Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-5zjcf Total loading time: 0.32 Render date: 2022-08-18T02:11:34.131Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Are Factors Associated with Adult Refugees’ Settlement different from Well-Being? A Longitudinal Study focusing on Gender and Age in Australia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 June 2022

RENUKA MAHADEVAN
Affiliation:
School of Economics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland4072, Australia email: r.mahadevan@uq.edu.au
MANEKA JAYASINGHE*
Affiliation:
Asia Pacific College of Business & Law, Charles Darwin University, Darwin City, Northern Territory 0800, Australia email: maneka.jayasinghe@cdu.edu.au
*
Corresponding author, email: maneka.jayasinghe@cdu.edu.au

Abstract

Using three waves of data and tracing the same refugees over time, this paper shows that some factors associated with settlement experience are different from life satisfaction. Evidence shows that although settlement experience has not improved over time, life satisfaction of both male and female refugees has. The non-linear effect of age on life satisfaction disappears over time while that of settlement experience lingers on. Discrimination affects both male and female life satisfaction but is only a concern for females and the younger cohort’s settlement experience. Psychological capital did not appear to moderate the discrimination effect, but this needs to be robustly examined further. Lastly, different support for refugees over time and a targeted focus on some groups is likely to be more effective than a blanket support policy.

Type
Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Ager, A. and Strang, A. (2008), ‘Understanding Integration: A Conceptual Framework’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 21, 2, 166191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ajdukovic, M. and Ajdukovic, D. (1998), ‘Impact of displacement on the psychological well-being of refugee children’, International Review of Psychiatry, 10,3, 186195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Algan, Y., Hémet, C. and Laitin, D. (2016), ‘The social effects of ethnic diversity at the local level: A natural experiment with exogenous residential allocation’, Journal of Political Economics, 124, 696 733.Google Scholar
Baetschmann, G., Staub, K.E. and Winkelmann, R. (2011), ‘Consistent Estimation of the Fixed Effects Ordered Logit Model’, IZA Discussion Paper, 5443.Google Scholar
Banks, J., Nazroo, J. and Steptoe, A. (eds.) (2012), ‘The dynamics of ageing: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing 2002–10 , London: Institute for Fiscal Studies.Google Scholar
Beiser, M. (2006), ‘Longitudinal Research to Promote Effective Refugee Resettlement’, Transcultural Psychiatry, 43, 5671.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beiser, M. and Hou, F. (2017), ‘Predictors of positive mental health among refugees: Results from Canada’s General Social Survey’, Transcultural Psychiatry, 54, 675695.Google ScholarPubMed
Betts, A., Sterck, O., Geervliet, R., MacPherson, C., Buith, J. and Armstrong, K. (2017), ‘Talent Displaced, the economic lives of Syrian refugees in Europe , Deloitte and Oxford University.Google Scholar
Boor, C., Amos, R., Nevitt, S., Dowrick, C. and White, R. (2020), ‘Systematic review of factors associated with quality of life of asylum seekers and refugees in high-income countries’, Conflict and Health,14: article 48. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13031-020-00292-y.Google Scholar
Brand, R., Loh, J. and Guilfoyle, A. (2014), ‘Young African female refugees’ sense of acculturation and community connection in Western Australia’. Australian Community Psychologist, 26,2, 90109.Google Scholar
Building a New Life in Australia (2017), ‘Data Users Guide Release 3.0, Australian Institute of Family Studies’, http://www3.aifs.gov.au/bnla/userguide/docs/BNLA%20Data%20Users%20Guide_Release%203.pdf.Google Scholar
Campion, E. (2018), ‘The career adaptive refugee: Exploring the structural and personal barriers to refugee resettlement’, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 105, 616.Google Scholar
Capps, R., Newland, K., Fratzke, S., Groves, S., Auclair Fix, M. and Mchugh, M. (2015), ‘The Integration Outcomes of U.S. Refugees: Successes and Challenges’, Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.Google Scholar
Çetin, M. (2019), ‘Effects of Religious Participation on Social Inclusion and Existential Well-Being Levels of Muslim Refugees and Immigrants in Turkey’, International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 29, 6476.Google Scholar
