown.

66 See Bauer, Christian, ‘Notes on Mon epigraphy’, Journal of the Siam Society 79, 1 (1991): 3183 Google Scholar, and Jacques, Claude, ‘The Khmer in Thailand: What the inscriptions inform us’, SPAFA Digest 10 (1989): 1624 Google Scholar, for list of inscriptions including K.404 in Chaiyaphum province, K.577 from Lopburi province, and K.1082 from Yasothon province.

67 Brown, The Dvaravati wheels of the law, p. 27; Talbot, ‘Before Angkor’: 77.

68 Bauer, ‘Notes on Mon epigraphy’; Talbot, ‘Before Angkor’: 76.

69 Higham and Rispoli, ‘The Mun Valley’.

70 Eyre, ‘Prehistoric and protohistoric communities’; Eyre, ‘Social variation and dynamics’.

71 Survey conducted by Supajanya, T. and Vanasin, P., The inventory of ancient settlements in Thailand (Bangkok: Toyota Foundation, 1983)Google Scholar and latter added to by Mudar, Karen, ‘How many Dvaravati kingdoms? Locational analysis of first millennium A.D. moated settlements in central Thailand’, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 18, 1 (1999): 128 Google Scholar.

72 Murphy, ‘The Buddhist boundary markers’, p. 149.

73 Higham, ‘The long and winding road’: 285; Jacques, Claude and Freeman, Michael, Angkor cities and temples (Bangkok: River Books, 1997), p. 57 Google Scholar.

74 The first ruler of Chenla (550–600 CE); Seidenfaden, Erik, ‘Complement a l'inventaire des monuments du Cambodge’, BEFEO 22, 1 (1922): 22 Google Scholar.

75 Inscriptions in Thailand Database, The Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Anthropology Centre; (last accessed 26 Aug. 2014).

76 Higham, ‘The long and winding road’: 285; Jacques and Freeman, Angkor, p. 57, Talbot and Chutima, ‘Northeast Thailand’: 179.

77 With the potential exception of Si Thep, which allied with Wendan and maintained ties with Cambodia entering the Sitrasena/ Bhavavarman periods. Jacques and Freeman, Angkor, p. 69, Seidenfaden, ‘Complement a l'inventaire’: 32–64; O'Reilly, Dougald, Early civilizations of Southeast Asia (Lanham, MD: AltaMira, 2007), pp. 91126 Google Scholar.

78 Vickery, Michael, Society, economics, and politics in Pre-Angkor Cambodia: The 7th–8th centuries (Tokyo: Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco; Toyo Bunko, 1998), p. 337 Google Scholar.

79 Pottier, Christophe et al. , Mission Archeologique Franco–Khmere sur L'Amenagement du Territoire Angkorien (MAFKATA). Campagne 2003 Rapport, (Siem Reap: APSARA–MAE–EFEO, 2003)Google Scholar; O'Reilly and Shewan, this vol.

80 Hawken, Scott, ‘Designs of kings and farmers: Landscape systems of the Greater Angkor urban complex’, Asian Perspectives 52, 2 (2013): 347–67Google Scholar.

81 Wheatley, Paul, Nagara and commandery: Origins of the Southeast Asian urban tradition (Chicago: Geography Department, University of Chicago, 1983)Google Scholar; Sedov, Leonid A., ‘Angkor: Society and state’, in The early state, ed. Claessen, Henri J.M. and Skalnik, Peter (The Hague: Mouton, 1978), p. 113 Google Scholar; The Nguyen, Anh, ‘Historical research in Vietnam: A tentative survey’, JSEAS 26, 1 (1995): 121–32Google Scholar; Van Tan, Ha, ‘Oc Eo: Endogenous and exogenous elements’, Vietnam Social Sciences 1–2, 7–8 (1986): 91101 Google Scholar.

82 Brown, The Dvaravati wheels of the law; Higham, Charles, The archaeology of mainland Southeast Asia: From 10,000 BC to the fall of Angkor (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989)Google Scholar; Stark, Miriam T., ‘Pre-Angkor earthenware ceramics from Cambodia's Mekong Delta’, Udaya 1 (2000): 6990 Google Scholar; Pelliot, Paul, ‘Le Fou-nan’, BEFEO 3, 2 (1903): 248303 Google Scholar.

83 Stark, ‘Pre-Angkor earthenware ceramics’: 76; Sarjeant, ‘A characterization of mortuary ceramics from Ban Non Wat’.

84 Malleret, Louis, L'archéologie du Delta du Mékong, 1. L'Exploration archaeologique et les fouilles d'Oc-Eo (Paris: EFEO, 1960), pp. 99100 Google Scholar. Stark, ‘Pre-Angkor earthenware ceramics’: 76–80.

85 Alison Carter, ‘Trade, exchange, and socio-political development in Iron Age (500 BC–AD 500) mainland Southeast Asia: An examination of stone and glass beads from Cambodia and Thailand’ (Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2012). Also see study of Prohear in Cambodia by Schlosser, Sandra et al. , ‘Early Cambodian gold and silver from Prohear: Composition, trace elements and gilding’, Journal of Archaeological Science 39, 9 (2012): 2877–87Google Scholar.

86 Matthew D. Gallon, ‘Ideology, identity, and the construction of urban communities: the archaeology of Kampaeng Saen, central Thailand (c. fifth to ninth century CE)’, (Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 2013), p. 293; Mudar, ‘How many Dvaravati kingdoms?’

87 Moore, Elisabeth, Moated sites in early north east Thailand (BAR International Series 400, Oxford, 1988), p. 9 Google Scholar.

88 Wylie, Alison, ‘The reaction against analogy’, in Advances in archaeological method and theory, vol. 8, ed. Schiffer, Michael B. (New York: Academic Press, 1985), pp. 100101 Google Scholar; Stahl, Ann B., ‘Concepts of time and approaches to analogical reasoning in historical perspective’, American Antiquity 58, 2 (1993): 235–60Google Scholar.

89 Renfrew, Colin, ‘Trade as action’, in Ancient civilization and trade, ed. Sabloff, Jeremy and Lamberg-Karlovsky, C.C. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1975), pp. 3–59Google Scholar; see also Renfrew, Colin and Cherry, John F., Peer polity interaction and socio-political change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986)Google Scholar.

90 Stark and Allen, ‘The transition to history in Southeast Asia’: 166.

91 McNeill and Welch, ‘Regional and interregional exchange on the Khorat’.

92 Gallon, ‘Ideology, identity’, p. 291.

93 Ibid., pp. 292–3.

94 See Mills, Barbara J. et al. , ‘Transformation of social networks in the late pre-Hispanic US Southwest’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, 15 (2013): 5785–90Google Scholar and Stark, Miriam T., ‘From Funan to Angkor: Collapse and regeneration in ancient Cambodia’, in After collapse: The regeneration of complex societies, ed. Schwartz, Glen M. and Nichols, John J. (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2006), pp. 144–67Google Scholar.

95 Complex systems and archaeology: Empirical and theoretical applications, ed. Bentley, Alexander R. and Maschner, Herbert D. (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2003)Google Scholar.