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Roman Africa: An Archaeological Review

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 March 2012

David J. Mattingly
University of Leicester
R. Bruce Hitchner
University of Dayton


The significance of the African provinces is well-appreciated in historical studies of the Roman Empire, but there is a distinct lack of good summaries in English on recent developments in the field of study. Some introductory books sacrifice readability in favour of detail, others offer a more synthetic view, but lack depth. The bibliography is now vast and ever more intimidating for the uninitiated; we hope that what follows will serve both as a useful introduction for those new to the field and as a refresher for others. In this review we have concentrated on developments which seem to us to be of particular importance, whilst directing the reader's attention to basic references in other areas. The emphasis throughout is on archaeological work and this will explain short measure having to be given to some important historic and epigraphic studies. Another choice had to be the geographical limits of the study and, mostly, we have restricted our coverage to Africa Proconsularis and Numidia, though certain themes demand expanding the horizons to sites in the Mauretanian provinces and Cyrenaica also. We have considered 1970 as an appropriate start-date for our survey, allowing us to review developments across the last twenty five years, though necessarily with greater emphasis being placed on publications of the last decade.

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Copyright © David J. Mattingly and R. Bruce Hitchner 1995. Exclusive Licence to Publish: The Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies

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1 The research for this article (and the opportunity to write it together in England during the Autumn 1994) was made possible by the generosity of the Leverhulme Trust (who awarded the first author a Research Fellowship), the Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, Leicester University Arts Budget Centre (DJM), and the University of Dayton, Office of the Provost and College of Arts and Sciences, and Churchill College, Cambridge (RBH). Particular thanks are due to Phillipe Leveau and Dick Whittaker for making their personal libraries available to us at different moments and to the librarians of the Centre Camille Jullian, Aix-en-Provence, for innumerable kindnesses. Among the many other scholars who assisted our research special mention must be made to Ted Buttrey, Noel Duval, Lisa Fentress, Peter Garnsey, Henry Hurst, Tim Potter, Pol Trousset and Colin Wells. We are also grateful to the readers who provided several helpful comments. Needless to say we alone take full responsibility for all sins of omission and any heresies expressed here. With a few exceptions it has not been possible to refer to works published after December 1994. Thanks are due to A. Ennabli for permission to reproduce Fig. 2 and to D. Miles (Fig. 1) and A. Graham (Fig. 3) for their artwork. Finally a special word of appreciation for Jenny Mattingly and Becky Hitchner who gave us time, encouragement, and expert proof-reading.

2 Useful, but already superceded in part, are Clark, J. D. (ed.), The Cambridge History of Africa I. From the Earliest Times to 500 BC (1982)Google Scholar; Fage, J. D. (ed.), The Cambridge History of Africa II, c. 500 B.C.-A.D. 1050 (1978)Google Scholar; Ki-Zerbo, J. (ed.), UNESCO General History of Africa I, Methodology and African Prehistory (1980)Google Scholar; Mokhtar, G. (ed.), UNESCO General History of Africa II. Ancient Civilisations of Africa (1981)Google Scholar; Elfasi, M. (ed.), UNESCO General History of Africa III, Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century (1988)Google Scholar. See also Carandini, A., Ruggini, L. Cracco and Giardina, A. (eds), Storia di Roma 111.2 (1993), 309–78Google Scholar; Reallexicon fur Antike und Christentum. Schworterbuch sur Amuseinandersetzung des Christentums mit der Antiken Welt (1985), cols 134–239.

3 Barton, I. M., Africa in the Roman Empire (1972)Google Scholar; Decret, F. and Fantar, M., L'Afrique du Nord dans l'Antiquite, histoire et civilisation (1981)Google Scholar; MacKendrick, P., The North African Stones Speak (1980)Google Scholar; Manton, E. L., Roman North Africa (1988)Google Scholar; Raven, S., Rome in Africa (3rd edn, 1992)Google Scholar.

4 The early 1970s saw the appearance of the last great archaeological synthesis, Romanelli, P., Topografia e archeologia dell Africa Romana = Enciclopedia Classica III.X.7 (1970)Google Scholar; the writing of the first revisionist histories, Laroui, A., L'histoire du Maghreb, un essai de synthese (1970)Google Scholar; the formal identification of African amphorae, Zevi, F. and Tchernia, A., Ant af 3 (1969), 173214CrossRefGoogle Scholar; the emergence of a clear typology for African Red Slip ware, Hayes, J. W. , Late Roman Pottery (1972, with Supplement, 1980)Google Scholar; the start of the international campaign to save Carthage (cf. Warmington, B. H., Carthage (2nd edn, 1969)Google Scholar for a reminder of how much new information has subsequently been gained).

5 Usefully summarized by Le Bohec, Y., ‘La recherche bibliographique sur l'Afrique romaine’, Af Rom VII (1990), 1001–8Google Scholar.

6 BAAA = Bibliographie Analytique de l'Afrique Antique I (1963)Google Scholar [1965] – 23 (1989) [1994]. Numbers 1–19 compiled by J. Desanges and S. Lancel, 20f. by Lassère, J.-M. and Le Bohec, Y.. Numbers 1–3 published in BAA I (1965)Google Scholar – 3 (1968), 4–12 by de Boccard, Paris, 13f. by Ecole Franchise de Rome. Numbers 22 and 23 both appeared in 1994 (23 too late to be of use to us), and the editors are to be congratulated for an acceleration in publication that should see the appearance of Numbers 24 (1990) and 25 (1991) in 1995.

7 AAAB = Archéologie de l'Afrique Antique 19 XX. Bibliographie des ouvrages parus en 19 XX et complements des annees anterieures, CNRS, Aix en Provence. Compiled by S. Sempre (1964–9), P. Courtot (1970–2), P. Courtot and D. Terrer (1973), D Terrer (1974–6), M. Euzennat and D. Terrer (1977–8), M. Euzennat (1979), M. Euzennat and S. Giraud (1980–85), the regrettably defunct series covers the years 1964 [1965] –1985 [1985]. Sifting all the African material from sources such as Annee Philologique; Bull Analitique Hist Romaine etc. is very time-consuming.

8 Humphrey, J. H., AJA 82 (1978), 511–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar; idem, AJA 84 (1980), 7587CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Humphrey, J. H., A. Ennabli, and Ejteily, B., AJA 87 (1983), 197208Google Scholar.

9 Le Bohec, Y., Bibliographie analytique de l'archéologie militaire de l'Afrique du nord (1979)Google Scholar; idem, Ant af 27 (1991), 21–31, complemented by his two major monographs, La IIIe Légion Auguste (1989) (hereafter IIIe Légion) and Les unites auxiliares de l'armée romaine dans les provinces d'Afrique Proconsulate et de Numidie (1989).

10 Rebuffat, R., Gabard, I. and Le Bohec, Y., Bibliographie de l'Afrique du Nord antique. Périodiques et séries (1980)Google Scholar.

11 The journal Bull. AIEMA contains regular bibliographic round-ups (e.g. fasc. 14 (1993) covered publications for 1991–2).

12 Duval, N., ‘Quinze ans de recherches archéologiques sur l'antiquité tardive en Afrique du nord 1975–1990. I, genéralités et Tunisie (Carthage)’, REA 92 (1990), 349–87Google Scholar; Deuxieme chronique et supplements a generality et Carthage’, REA 95 (1993), 583640Google Scholar. Note also the annual 'Chronique' in Revue des Etudes Augustiniennes.

13 Gasperini, L. and Paci, G., ‘Bibliografia archeologia della Libia 1967–1973’, QAL 7 (1975), 189206Google Scholar; Paci, G., ‘Bibliografia archeologia della Libia: 1972–1977’, QAL 10 (1979), 105–32Google Scholar; idem, ‘Bibliografia archeologia della Libia: 1978–79’, QAL 11(1980) 139–53Google Scholar; cf. also Caputo, G., ‘Attività archeologica in Libia, Algeria, Tunisia 1966–1975’, Quaderni della ricerca scientifica 100 (1978), 173224Google Scholar.

14 Ennabli, L., ‘Bibliographie’, in Ennabli, A. (ed.), Pour Sauver Carthage (1992), 203–27Google Scholar.

15 Ennabli, A., ‘Bibliographie d'archéologie et d'histoire ancienne de Tunisie (Carthage excepté) 1957–1979’, CEDAC 5 (1985), 3355Google Scholar; idem, AJA 87 (1983), 197206CrossRefGoogle Scholar; 30 ans au service du patrimoine: de la Carthage des Phéniciens à la Carthage de Bourguiba (1986); for pre-Independence work see the useful summary by Picard, G.-Ch., CEA 16 (1985), 1120Google Scholar.

16 Though note Laubenheimer, F., ‘Bibliographie d'archéologie Marocaine 1961–1970’, BAM 8 (1972), 249–77Google Scholar.

17 Abdullah, Z. B. Ben, Catalogue des inscriptions païennes du musée du Bardo (1986)Google Scholar; IAM = Euzennat, M., Marion, J., Gascou, J., and de Kisch, Y. (eds), Inscriptions antiques du Maroc 2. Inscriptions latines (1982)Google Scholar; ILAlg II.2 = Gsell, S., Pflaum, H. C. et al. (eds), Inscriptions latines d'Algérie II.2 Inscriptions de la confederation Cirtéene, de Cuicul et de la tribu des Suburbures (1976)Google Scholar; IPT = della Vida, G. Levi and Guzzo, M. Amadasi (eds), Iscrizioni puniche della Tripolitania (1927–1967) (1987)Google Scholar.

18 In addition to the annual summaries in AE, see Le Glay, M., Chiron 4 (1974), 629–46Google Scholar; Mastino, A., ‘La ricerca epigrafica in Tunisia (1973–83)’, Af Rom I (1984), 564Google Scholar; idem, ‘La ricerca epigrafica in Algeria (1973–85)’, Af Rom III (1986), 113–66; idem, ‘La ricerca epigrafica in Marocco (1973–86)’, Af Rom IV (1987), 3377–84; Rebuffat, R., ‘Compléments au recueil des Inscriptions Antiques du Maroc’, Af Rom IX (1992), 439501Google Scholar; Reynolds, J. M., ‘Twenty years of inscriptions’, Lib Studs 20 (1989), 117–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar. Dondin-Payre, M., Un siècle d'epigraphie classique. Aspects de l'oeuvre des savants français dans les pays du bassin méditerraneen (1988)Google Scholar, is very illuminating on the historiography of French epigraphic research. Note also, Gauthier, N., ‘Epigraphie latine chrétienne 1980–92’, REA 94 (1992), 467–8Google Scholar; contributions in Colloque la terza eta dell'epigrafia 1986 (1988).

19 Cyrenaica: Barker, G., Lloyd, J. and Reynolds, J. (eds), Cyrenaica in Antiquity (1985)Google Scholar; Reynolds, J. M. (ed.), Cyrenaican Archaeology: An International Symposium = Lib Studs 25 (1994)Google Scholar; Stucchi, S. (ed.), Cirene e la Grecia = QAL 8 (1976)Google Scholar; Stucchi, S. and Luni, M. (eds), Cirene e i Libyi = QAL 12 (1987)Google Scholar; Tripolitania: Buck, D. J. and Mattingly, D. J. (eds), Town and Country in Roman Tripolitania. Papers in Honour of Olwen Hackett (1985)Google Scholar, hereafter, Buck and Mattingly, Town and Country. For Cyrenaica, note also the earlier review, Reynolds, J. and Vickers, M., ‘Cyrenaica 1962–1972’, Archaeological Reports 18 (1972), 2747Google Scholar, and the seminal studies of Laronde, A., Cyrène et la Libye héllenistique (1987)Google Scholar and Stucchi, S., Architettura Cirenaica (1975)Google Scholar. For Tripolitania, see now, Mattingly, D. J., Tripolitania (1995)Google Scholar, hereafter Mattingly, Tripolitania.

20 Mattingly, D. J. and Lloyd, J. A. (eds), Libya: Research in History, Archaeology and Geography = Lib Studs 20 (1989)Google Scholar. Note also the still often cited Gadallah, F. F. (ed.), Libya in History. Proceedings of a Conference held at the Faculty of Arts, University of Libya 1968 (1971)Google Scholar, hereafter Gadallah, Libya in Hist.

21 CHAAN = Collogue Internationale d'histoire et archéologie de l'Afrique du Nord, Actes. Published as follows: CHAAN 1 = BCTH ns 17B, 1983 [1984]; CHAAN 2 = BCTH ns 19B, 1983 [1985]; CHAAN 3 = Histoire et archéologie de l'Afrique du Nord, 3e Collogue International Montpellier (1986) (= IIIe Congrès national des Sociétés savants); CHAAN 4 (Strasbourg 1988) = 1 Carthage et son territoire dans l'antiquité (1990) and II L'armée et des affaires militeres (1991) (= 113e Congrès national des Sociétés savants); CHAAN 5 (Avignon 1990) = Afrique du Nord antique et medievale. Spectacle, vie portuaire, religions (1992) ( = 115e Congrès national des Societes savants); CHAAN 6 (Pau) = forthcoming (1995).

22 Published as L'Africa Romana I (1983)–x (1994)Google Scholar. Hereafter cited as Af Rom. ‘L'Africa Romana XI’ was held in Carthage in December 1994.

23 ACHCM = Actes du Congrès d'Histoire et de Civilisation du Maghreb as follows: ACHCM 1 = Actes du Ier Congrès d'Histoire et de Civilisation du Maghreb, 2 vols (1979); ACHCM 2 = Cahiers du Tunisie 29 (117–18) (1981)Google Scholar (Dépendance, réstances et mouvements de libération au Maghreb); ACHCM 3 = Actes du IIIe Congrès d'Histoire et de Civilisation du Maghreb, 2 vols (1987)Google Scholar (Le monde rurale maghrebin. Communautés et stratification sociale); ACHCM 4 = Cahiers du Tunisie 34 (137138) (1986)Google Scholar (Villes et Sociétés urbaines au Maghreb); ACHCM 5 = Cahiers du Tunisie 43 (155156) (1991)Google Scholar (La Maghreb et les pays de la Méditerranée: échanges et contacts). The post-colonial debate is at its most vigorous here, with an increasing number of Maghrebian scholars now choosing to publish in Arabic. At the other end of the spectrum lies an extraordinary international conference held in Senegal in the 1970s under Italian influence and published in Latin, Africa et Roma. Acta omnium gentium ac nationum conventus latiniis litteris linguaeque fovendis (1979).

24 L'Afriquedans l'Occident romaine (rer siècle av.J.C. – IV e siècle ap. J.C.) (1990), hereafter Afrique Occ. Romain; Lixus. Actes du Collogue Larache 8–11 novembre 1989 (1992); Actes du Collogue Int. sur l'histoire de Sétif (= 7e Supp BAA) (1993); Carthage VII/VII/VIII/IX. Actes du Congrès international sur Carthage, Trois-Rivières octobre 1984, published as CEA XVI (1984)Google Scholar, XVIII (1985), XVIII (1986), XIX (1986); 150 Jahr-Feier Deutches Archaologisches Institut Rom (= Rom. Mitt. Erganzungsheft 25) (1982), hereafter 150 Jahr-Feier (1982); Wells, C. M. (ed.), Roman AfricalL'Afrigue Romaine. The 1980 Vanier Lectures (1982), hereafter Wells, Vernier.Google Scholar

25 Limes 10 = Studien zu den Militärgrenzen Roms II: Vortrage des 10 Internationalen Limeskongress in der Germania inferior (1977); Limes 11 = Fitz, J. (ed.), Acten des Internationalen Limeskongress, 1976 (1977)Google Scholar; Limes 12 = Hanson, W. S. and Keppie, L. J. F. (eds), Roman Frontier Studies 1979. Papers presented to the 12th International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies, 3 vols (1980)Google Scholar; Limes 13 = Acten des 13 Internationalen Limeskongresses Aalen, Sept. 1983 (1986); Limes 14 = Der römischen limes in Osterreich. Akten des 14 Internationalen Limeskongress 1986 in Carnuntum (1989); Limes 15 = Maxfield, V. A. and Dobson, M. J. (eds), Roman Frontier Studies 1989. Proceedings of the XVth International Conference of Roman Frontier Studies (1991)Google Scholar.

26 L'armée romaine d'Afrique et la IIIe légion Auguste = Ant af 27 (1991)Google Scholar.

27 For example, Abed, A. Ben and Soren, D., Carthage. A Mosaic of Ancient Tunisia (1987)Google Scholar; Horn and Ruger, op. cit. (n. 44); De Carthage à Kairouan (1982); Carthage. L'histoire, sa trace et son écho (1995).

28 Recent volumes, III Colloquio Intemazionale sul mosaico antico (Ravenna 1980) (1984); La mosaique Greco-romaine IV (Treves 1984) (1995); Johnson, P., Ling, R. and Smith, D. J., Fifth International Colloquium on Ancient Mosaics (Bath 1987), 2 vols (1994/1995)Google Scholar. In October 1994, the VII Colloque International was held in Tunis.

29 BAM I (1956)–17Google Scholar (1987–88) [1994]; BAA I (1965)–7Google Scholar (1977–79) [1985] and BAA Supp. series; Africa I (1966)–11/12Google Scholar (1992–93) [1994], LA I (1964)–15/16Google Scholar (1978–79) [1987] and LA Supp. series.

30 CEDAC = CEDAC Carthage Bulletin I (1978)–13Google Scholar (1994); Reppal I (1985)–7/8 (1993)Google Scholar, BTIANA I (1988)–6 (1993)Google Scholar (NB the series is renamed BTINP from vol. 5).

31 BCTH new series (NB Africana were published in fasc. B up to vol. 20, thereafter renamed ‘L'Afrique du Nord’); Kartkago; QAL.

32 Inter alia see, AESC; Ant Tardive, BSAF; CRAI; JRA; Ktema; Lib Studs; MEFRA; REA; Rev August.

33 Carthage Reports I–IX = CEA 6 (1976), 9Google Scholar (1978), 10 (1979), 12 (1980), 13 (1981), 16 (1983), 17 (1985), 18 (1986), 19 (1986), Sullecthum Report I = CEA 22 (1989)Google Scholar.

34 Encyclopédie Berbère 1984f. (most recent seen, Fasicule 12, Capsa – cheval, 1993).

35 Goodchild, R. G., Libyan Studies: Selected Papers of the late R. G. Goodchild (ed. Reynolds, J. M.) (1976)Google Scholar; Gsell, S., Etudes sur l'Afrique Antique, scripta varia (1981)Google Scholar; Pflaum, H. G., Afrique Romain. Scripta Varia I (1978)Google Scholar; Romanelli, P., In Africa e a Roma (1981)Google Scholar; Le Bohec, Y. and Deroux, C. (eds), Mélanges Marcel Le Glay. L'Afrique, la Gaule, la religion à l'époque romaine (1994)Google Scholar; Shaw, B. D., Environment and Society in Roman North Africa (1995)Google Scholar.

36 Picard, G.-Ch., La civilisation de l'Afrique romaine (2nd edn, 1990)Google Scholar, hereafter Picard, Civilization, there is an extensive annotated bibliography, though including comparatively little non-French language scholarship.

37 Encyclopedia di arte antica; Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (1991); Stillwell, R. (ed.), The Princeton Encyclopaedia of Classical Sites (1976)Google Scholar.

38 E. Babelon, R. Cagnat, A. Merlin and S. Reinach, Atlas archéologique de la Tunisia (1892–1926); S. Gsell, Atlas archéologique de l'Algérie (1902–11); Caillemer, A. and Chevallier, R., Atlas des centuriations romaines de Tunisie (1959)Google Scholar.

39 At a scale of 1:1,000,000 (1:50,000 for Tunisia and central Numidia) this will be achieved by the current APA sponsored project (directed by Richard Talbert) for a new Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, due for publication in 1999.

40 Souville, G., Atlas préhistorique du Maroc. 1. Le Maroc atlantique (1978)Google Scholar; Atlas prehistorique Tunisie (sheets at scale of 1:200,000 and descriptive text so far published include 1–9 Tabarka-Sousse (1985–1992) and 23 Gabes (1985)); Carte nationale des sites archéologiques et des monuments historiques (1995f.?), 1:50,000 scale, to be published by Institut National du Patrimoine and Ministère de la Culture, Tunis. The project is directed by S. Ben Baaziz (see BTINP 6, p. 1–16, for description of the project) and the first batch of these beautifully produced maps and gazetteers should be available by the end of 1995.

41 Jones, G. D. B. in Kennedy, D. (ed.), Into the Sun. Essays on Air Photography in Archaeology Presented to D. Riley (1989), 2543Google Scholar.

42 Desanges, J., (Pliné l'Ancien), Histoire Naturelle, Livre V, 1–46 (L'Afrique du Nord) (1980)Google Scholar; idem, ‘La Toponomie de l'Afrique du Nord Antique. Bilan des recherches depuis 1965’, Afrique Occ Romain, 251–72.

43 Rivet, A. L. F. and Smith, C., The Place-names of Roman Britain (1979)Google Scholar.

44 Some of the most frequently referenced monographs are abbreviated below as follows:

Benabou, M., La résistance africaine à la romanisation (1976)Google Scholar, hereafter Benabou, Résistance

Lazreg, N. Ben and Mattingly, D. J., Leptiminus (Lamta), a Roman Port City in Tunisia. First Report (1992)Google Scholar, hereafter Ben Lazreg and Mattingly, Leptiminus

N. Benseddik and T. Potter, Fouilles du Forum de Cherchel (1993), hereafter Benseddik and Potter, Cherchel

Ennabli, A. (ed.), Pour Sauver Carthage (1992)Google Scholar, hereafter Ennabli, Carthage

Fentress, E. W. B., Numidia and the Roman Army. Social, Military and Economic Aspects of the Frontier Zone (1979)Google Scholar, hereafter, Fentress, Numidia

Février, P.-A., Approches du Maghreb romain, 2 vols (1989/1990)Google Scholar, hereafter Février, Approches I/II

Horn, H. G., and Ruger, C. B., Die Numider (1979)Google Scholar, hereafter, Horn and Ruger, Die Numider

Lassère, J.-M., Ubique Populus. Peuplement et Mouvements de Population dans l'Afrique Romaine de la chute de Carthage à la fin de la dynastie des Sévères (146 a.C–235 p.C.) (1977)Google Scholar, hereafter Lassère, Ubique Populus

Le Bohec, Y., La IIIe Légion Auguste (1989)Google Scholar, hereafter Le Bohec, IIIe Légion

Lepelley, C., Les cités de l'Afrique romaine au Bas-Empire. I, La permanence muncipal (1979)Google Scholar; idem, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine au Bas-Empire. II, Notices d'histoire municipal (1981), hereafter, Lepelley, Les cités I/II

Leveau, P., Caesarea de Maurétanie: une ville romaine et ses campagnes (1984)Google Scholar, hereafter, Leveau, Caesarea Leveau, P., Sillières, P. and Vallat, J.-P., Campagnes de la Méditerranée romaine, Occident. (1993)Google Scholar, hereafter, Leveau et al., Campagnes

45 Dondin-Payre, op.cit. (n. 18), 30–52; Shaw, B. D., ‘Archaeology and knowledge: the history of the North African provinces of the Roman Empire’, Florilegium 2 (1980), 2860Google Scholar.

46 Dondin-Payre, M., ‘L'exercitus Africae inspiration de l'armée française: ense et aratro’, Ant af 27 (1991), 141–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

47 Baradez, J., Vue aérienne de l'organisation romaine dans le sud Algérienne. Fossatum Africae (1949)Google Scholar; Whittaker, C. R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire. A Social and Economic Study (1994)Google Scholar, esp. 1–9 for historiography of frontiers.

48 The structure of the colonial dialogue is brilliantly explored by Bernal, M., Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization, 2 vols (1987/1991)Google Scholar; Said, E. W., Orientalism (1978)Google Scholar; idem, Culture and Imperialism (1992). The bias of European scholarship extended also to the Phoenicians, M. Sznyzer, ‘L'expansion phénico-punique dans la Méditerranée occidentale (problemes et methodes)’, in Galley, M. (ed.), Actes du ze Congres Int. d'etude des cultures de la Méditerranéen Occidentale (1978), 3548Google Scholar.

49 Février, Approches I, esp. 23–90; idem, CHAAN 3, 87–106; J. Frémeaux, ‘Souvenirs de Rome et présence français au Maghreb: essai d'investigation’, in Vatin, J.-Cl. (ed.), Connaissances du Maghreb: science sodales et colonisation (1984), 2946Google Scholar; J. Malarkey, ‘The dramatic structure of scientific discovery in colonial Algeria: a critique of the journal “Société archéologique de Constantine (1853–1876)”’, in ibid., 137–60.

50 Interestingly, attempts continue to be made to argue, in the face of the evidence, that the family of Septimius Severus was of immigrant status, Leta, C., Af Rom IV (1987), 3145Google Scholar; cf. Birley, A. R., The African Emperor. Septimius Severus (1988)Google Scholar. The Italian habit of referring to Lepcis Magna (Punic Lpqy) by its Latinized (Italianized) name Leptis Magna is another example of the same tendency.

51 Deman, A. (with appendix by J. H. Michel), ‘Materiaux et réflexions pour servir à une étude du dévelopment et du sous-dévelopment dans les provinces de l'empire romain’, ANRW II, Principat, 3 (1975), 397Google Scholar, attempted to argue from modern prejudice that Roman Africa was drastically under-developed in comparison to Roman Gaul; soundly rebutted by Lassère, J. M., REA 81 (1979), 3553CrossRefGoogle Scholar and Thompson, L. A., Klio 64 (1982), 383401CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

52 Mackendrick, P., The North African Stones Speak (1980), 330Google Scholar: ‘It would be pleasant to be able to report, too, that Romanization took place without confrontation, but the fact is that the Berbers, however self-denying and enduring they were, were backward and uninnovative, with no gift for politics or urbanization. They also proved themselves, on occasion, faithless, murderous and (in Jugurtha's case) manic-depressive. To idealize them is to do them a disservice, for to present a falsified picture of a people's past is to betray them. Historical truth, however harsh and cruel, never fails to give to those who know how to receive it – who can grasp the past with human understanding–the consistent clarity of vision that alone makes it possible to plan for the future’.

53 Laroui, A., L'histoire du Maghreb, un essai de synthese (1970)Google Scholar, astonishingly this tour de force was ignored by both the BAAA and the AAAB listings (nn. 6–7 above) at the time of its publication. Amon g other works influenced by Laroui's approach: Abun-Nasr, J. M., A History of the Maghreb (2nd edn, 1975)Google Scholar; Kaddache, M., L'Algerie dans I'antiquité (1971)Google Scholar; C., and Lacoste, Y. (eds), L'état du Maghreb (1991)Google Scholar.

54 M. Benabou, Résistance; see also idem, Tacfarinas, insurgé berbère contre la colonisation romaine (1977); idem, AESC 33 (1978), 83–8Google Scholar; idem in Galley, M. (ed.), Actes du 2eCongrès int. d'étude des cultures de la Méditerranéen Occidentale II (1978), 139–44Google Scholar; idem in Nordman, D. and Raison, J.-P., Sciences de l'homme et conquête coloniale. Constitution et usage des sciences humaines en Afrique XIXe–XXe siècles (1980), 1522Google Scholar.

55 Garnsey, P. D. A. in Garnsey, P. D. A. and Whittaker, C. R. (eds), Imperialism in the Ancient World (1978), 223–54Google Scholar.; Picard, Civilisation, 12; Thébert, Y., ‘Romanisation et déromanisation. Histoire décolonisée ou histoire inversée’, AESC 33 (1978), 6482Google Scholar; Whittaker, C. R., Klio 60.2 (1978), 331–62Google Scholar.

56 Benabou, M., ‘L'Afrique et la culture romaine: le problème des survivances’, ACHM 2, 921Google Scholar; idem, ‘Les survivances pre-romaines en Afrique romain’, in Wells, Vanier, 13–27; Fentress, E., ‘La vendetta del Moro : recenti richerche sull'Africa romana’, Dialoghi di Archeologia ns 4.1 (1982), 107–13Google Scholar; Kotula, T., ‘Les Africains et la domination de Rome’, Dial. Hist. Anc. 2 (1976), 337–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Lamirande, E., ‘Nord-africains en quête de leur passé. Coup d'oeil sur la periode romaine et chrétienne’, Rev. de l'Univ. d'Ottawa 46 (1976), 523Google Scholar; Le Roux, P., ‘Pouvoir centrale et province’, REA 86 (1984), 3153CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Sheldon, R., ‘Romanizzazione, acculturazione e resistenza: problemi concettuali nella storia del Nordafrica’, Dialoghi di Archeologia ns 4.1 (1982), 102–6Google Scholar.

57 The three cornered debate between, Benabou, M., Leveau, P., and Thebert, Y., AESC 33 (1978), 6492Google Scholar, illustrates the dynamic possibilities; similarly the exchange of views between Fentress, E. and Shaw, B. D., Opus 2, 133"75Google Scholar.

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59 Laroui, op. cit. (n. 53), 41.

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133 Whittaker, op. cit. (n. 104), (1994), 192–278.

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139 Gascou, J., La politique municipale de l'Empire romain en Afrique Proconsulaire de Trajan é Septime Sévère (1972)Google Scholar; idem, ‘La politique municipale de Rome en Afrique du Nord (Parts 1 and 2)’, ANRW, II, Principat 10.2 (1982), 136–320; C. Lepelley, Les cités I.

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143 Jacques, F., La privilege de libertée. Politique impériale et autonomie municipale dans les cités de l'occident romain (161–244) (1984)Google Scholar; idem, ‘Les curateurs des cites africaines au IIIe siècle’, ANRW II, Principat 10.2 (1982), 62–135.

144 Torelli, M., QAL 6 (1971), 105–11Google Scholar. Investigations of the flaminate, both priests and priestesses, have drawn attention to its importance as an indicator of municipal families' wealth, status, and political loyalty to Rome, Pavis-D'Escurac, H., ‘Flaminat et société dans la colonie de Timgad’, Ant af 16 (1980), 183200CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

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148 Ferchiou, N., CHAAN 3 (1986), 351–65Google Scholar.

149 Goodchild, R. G., ‘Roman roads in Libya and their milestones’, in Gadallah, Libya in Hist, 155–72Google Scholar. Traces of roads were frequently mentioned in the reports of early explorers and antiquarians, as well in the notebooks and maps prepared by the ‘brigades topographiques’. However, this information has rarely found its way on to published maps of Roman Africa.

150 Barbery, J., ‘Précisions sur quelques itinéraires du reseau routier romain en Tunisie centrale et au Cap Bon’, CT 33 [131–132] (1985), 548Google Scholar; Barbery, J. and Delhoume, J.-P., ‘La voie romaine de piedmont Sufetula-Masclianae (Djebel Mrhila, Tunisie centrale)’, Ant af 18 (1982), 2743CrossRefGoogle Scholar; M'Charek, A., ‘Un itinéraire inédit dans la région de Maktar: tronçon de la voie Augustéene Carthage–Ammaedara’, BCTH ns 22 Afrique du Nord (19871989) [1992], 153–67Google Scholar.

151 Squarciapino, M. F., QAL II (1980), 113–18Google Scholar. See also Shaw, B. D., Bull de l'IFAN B 41.4 (1979), 663–72Google Scholar : ancient seasonal tracks through the chotts of southern Tunisia.

152 Trousset, P., Ant af 18 (1982), 4559CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

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154 Salama, P., Bornes milliares d'Afrique proconsulate. Un panorama historique du Bas-Empire romain (1987)Google Scholar. See also, idem, ‘Les voies romaines de Sitifis à Igiligili: un example de politique routière approfondie’, Ant af 16 (1980), 101–33; idem, ‘L'apport des inscriptions routières à l'histoire politique de l'Afrique romaine’, Af Rom III (1986), 219–31.

155 Peyras, J. and Trousset, P., ‘Le “lac Tritonis” et les noms antiques du Chott el Jerid’, Ant af 24 (1988), 149204CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Purcaro, V., ‘Le rotte antiche tra la Grecia e la Cirenaica e gli itinerari marittimi e terrestri lungo le coste Cirenaiche e della Grand e Sirte’, QAL 8 (1976), 285352Google Scholar.

156 The UNESCO Save Carthage Campaign is the most noteworthy example of this policy.

157 Af Rom x (1994), treated urbanization and urban studies as its major themes and contains many papers relevant to this section.

158 Summaries of the work of the various missions and other projects is conveniently found in Ennabli, A., Pour sauver Carthage. Exploration et conservation de la cité punique, romain et byzantine (1992)Google Scholar. See also Humphrey, J. H., ‘Bibliography of the international campaign to save Carthage’, in Pedley, J., New Light on Ancient Carthage (1980), 123–52Google Scholar. Some of the projects have set new standards for archaeological publication: Humphrey, J. H. (ed.), Excavations at Carthage 1975 conducted by the University of Michigan I [= Carthage 1] (1976), II [ = Carthage 2] (1978)Google Scholar; idem, Excavations at Carthage 1976 conducted by the University of Michigan III [ = Carthage 3] (1977), IV [ = Carthage 4] (1978); idem, Excavations at Carthage 1977 conducted by the University of Michigan v [ = Carthage 5] (1980), VI [= Carthage 6] (1981); idem, Excavations at Carthage 1978 conducted by the University of Michigan VII [ = Carthage 7] (1982); Hurst, H. R. and Roskams, S. P., Excavations at Carthage: the British Mission. The Avenue du President Habib Bourgiba, Salammbo, 1.1. The Site and Finds other than Pottery (1984)Google Scholar; Hurst, H. R., Excavations at Carthage. The British Mission. Volume II, 1. The Circular Harbour, North Side. The Site and Finds other than Pottery (1994)Google Scholar; Fulford, M. G. and Peacock, D. P. S., Excavations at Carthage: the British Mission. The Avenue du President Habib Bourgiba, Salammbo, 1.2. The Pottery and other Ceramic Objects from the Site (1984)Google Scholar; idem, Excavations at Carthage. The British Mission. Volume II, 2. The Circular Harbour, North Side. The Pottery (1994); Rakob, F., Karthago I (1991)Google Scholar; Senay, P. (ed.), Carthage I–Carthage v (CEA VI (1976)Google Scholar; IX (1978); X (1979); XII (1980); XIII (1981)) on the ‘monument circulaire’.

159 Ennabli, A. in BTINP 6 (1991), 2543Google Scholar.

160 The excavations have stimulated some new historical studies of Punic Carthage: Fantar, M., ‘Que savons nous des institutions municipales dans le monde de Carthage’, Reppal 4 (1988), 205–14Google Scholar; idem, Carthage. Approche d‘une civilisation, 2 vols (1993); Ferjaoui, A., Recherches sur les relations entre l'orient phénicien et Carthage (1993)Google Scholar; Moscati, S., Carthage. Art et civilisation (1983)Google Scholar; Tlatli, S. E., La Carthage Punique (1978)Google Scholar. We still lack, however, a new historical synthesis of Roman Carthage.

161 Ennabli, op. cit. (n. 158), 29–94 for a succinct summary of the major Punic excavations; S. Lancel (ed.), Byrsa I, Rapports préliminaires sur les fouilles 1974–76 (1978) = Byrsa I; idem, Byrsa II, Rapports préliminaires sur les fouilles 1977–78, (1982) = Byrsa II; idem, La colline de Byrsa à l'époque punique (1983); idem, ‘Problèmes d'urbanisme de la Carthage punique à la lumière des fouilles anciennes et recentes’, CHAAN 4. 1 (1990), 9–30; idem, Carthage (1992 French, 1994 English); S. Lancel et al., ‘Town planning and domestic architecture of the early second century BC on the Byrsa, Carthage’, in Pedley, op. cit. (n. 158), 13–27; Lipinski, E. (ed.), Studia Phoenicia VI, Carthago. Acta Colloqui Bruxellensis (1988)Google Scholar; Niemeyer, H. G., ‘A la recherche de la Carthage archaique: premiers résultats des fouilles de l'université de Hambourg en 1986 et 1987’, CHAAN 4.1 (1990), 4552Google Scholar; Rakob, F., ‘La Carthage archaique’, CHAAN 4.1 (1990), 3143Google Scholar; idem, Karthago I. Die Deutschen Augrabungen in Karthago, 2 vols (1991); L. Stager, ‘The rise of child sacrifice at Carthage’, in Pedley, op. cit. (n. 158), 1–11.

162 H. G. Niemeyer in Ennabli, op. cit. (n.158), 38–41.

163 Benichou-Safar, H., Les tombes puniques de Carthage. Topographie, structures, inscriptions et rites funéraires (1982)Google Scholar.

164 Brown, S., Late Carthaginian Child Sacrifice and Sacrificial Monuments (1991)Google Scholar; Hurst, H., JRA 7 (1994), 325–8Google Scholar; Stager, op. cit. (n. 161); idem in Ennabli, op. cit. (n. 158), 72–8.

165 Rakob, F., Mitteilungen 91 (1984), 122Google Scholar; idem, Karthago 1; Hurst, H., Paskoff, R. and Rakob, F., CRAS 300.13 (1985), 613–18Google Scholar.

166 Rakob, F., CHAAN 4.1 (1990), 3143Google Scholar; idem in Ennabli, op. cit. (n. 158), 29–37.

167 H. R. Hurst, Excavations at Carthage. II,1. We wish to thank Henry Hurst for making the monograph available to us prior to publication.

168 For an Updated discussion and bibliography on the channel see now Hurst, op. cit. (n. 167), 44–7.

169 S. Lancel and J.-P. Morel in Ennabli, op. cit. (n. 158), 43–68.

170 Rakob, F., MDAI 98 (1991), 3380Google Scholar.

171 Hurst, op. cit. (n. 167), 39–48, the Circular Harbour is estimated to have had docks for up to 190 ships, a bit below the figure of Appian (Libyca XCVI), but close enough to be compensated for by other factors. For earlier discussions of the site see Hurst, H., Ant J 55 (1975), 1140CrossRefGoogle Scholar; 56 (1976), 177–97; 57 (1977). 232–61; 59 (1980), 19–49; idem, Studi Fenici 2 (1985), 603–10; idem in Ennabli, op. cit. (n. 158), 80–5.

172 This is an extraordinary observation, for if upheld by future work, it suggests that Rome condoned either through design or disinterest the rearmament and military renewal of her old enemy. Th e completion of such a scheme would undoubtedly have provided the Senate, Cato's rhetoric in support, with the necessary ammunition to justify a war of extermination against its African nemesis.

173 The massive and widespread layer of Punic destruction debris (or ‘PDD’ as it has come to be euphemistically referred to) testifies to both the thoroughness of the city's destruction at the hands of the Romans and the subsequent levelling in the Augustan period. See also P. Gros, ‘Le premier urbanisme de la colonia Julia Carthago. Mythes et réaltiés d'une fondation césaro-augustéene’, Afrique Occ Romain (1990), 547–73.

174 The discussion that follows focuses on Roman remains, the work on Carthage in the Vandal and Byzantine periods is covered in the section, ‘Late Antique Africa’.

175 L. Anselmino in Ennabli, op. cit. (n. 158), 125–9; Carandini, al., ‘Gli scavi Italiani a Cartagine: rapporto preliminare delle campagne 1973–1977’, QAL 13 (1983), 761Google Scholar, C. M. Wells in Ennabli, op. cit., 115–23; M. Garrison and S. Stevens in Ennabli, op. cit., 131–4.

176 Martin-Kilcher, S., ‘Amphoren der Spaten republik und der Fruhen Kaiserzeit in Karthago. Zu den Lebensmittelimporten der Colonia Iulia Concordia’, MDAI 100 (1993), 269320Google Scholar.

177 F. Rakob in Ennabli, op. cit. (n. 158), 29–37.

178 Deneauve, J., CHAAN 4.1 (1990), 143–55Google Scholar; Gros, P. (ed.), Byrsa III, Rapport sur les campagnes de fouille de 1977 à 1980. La basilique orientale et ses abords (1987)Google Scholar; idem, in Ennabli, op. cit. (n. 158), 99.

179 Rakob, , MDAI 97 (1991), 3380Google Scholar; idem, CEDAC 12 (1991), 7–12; idem, Antike Welt 23 (1992), 159–74.

180 Hurst, op.cit. (n. 167), 109–10.

181 idem, 64–70.

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184 A new archaeological investigation of the odeon is being undertaken by C. M. Wells.

185 Verité, J., CEDAC 10 (1989), 41–8Google Scholar.

186 S. Ellis in Ennabli, op. cit. (n. 158), 191–3; Humphrey, , Carthage 1–7 (19761982)Google Scholar; Hurst and Roskams, Excavations at Carthage, 1.1 (1984); Hurst, Excavations at Carthage, II, 1 (1994); C.-G. Styrenius and B. Sander in Ennabli, op. cit. (n. 158), 151–4. Wells, C. M., ‘Canadian excavations at Carthage’, Echos du Monde Classique 21 (1977), 1522Google Scholar; 22 (1978), 7–12; 25 (1981), 1–10; ns 1 (1982), 206–13; idem, ‘Carthage the later Roman defences’, Limes 12 (1980), 9991004Google Scholar; Wells, C. M. and Wightman, E., Echos du Monde Classique 23 (1979), 1418Google Scholar; 24 (1980), 11–18; idem, JFA 7 (1980), 4363Google Scholar.

187 For evidence of a major extension of the inhabited area of Carthage in the third century, see L. Anselmino in Ennabli, op.cit. (n. 158), 125–9; L. Neuru, ibid., 135–42; C. M. Wells, ibid., 115–23; Wells, al., Echos du Monde Classique 32 (1988), 195210Google Scholar.

188 Benseddik, N. and Potter, T. W., Fouilles du forum de Cherchel 1977–1981, Supp. BAA 6, 2 vols (1993)Google Scholar, a very important excavation and a model report, hereafter Benseddik and Potter, Cherchel; Lloyd, J. A. (ed.), Excavations at Sidi Khrebish, Benghazi (Berenice) I, LA Supp. 5.1 (1977)Google Scholar, hereafter, Lloyd, Sidi Khrebish I; Mohamedi, al., Fouilles de Sétif 1977–1984, Supp. BAA 5 (1991)Google Scholar, hereafter, Mohamedi et al., Sétif.

189 Hassen, H. Ben, ‘Uthina, une colonie romaine oubliée’, Archéologia 30.3 (1994), 22–9Google Scholar; Ruggeri, P. and Zucca, R., Af Rom x (1994), 645–71Google Scholar (Uchi Maius).

190 Ben Lazreg and Mattingly, Leptiminus, 89–114 (survey); E. Lenoir presented a paper at ‘L'Africa Romana’ XI on a superb geophysical survey of the periphery of Banasa in Mauretania.

191 See below nn. 218–19.

192 H. Broise and Y. Thébert, Recherches archéologiques franco-tunisiennes à Bulla Regia II. 1, les architectures, les thermes memmiens: étude architecturale et histoire urbaine (1993); Mohamedi et al., Sétif (1991); Les Thermes mmains. Actes de la Table Ronde organisée par l'Ecole Française de Rome (1991).

193 Caputo, G., Il teatro augusteo di Leptis Magna (1987)Google Scholar; Golvin, J.-C., L'Amphithéâtre remain. Essai sur la théorisation de sa forme et de ses fonctions (1988)Google Scholar; Lachaux, J.-Cl., Théâtres et amphithéâtres d'Afrique Proconsulaire (1979)Google Scholar; Lequement, R., Fouilles à l'amphithéâtre de Tebessa (1979)Google Scholar; Mahgiub, al., ‘Nuove ricerche nell'anfiteatro di Leptis Magna’, LA 13–14 (1977), 2136Google Scholar; Slim, H., ‘Recherches préliminaires sur les amphithéâtres romains en Tunisie’, Af Rom 1 (1984), 129–65Google Scholar; idem, ‘Les amphithéâtres d'el-Jem’, CRAI 1986, 440–69; idem, ‘La sauvegarde et la mise en valeur du grand amphithéâtre d'El-Jem’, Africa x (1988), 325–58.

194 Humphrey, J. H., Roman Circuses. Arenas for Chariot Racing (1986)Google Scholar, found at provincial capitals, but also in smaller communities.

195 See, inter alia, Caputo, G. and Ghedini, F., Il tempio d'Ercole di Sabratha (1984)Google Scholar; Joly, E. and Tomasello, F., Il tempio a divinità ignota di Sabratha (1984)Google Scholar; Morestin, H., Le Temple B de Volubilis (1980)Google Scholar.

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197 Rakob, F., ‘Römische Architektor in Nordafrika. Bautechnik und Bautradition’, 150 Jahr-Feier (1982), 107–15Google Scholar; Ferchiou, op. cit. (n. 218 below); Wilson, R. J. A., ‘Terracotta vaulting tubes (tubi fittili): on their origin and distribution’, JRA 5 (1992), 97129Google Scholar.

198 Pride of place must go to CMT = Corpus des Mosaiques de la Tunisie, useful as much for its fine town and house plans as for the study of individual pavements. Volumes as follows: CMT 1.1 = Alexander, M. al., Utique, Insulae I–III (1973)Google Scholar; CMT 1.2 = Duliere, al., Utique, les mosaiques in situ en dehors des insulae I–II–II (1974)Google Scholar; CMT 1.3 = Alexander, M. al., Utique, les mosaiques sans localisation precise et El Alia (1976)Google Scholar; CMT 11.1 = Alexander, M. al., Thuburbo Maius, les mosaiques de la région du forum (1980)Google Scholar; CMT 11.2 = Abed, A. Benet al., Thuburbo Maius, les mosaiques de la région des grands termes (1985)Google Scholar; CMT 11.3 = Abed, A. Ben, Thuburbo Maius, les mosaics dans la région ouest (1987)Google Scholar.

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228 See Morris, I., Death-Ritual and Social Structure in Classical Antiquity (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar, for some new theoretical and historical approaches; cf. n. 419 below for African stele.

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230 Most applicable in the context of the long-term capitals, such as Caesarea and Carthage.

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236 F. Rakob et al., Simitthus I (1994), here the association with the marble quarry appears stronger than the character of the site as a new foundation.

237 See below, n. 239; for a particular administrative category see, Rebuffat, R., ‘Castellum’, Encyclopédie Berbère 12 (1993), 1822–33Google Scholar.

238 Both processes are well-attested in Roman Britain for example, Webster, G. (ed.), Fortress into City (1988)Google Scholar.

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386 Note the 1,131 coins from the rural site of Nador include only thirteen Roman issues attributable to the fifth century and of these at least five are imitations, P. Salama, in L. Anselmino et al., Nador (1989), 95–6.

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392 Guery et al., op. cit. (n. 377).

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394 E. Fentress, ‘The economy of an inland city: Sétif, Afrique Occ Romain, 117–28; Ørsted, et al., JRA 5 (1992), 84–92, 95–6Google Scholar.

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452 The Vandals actively discouraged the political development of non-Arian bishops in African towns, see Durliat, J., in 16. Internationaler Byzantinischenkongress, Akten II, 2, Jahrbuch des osterreichischen Byzantinistik 32 (1983), 75–6Google Scholar; idem, CHAAN 2 (1985), 377–86.

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