Chen, W., Hall, B., Ling, L. and Renzaho, A. (2017), ‘Pre-migration and post-migration factors associated with mental health in humanitarian migrants in Australia and the moderation effect of post-migration stressors: findings from the first wave data of the BNLA cohort study’, Lancet Psychiatry, 4, 218–29.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheung, S. and Phillimore, J. (2017), ‘Gender and refugee integration: A Quantitative Analysis of Integration and Social Policy Outcomes’, Journal of Social Policy, 46,2, 211230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Choi, Y., Lim, S. Y., Jun, J. Y., Lee, S. H., Yoo, S. Y., Kim, S., Lee, Y. J. and Kim, S. J. (2017), ‘The effect of traumatic experiences and psychiatric symptoms on the life satisfaction of North Korean refugeesPsychopathology, 50,3, 203210.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Colic-Peisker, V. (2009), ‘Visibility, settlement success and life satisfaction in three refugee communities in Australia’, Ethnicities 9, 175199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cooper, S., Enticott, J., Shawyer, F. and Meadows, G. (2019), ‘Determinants of Mental Illness Among Humanitarian Migrants: Longitudinal Analysis of Findings from the First Three Waves of a Large Cohort Study’, Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10: article 545.Google Scholar
Curry, O., Smedley, C. and Lenette, C. (2018), ‘What Is “Successful” Resettlement? Refugee Narratives from Regional New South Wales in Australia’, Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 16, 430448.Google Scholar
Danner, D., Snowdon, D. and Friesen, W. (2001), ‘Positive Emotions in Early Life and Longevity: Findings from the Nun Study’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 804813.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Edwards, B., Smart, D., De Maio, J., Silbert, M. and Jenkinson, R. (2018), ‘Cohort Profile: Building a New Life in Australia (BNLA): the longitudinal study of humanitarian migrants’, International Journal of Epidemiology, 47, 2028.Google ScholarPubMed
Elliott, S. and Yusuf, I. (2014), ‘Yes, we can; but together: Social capital and refugee resettlement’, Kotuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online, 9,2,101. https://doi.org/10.1080/1177083X.2014.951662.Google Scholar
Fozdar, F. and Banki, S. (2017), ‘Settling refugees in Australia: Achievements and challenges’, International Journal of Migration and Border Studies, 3,1,4366. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJMBS.2017.081197.Google Scholar
Greene, R. (2019), ‘Kinship, Friendship, and Service Provider Social Ties and How They Influence Well-Being among Newly Resettled Refugees’, Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World, 5,111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guo, S. and Guo, Y. (2017), ‘Immigration, Integration and Welcoming Communities: Neighbourhood-Based Initiative to Facilitate the Integration of Newcomers in Calgary’, Canadian Ethnic Studies, 48,3,4567.Google Scholar
Haj-Younes, J., Stromme, E., Igland, J., Kumar, B., Abildsnes, E., Hasha, W. and Diaz, E. (2020), ‘Changes in self-rated health and quality of life among Syrian refugees migrating to Norway: a prospective longitudinal study’, International Journal for Equity in Health, 19: article no. 188. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-020-01300-6.Google Scholar
Hatoss, A. and Huijser, H. (2010), ‘Gendered barriers to educational opportunities: resettlement of Sudanese refugees in Australia’, Gender and Education, 22,2,147160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hedrick, K., Armstrong, G., Coffey, G. and Borschmann, R. (2019), ‘Self-harm in the Australian asylum seeker population: A national records-based study’, SSM Population Health, 8, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352827319300850?via%3Dihub Google Scholar
Hogg, M. (2016), ‘Understanding peace and conflict through social identity theory’, United States: Springer.Google Scholar
Ikizler, A. and Szymanski, D. (2018), ‘Discrimination, religious and cultural factors, and Middle Eastern/Arab Americans’ psychological distress’, Journal of Clinical Psychology, 7,12119–1233.Google Scholar
Jenkinson, R., Slibert, M., Maio, J. and Edwards, B. (2016), ‘Building a New Life in Australia Fact Sheet’ https://aifs.gov.au/publications/settlement-experiences-recently-arrived-humanitarian-migrants.Google Scholar
Khawaja, N. and Hebbani, A. (2019), ‘Factors impacting life satisfaction of refugees in Australia: A mixed methods study,’ Australian Community Psychologist, 30,1,3050.Google Scholar
Kim, I. (2016), ‘Beyond Trauma: Post-resettlement factors and mental health outcomes among Latino and Asian refugees in the United States’, Journal of Immigrant Minority Health, 18,740748.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lamba, N. and Krahn, H. (2003), ‘Social Capital and Refugee Resettlement: The Social Networks of Refugees in Canada’, Journal of International Migration and Integration Health, 4,335360. CanadaGoogle Scholar
Lewis, J. (2020), ‘Social Capital Matters for Older Bhutanese Refugees’ Integration, Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 22,12951303.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lichtenstein, G. and Puma, J. (2019), ‘The Refugee Integration Survey and Evaluation (RISE): Results from a Four-Year Longitudinal Study’, Journal of Refugees Studies, 32,3,397416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mares, S. (2016), ‘Fifteen years of detaining children who seek asylum in Australia- Evidence and Consequences’, Australian Psychiatry, 24,1114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marlowe, J. (2019), ‘Belonging and Transnational Refugee Settlement: Unsettling the Everyday and the Extraordinary, Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
Martén, L., Hainmueller, J. and Hangartner, D. (2019), ‘Ethnic networks can foster the economic integration of refugees’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America (PNAS), 116,33,1628016285.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitton, L. (2021), The Newly-Recognised Refugees Most at Risk of Homelessness in England,’ Journal of Social Policy, 50, 1, 5978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mulvey, G. (2017), ‘Social Citizenship, Social Policy and Refugee Integration: a Case of Policy Divergence in Scotland?Journal of Social Policy, 47, 1, 161178.Google Scholar
Musa, A. and Pevalin, D. (2012), ‘An Arabic version of the spiritual well-being scale’, International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 22,2,119134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newman, A., Nielsen, I., Smyth, R. and Hirst, G. (2017), ‘Mediating Role of Psychological Capital in the Relationship between Social Support and Wellbeing of Refugees’, International Migration, 56,2,117132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phillimore, J. (2011), ‘Refugees, acculturation strategies, stress and integration’, Journal of Social Policy, 40,3,575593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phillimore, J. (2020), ‘Refugee-integration-opportunity structures: shifting the focus from refugees to context’, Journal of Refugee Studies, https://doi.org/10.1093/jrs/feaa012 Google Scholar
Phillips, D. (2006), ‘Moving towards integration: the housing of asylum seekers and refugees in Britain’, Housing Studies, 21,4, 539553.Google Scholar
Pieterse, A., Knippenberg, D., Schippers, M. and Stam, D. (2010), ‘Transformational and transactional leadership and innovative behaviour: The moderating role of psychological empowerment’, Journal of Organisational Behavior, 31,609623.Google Scholar
Pittaway, E., Muli, C. and Shteir, S. (2009), ‘I Have a Voice—Hear Me! Findings of an Australian Study Examining the Resettlement and Integration Experience of Refugees and Migrants from the Horn of Africa in Australia, Refuge: Canada’s Journal on Refugees, 26,2,133146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Porter, M. and Haslam, N. (2005), ‘Predisplacement and Postdisplacement Factors Associated with Mental Health of Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A meta-analysis,’ Journal of the American Medical Association, 294, 5, 602612.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Putnam, R. (2000), ‘Bowling alone: the collapse and revival of American community , New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
Refugee Council of Australia (2019), ‘How Generous is Australia’s Refugee Program Compared to other Countries? An Analysis of UNHCR’s 2018 Global Refugee Statistics’, https://www.refugeecouncil.org.au/2018-global-trends Google Scholar
Schubert, C. and Punamäki, R. (2011), ‘Mental health among torture survivors: Cultural background, refugee status and gender’, Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 65,3,175182.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Slade, N. and Borovnik, M. (2018), ‘Ageing out of place: experiences of resettlement and belonging among older Bhutanese refugees in New Zealand, New Zealand Geographer, 74,2,101108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, L., Hoang, H., Reynish, T., … Mond, J. (2020), ‘Factors Shaping the Lived Experience of Resettlement for Former Refugees in Regional Australia’, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17,2, article no. 501. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020501.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
UNHCR (United Nations High Commission for Refugees) (2020), ‘Global Trends: Forced Displacements in 2020’, http://www.unhcr.org/5ee200e37.pdf Google Scholar
Vromans, L., Schweitzer, R., Farrell, L., Correa-Velez, I., Brough, M., Murray, K. and Lenette, C. (2018), ‘Her cry is my cry’: Resettlement experiences of refugee women at risk recently resettled in Australia’, Public Health, 158,149155.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Westerhof, G. and Keyes, C. (2010), ‘Mental illness and mental health: The two continua model across the lifespan’, Journal of Adult Development, 17,110119.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yoon, E., Chang, C., Kim, S., … Gomes, A. (2013), ‘A Meta-Analysis of Acculturation/Enculturation and Mental Health’, Journal of Counselling Psychology, 60, 1530.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Are Factors Associated with Adult Refugees’ Settlement different from Well-Being? A Longitudinal Study focusing on Gender and Age in Australia
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Are Factors Associated with Adult Refugees’ Settlement different from Well-Being? A Longitudinal Study focusing on Gender and Age in Australia
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Are Factors Associated with Adult Refugees’ Settlement different from Well-Being? A Longitudinal Study focusing on Gender and Age in Australia
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *