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The First Cold War Liberal? Paul V. McNutt and the Idea of Security from the 1920s to the 1940s

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 December 2011

Dean J. Kotlowski*
Affiliation:
Salisbury University

Abstract

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Copyright © Donald Critchlow and Cambridge University Press 2011

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References

NOTES

1. The only published biography of McNutt is George Blake, I., Paul V. McNutt: Portrait of a Hoosier Statesman (Indianapolis, 1966).Google Scholar For aspects of McNutt’s career, see Clark, Thomas D., Indiana University: Midwestern Pioneer, vol. 2, In Mid-Passage (Bloomington, 1973), 318–21Google Scholar; Cullather, Nick, Illusions of Influence: The Political Economy of United States–Philippine Relations, 1942–1960 (Stanford, 1994), 33–40, 44–64Google Scholar; Gleeck, Lewis E. Jr., The American Governors-General and High Commissioners to the Philippines: Proconsuls, Nation-Builders, and Politicians (Quezon City, 1986), 319–40Google Scholar; Gleeck, Lewis E. Jr., Dissolving the Colonial Bond: American Ambassadors to the Philippines, 1946–1984 (Quezon City, 1988), 9–30Google Scholar; Flynn, George Q., The Mess in Washington: Manpower Mobilization in World War II (Westport, Conn., 1979)Google Scholar; Jessup, Benjamin L., “The Career of Paul V. McNutt” (Ph.D. diss., Kent State University, 1995)Google Scholar; Mamot, Patricio R., “Paul V. McNutt: His Role in the Birth of Philippine Independence” (Ph.D. diss., Ball State University, 1974)Google Scholar; Morgan, Iwan, “Factional Conflict in Indiana Politics During the Later New Deal Years, 1936–1940,” Indiana Magazine of History 79 (March 1983): 29–60Google Scholar; Neff, Robert R., “The Early Career and Governorship of Paul V. McNutt” (Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 1963)Google Scholar; Patterson, James T., The New Deal and the States: Federalism in Transition (Princeton, 1969)Google Scholar; Purvis, Larry D., “‘Loyalty to the Chief’: The 1940 Presidential Campaign of Paul V. McNutt and Its Potential for Success,” M.A. thesis, Butler University, 1989)Google Scholar; Wheeler, Jerry L., “Fish, Pheasants, and Politics: Paul McNutt and the Popularization of Conservation in 1930s Indiana” (M.A. thesis, Indiana University—Purdue University at Indianapolis, 2002).Google Scholar

2. Madison, James H., Indiana Through Tradition and Change: A History of the Hoosier State and Its People, 1920–1945 (Indianapolis, 1982), 415Google Scholar; Gould, Lewis L., “Paul Vories McNutt,” Dictionary of American Biography, Supplement Five 1951–1955, ed. Garraty, John A. (New York, 1977), 460 (quotation).Google Scholar

3. Hogan, Michael J., A Cross of Iron: Harry S. Truman and the Origins of the National Security State, 1945–1954 (Cambridge, 1998), 8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

4. For the movement toward rights-based liberalism, see Gerstle, Gary, “The Protean Character of American Liberalism,” American Historical Review 99, no. 4 (1994): 1070–72.Google Scholar The literature on American liberalism is immense and would require a historiographical essay to cover. They are many works, though, that stress a shift in liberalism from the 1930s to the 1960s. For the shift from a “quantitative liberalism,” which had tried to provide the greatest good to the greatest number during the 1930s, to a “qualitative liberalism,” which sought to improve the quality of peoples’ lives in the 1960s, see Matusow, Allen J., The Unraveling of America: A History of Liberalism in the 1960s (New York, 1984), 8.Google Scholar For the transition to a liberalism based on class (in the 1930s) to one based on identity politics (in the 1960s), see Burner, David, Making Peace with the 60s (Princeton, 1996), 220–21.Google Scholar

5. Kennedy, David M., Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929–1945 (New York, 1999), 365.Google Scholar

6. Hamby, Alonzo L., Liberalism and Its Challengers: From F.D.R. to Bush, 2nd ed. (New York, 1992), vii.Google Scholar

7. Hogan, Cross of Iron, 3.

8. For the friendship between Eisenhower and McNutt, see Mamie Doud Eisenhower to Mr. and Mrs. John Doud, 7 May 1937, box 2, Barbara Eisenhower Papers, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library (DDEL), Abilene, Kansas; McNutt and Eisenhower played golf together. See Leo M. Gardner to Dwight D. Eisenhower, 6 September 1957, folder: OF 212 Philippines (4), box 885, Official File, White House Central Files, Eisenhower Papers, DDEL. As Michael Hogan has pointed out, the chief dissenters, in national politics, from the security-centered postwar consensus was the right wing of the Republican Party—leaders, such as Senator Robert A. Taft of Ohio, who were staunch opponents of the New Deal at home, isolationist with respect to foreign policy, and critics of the so-called garrison state that seemed to be emerging in the United States following World War II. Hogan, Cross of Iron, 5–21, 70.

9. Messer, Robert L., “James Francis “Jimmy” Byrnes,” in Franklin D. Roosevelt: His Life and Times—An Encyclopedic View (Boston, 1985), 46–48Google Scholar; Robertson, David, Sly and Able: A Political Biography of James F. Byrnes (New York, 1994), xi–xii.Google Scholar

10. For biographies of these figures, see Culver, John C. and Hyde, John, American Dreamer: A Life of Henry Wallace (New York, 2000)Google Scholar; Watkins, T. H., Righteous Pilgrim: The Life and Times of Harold L. Ickes, 1874–1952 (New York, 1990)Google Scholar; Martin, George, Madam Secretary: Frances Perkins (Boston, 1976)Google Scholar; Downey, Kristen, The Woman Behind the New Deal: The Life and Legacy of Frances Perkins—Social Security, Unemployment Insurance, and the Minimum Wage (New York, 2010)Google Scholar; McJimsey, George, Harry Hopkins: Ally of the Poor, Defender of Democracy (Cambridge, Mass., 1987)Google Scholar; and Fine, Sidney, Frank Murphy: The Detroit Years (Ann Arbor, 1975)Google Scholar, and Frank Murphy: The New Deal Years (Chicago, 1979). Another collective study of New Dealers reveals again that there was no one with the same variety of experiences as McNutt. See Schwarz, Jordan A., The New Dealer: Power Politics in the Age of Roosevelt (New York, 1993).Google Scholar

11. Leffler, Melvyn P., A Preponderance of Power (Stanford, 1992), 19.Google Scholar

12. Hamby, Alonzo L., Man of the People: A Life of Harry S. Truman (New York, 1995), 314.Google Scholar

13. Bell, Jonathan, The Liberal State on Trial: The Cold War and American Politics in the Truman Years (New York, 2004), 269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

14. Ibid., 257.

15. Borgwardt, Elizabeth, A New Deal for the World: America’s Vision for Human Rights (Cambridge, Mass., 2005), 280–81 (all quotations).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

16. Mattson, Kevin, When America Was Great: The Fighting Faith of Postwar Liberalism (New York, 2004), 25 (first quotation) and 180 (second quotation).Google Scholar

17. Brinkley, Alan, The End of Reform: New Deal Liberalism in Recession and War (New York, 1995), 4.Google Scholar

18. See, for example, McNutt’s editorials and a brief story, “Brown County Gold, That’s All,” in The Nuisance, Morgan County Public Library, Martinsville, Indiana. These writings display little interest in the socioeconomic problems and class iniquities of the early twentieth century. At Indiana University, McNutt edited the student paper and was president of the Student Union, but one finds little commitment to the causes of Progressivism. He did urge the president of the university to invite Governor Woodrow Wilson to speak at campus, but that could have been because Wilson was, like McNutt, a Democrat. McNutt, interestingly, simply characterized Wilson as a man of “national reputation.” See McNutt to William Lowe Bryan, 1 August 1910, folder: McNutt, Paul V. 1910, William Lowe Bryan Papers, Indiana University (IU) Archives, Bloomington.

19. “Flying Fists Won Respect for M’Nutt,” Indianapolis Times, 15 May 1933, 3.

20. Blake, Paul V. McNutt, 1–8; “War Brings Bride and Laurels to M’Nutt,” Indianapolis Times, 17 May 1933, 5.

21. Clark, Indiana University, 2:201; Neff, “The Early Career and Governorship of Paul V. McNutt,” 23; “Paul Vories McNutt, National Commander, October 11, 1928–October 2, 1929,” fiche 2, Department of Indiana, Biographical Files—Paul V. McNutt, National Headquarters of the American Legion Library, Indianapolis.

22. Paul V. McNutt, Speech to the War Mothers of Monroe County, 1923, box 14, Paul V. McNutt Papers, Lilly Library (LL), Indiana University (IU), Bloomington.

23. With respect to government propaganda, The U.S. government’s Committee on Public Information (CPI) accused Germany of rank depravity. See Kennedy, David M., Over Here: The First World War and American Society (New York, 1980), 62.Google Scholar McNutt, who never saw combat—and all its horrors—no doubt was itching to shoot at Germans. “He had visions of the Argonne, Chateau Thierry and newer fronts,” a reporter once noted of McNutt. “War Brings Bride and Laurels to M’Nutt,” Indianapolis Times, 17 May 1933, 5. In one area—fighting venereal disease—McNutt seemed to absorb military propaganda. The army enlisted the Commission on Training Camp Activities (CTCA), a private umbrella organization, to promote sexual purity (See Kennedy, Over Here, 186). The commission, among other things, parroted conventional thoughts about the virtues of abstinence as a way for men to keep their “bodies clean” and “hearts pure.” See Bristow, Nancy K., Making Men Moral: Social Engineering During the Great War (New York, 1996), 20.Google Scholar Speaking before a church group in his hometown of Martinsville, McNutt related that at one training camp more than half of the recruits were physically unfit because, as he euphemistically put it, they had not taken care of the “masterpiece entrusted to them by their Maker,” meaning their body. That McNutt was referring to venereal disease there is no doubt, for he cited “army regulations” that helped men to guard “against evil in all its forms” and praised the YMCA “for the noble work it has done, is doing and will continue to do” in this area. News clipping, n.d., Ruth Neely McNutt Remembrance Book (compiled by Grace Woody), John L. Krauss Collection (private), Indianapolis.

24. Kennedy, Over Here, 180.

25. Greiner, Bernd, “‘The Study of the Distant Future’: American Reflections on New Military Frontiers,” in The Shadows of Total War: Europe, East Asia, and the United States, 1919–1939, ed. Chickering, Roger and Forster, Stig (New York, 2003), 240.Google Scholar

26. Paul V. McNutt undated speech beginning “The matter of these lines concerns you,” folder: Speeches, n.d., box 24, McNutt Papers, LL.

27. Ibid.

28. Paul V. McNutt address on “Service and Sacrifice,” n.d., folder: Speeches n.d., box 24, McNutt Papers, LL.

29. Gerstle, “The Protean Character of American Liberalism,” 1058.

30. McNutt to Louis Plost, 11 January 1926, folder: McNutt Miscellaneous, box 2, Paul V. McNutt Papers—Dean’s Files, Indiana University School of Law Library, Bloomington.

31. McNutt to A. C. Sandeford, 7 April 1921, box 1, McNutt Papers, LL.

32. Von Blon, Philip, “The Hoosier Schoolmaster,” American Legion Monthly (January 1929): 48.Google Scholar

33. McNutt, “Squared Shoulders vs. Skulking Feet: A Contrast that Answers Opponents of Military Training,” n.d., folder: Speeches, n.d., box 24, McNutt Papers, LL (all quotations).

34. “We shall not lack for Pep if you are here to deliver the Punch,” a leader in Indiana’s Reserve Officers Association wrote McNutt. See George W. Lee to McNutt, 5 March 1924, box 1, McNutt Papers, LL. An undergraduate at IU during the 1920s remembered McNutt as a “marvelous” speaker who could “move a crowd.” Edith Schuman Tackitt interview with the author, 29 June 2006, Bloomington. A Bloomington resident recalled a McNutt speech as being “clear, forceful, and convincing, and yet so simple and direct that all could understand.” William F. Book to McNutt, 4 November 1930, box 6, McNutt Papers, LL. Allen Drury, a Senate aide and later a novelist, heard McNutt speak in 1944 and described him as “the sort of speaker who swoops down on his sentences, lowering his head on the first half and then giving ‘em the old chin on the second half.” Drury, Allen, A Senate Journal, 1943–1945 (New York, 1963), 189.Google Scholar

35. “Shy” and possessing “something of an inferiority complex”—characterizations of the mature McNutt by a member of FDR’s inner circle—would have described him as a boy. Harold Smith to Franklin D. Roosevelt, 23 November 1942, folder: War Manpower Commission November–December 1942, box 2, Official File (OF) 4905, Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) Papers, Franklin D. Roosevelt Library (FDRL), Hyde Park, New York.

36. Paul’s father had moved his family from Indianapolis to Martinsville in 1900, when Paul was nine years old. As an outsider, Paul experienced a jarring baptism into Martinsville’s schools. His mother dressed her son in the latest fashion for aristocratic young men, as a Little Lord Fauntleroy. The attire, and the pretense it signified, provoked Paul’s male schoolmates into dunking him into a creek. See Alva Johnston, “I Intend to Be President,” Saturday Evening Post, 16 March 1940, 21; “Indiana’s McNutt—As They Know Him,” Louisville Courier-Journal, n.d., folder: 1939 October–December Newspaper Clippings, box 26, McNutt Papers, LL; “Flying Fists Won Respect for M’Nutt,” Indianapolis Times, 15 May 1933, 3. Court Asher, a schoolmate from a poor family, remembered of McNutt: “We use[d] to rock him home from school ever’ noon.” John Bartlow Martin, “Indiana: An Interpretation,” draft manuscript, folder: Indiana Manuscript Drafts Revised Draft (Chapter 15), box 237, John Bartlow Martin Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (LC), Washington, D.C. A law partner, John Hurt, also noticed “a lot of jealousy among the old-line families” of Martinsville toward John McNutt. See John E. Hurt Oral History, 23 September 1985, 15, Center for the Study of History and Memory (CSHM), Indiana University, Bloomington.

37. Such thinking about service may have originated with Paul’s mother, Ruth, who, although she was the family disciplinarian, had a habit of seeing, at Christmastime, the capacity of people to be generous and serve one another. Ruth Neely McNutt Remembrance Book Prepared by Grace Woody, Krauss Collection.

38. McNutt, “Service and Sacrifice,” n.d., folder: Speeches, n.d., box 24, McNutt Papers, LL.

39. McNutt, “Squared Shoulders vs. Skulking Feet: A Contrast that Answers Opponents of Military Training,” n.d., folder: Speeches, n.d., box 24, McNutt Papers, LL.

40. Peckham, Howard H., Indiana: A History (Urbana, Ill., 2003), 143.Google Scholar

41. Paul V. McNutt, “Speech Delivered at the Twelfth International Convention of Lion’s Clubs, Des Moines, Iowa,” 12 July 1928, box 14, McNutt Papers, LL.

42. Ferrell, Robert H., Peace in Their Time: The Origins of the Kellogg-Briand Pact (New York, 1969), 13–14.Google Scholar

43. Ibid., 26.

44. David Johnson, Robert, The Peace Progressives and American Foreign Relations (Cambridge, Mass., 1995), 204–6, 217, and 200 (quotation).Google Scholar

45. Johnson, The Peace Progressives and American Foreign Relations, 216.

46. Ferrell, Peace in Their Time, 28.

47. Johnson, The Peace Progressives and American Foreign Relations, 216.

48. Frederick J. Libby Diary, 3 March 1926, box 3, Frederick J. Libby Papers, LC.

49. McNutt to Frank H. Streightoff, 9 March 1926, box 2, McNutt Papers, LL.

50. McNutt to Fred R. Marvin, 19 March 1926, box 2, McNutt Papers, LL.

51. “M’Nutt Defends Plan for Military Training,” Indianapolis News, 30 September 1926, box 25, McNutt Papers, LL.

52. McNutt to Robert Adams, 5 March 1926, box 2, McNutt Papers, LL.

53. McNutt to Francis Ralston Welsh, 19 March 1926, box 2, McNutt Papers, LL.

54. Editorial, “Our Legion Commander,” Kokomo (Indiana) Dispatch, 3 December 1926, folder: 1926 Newspaper Clippings, box 25, McNutt Papers, LL.

55. McNutt to J. Frank Lindsey, 27 November 1929, box 5, McNutt Papers, LL.

56. Paul V. McNutt, “Speech Delivered Before the Annual Convention, Department of Minnesota, American Legion,” 8 August 1927, box 14, McNutt Papers, LL.

57. Paul V. McNutt, Speech at Purdue University, 11 November 1925, box 14, McNutt Papers, LL.

58. “Legion Head Urges Cruiser Bill,” New York Sun, 25 January 1929, folder: 1929 Newspaper Clippings, box 25, McNutt Papers, LL.

59. McNutt to W. J. Patterson, 17 November 1928, box 4, McNutt Papers, LL.

60. McNutt to Lindsey, 7 October 1926, box 2, McNutt Papers, LL.

61. He apparently told Esther Everett Lape, a confederate of Eleanor Roosevelt’s and the head of the American Foundation, which was devoted to American membership in the World Court, that the “question of American adherence to the World Court is not—or at least should not be made—a political question.” See Lape to McNutt, 8 January 1927, folder: American Foundation, box 3A, McNutt Papers—Dean’s Files, IU School of Law Library.

62. McNutt to Lindsey, 27 November 1929, box 5, McNutt Papers, LL.

63. McNutt to Newman T. Miller, 2 November 1928, box 4, McNutt Papers, LL.

64. “Draft Capital, Urges M’Nutt,” Detroit News, 15 December 1929, folder: 1929 Newspaper Clippings, box 25, McNutt Papers, LL.

65. Paul V. McNutt Address on “A Citizenship Program,” 12 July 1928, box 14, McNutt Papers, LL.

66. “Legion Head Urges Cruiser Bill Vote,” New York Sun clipping, n.d. [January 1929], folder: 1929 Newspaper Clippings, box 25, McNutt Papers, LL.

67. “Legion Protests Cruiser Stoppage,” New York Times clipping, n.d. [July 1929], folder: 1929 Newspaper Clippings, box 25, McNutt Papers, LL.

68. Herbert Hoover to McNutt, July 30, 1929, box 5, McNutt Papers, LL.

69. Fanning, Richard W., Peace and Disarmament: Naval Rivalry and Arms Control, 1922–1933 (Lexington, Ky., 1995), 97.Google Scholar

70. Ibid., 103–4.

71. Ferrell, Robert H., American Diplomacy in the Great Depression: Hoover-Stimson Foreign Policy (New York, 1957), 69.Google Scholar

72. Paul V. McNutt address on “The American Legion and National Defense” at Bloomington, n.d., folder: Speeches n.d., box 23, McNutt Papers, LL.

73. See Pencak, William, For God and Country: The American Legion, 1919–1941 (Boston, 1989), 176.Google Scholar

74. McNutt to Comrades, 22 June 1929, “Disabled Veterans of World War Non-Compensated,” Subject File, American Legion Library, Indianapolis.

75. McNutt was the grandson of a Civil War soldier whose family had struggled, unsuccessfully, as it turned out, to have his annual veteran’s pension increased. Ralph W. Moss to John C. McNutt, 9 and 17 January 1911; Jacob M. Neely, “Claim for Increase of Pension Under the General Law,” 10 March 1911; General Affidavit, 2 January 1911; William A. Cullop to Jacob M. Neely, 11 and 12 December 1911; Commissioner of Pensions to Neely, 18 November 1913—all in box 1, Neely Family Papers, LL.

76. Paul V. McNutt, “Merry Christmas, Buddy!” fiche 1, Department of Indiana, Biographical Files—Paul V. McNutt, American Legion Library.

77. News clipping, “Western New York Legion Men Greet Their U.S. Leader,” 16 February 1929, fiche 1, Department of Indiana, Biographical Files—Paul V. McNutt, American Legion Library (quotation). While in Arizona, McNutt caught his first glimpse of the Grand Canyon and wrote that it reminded him that Arizona was a “front line trench” in the battle to help “disabled comrades.” Paul V. McNutt, “A Legionnaire’s Impressions of Arizona,” Westward Ho Magazine, July 1929, fiche 1, Department of Indiana, Biographical Files—Paul V. McNutt, American Legion Library.

78. Albert J. Stader to McNutt, 30 January 1930, box 5, McNutt Papers, LL.

79. Dickson, Paul and Allen, Thomas B., The Bonus Army: An American Epic (New York, 2004), 25–30Google Scholar; Littlewood, Thomas B., Soldiers Back Home: The American Legion in Illinois, 1919–1939 (Carbondale, Ill., 2004), 106.Google Scholar

80. Dickson and Allen, The Bonus Army, 2004.

81. Ortiz, Stephen R., Beyond the Bonus March and the GI Bill: How Veteran Politics Shaped the New Deal Era (New York, 2010), 5.Google Scholar

82. “The Soldier’s Bonus,” n.d., folder: n.d. Miscellaneous I, box 12, McNutt Papers, LL.

83. Pencak, For God and Country, 176.

84. Skocpol, Theda, Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States (Cambridge, Mass., 1992), 151.Google Scholar

85. Littlewood, Soldiers Back Home, 106.

86. Ortiz, Beyond the Bonus March and the GI Bill, 6.

87. McNutt, for example, wanted the Legion to “confine” itself to matters affecting veterans of the Great War and their families and to avoid such “controversial” issues as establishing a cabinet-level department of education or passing a constitutional amendment to abolish child labor. McNutt to E. M. Blessing, 22 October 1929, box 5, McNutt Papers, LL.

88. “The American Legion, Department of Massachusetts, Address by Paul V. McNutt,” 19 January 1929, box 14, McNutt Papers, LL.

89. McNutt to Fellow Legionnaires, n.d., folder: 1941 January–September, box 10, McNutt Papers, LL.

90. “Democratic Campaign Opened by Radio Tuesday,” Martinsville (Indiana) Democrat, 30 September 1932, 1.

91. Madison, Indiana Through Tradition and Change, 82–83; Pritchell, Robert J., ed., Indiana Votes: Election Returns for Governor, 1852–1956, and Senator, 1914–1958 (Bloomington, 1960), 49.Google Scholar

92. Inaugural Address of Governor Paul V. McNutt of Indiana, 9 January 1933, box 14, McNutt Papers, LL.

93. A Republican paper commented on this side of McNutt. See “M’Nutt Campus Days Recalled,” Indianapolis Star, 8 January 1933, pt. 1, p. 8.

94. Zink, Harold, “Paul V. McNutt,” in The American Politician, ed. Salter, J. T. (Chapel Hill, 1938), 62–76.Google Scholar

95. “McNutt Relief Plan Follows That of Leslie,” Indianapolis Times, 4 February 1933, 3.

96. Lee G. Lauck to Mr. Gill, 10 August 1933, box 91, Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) State Series, Records of the Work Projects Administration, Record Group (RG) 69, National Archives at College Park (NACP), Maryland.

97. “Financing Public Employment Relief in Indiana,” n.d., folder: Indiana Field Reports, box 57, Harry Hopkins Papers, FDRL.

98. Kennedy, Freedom from Fear, 171 (both quotations).

99. Madison, Indiana Through Tradition and Change, 109.

100. Howard O. Hunter to Harry Hopkins, 19 January 1934, folder: Indiana Field Reports, box 57, Hopkins Papers, FDRL.

101. Kennedy, Freedom from Fear, 176. In Indiana, the CWA and Governor’s Commission on Unemployment Relief shared the same staff. See Neff, “The Early Career and Governorship of Paul V. McNutt,” 260.

102. Hunter to Hopkins, 18 November 1933, folder: Indiana Field Reports, box 57, Hopkins Papers, FDRL.

103. Hunter to Hopkins, 18 November 1933 and Hunter to Hopkins n.d., folder: Indiana Field Reports, box 57, Hopkins Papers, FDRL.

104. Indeed, when a reporter asked about his “aim” for Hoosiers, McNutt replied: “To save them money”—a position not exactly at variance with his party’s traditions and FDR’s own budget-balancing ideals (if not the realities of Roosevelt’s fiscal record). “McNutt Grips State Helm with Iron Hand,” Indianapolis Times, 20 May 1933, 3.

105. “New Poor Relief Plan in Indiana,” 1 April 1934, folder: Fred Hoke Radio Broadcasts, box A7135, Paul V. McNutt Papers, Indiana State Archives (ISA), Indianapolis.

106. Brinkley, End of Reform, 7.

107. During the election of 1936, in which he campaigned for FDR’s reelection but was forbidden by law from seeking reelection as governor of Indiana, McNutt hailed the Democracy as the nation’s “liberal” party for placing “human rights above property rights.” In Indiana, he emphasized his record—a budget surplus and greater expenditures on schools made possible by a gross income tax; old-age pensions; and relief—and warned that Republican pledges to “cut costs” would take from students, old folks, and the poor what the Democratic administration “is now giving” them. “M’Nutt Scores G.O.P. Claims,” Indianapolis Star, 30 September 1936, 7.

108. Address of Paul V. McNutt in French Lick, Indiana, 29 August 1936, box 16, McNutt Papers, LL.

109. “New Poor Relief Plan in Indiana,” 1 April 1934, folder: Fred Hoke Radio Broadcasts, box A7135, Paul V. McNutt Papers, ISA.

110. Paul V. McNutt handwritten note to Raymond Moley, n.d. [December 1934], folder 861, box 83, McNutt Papers, ISA.

111. “Address of Paul V. McNutt, Governor of Indiana, at the Banquet Honoring Thomas Jefferson,” Martinsville, Indiana, 24 April 1935, box 15, McNutt Papers, LL.

112. Downey, The Woman Behind the New Deal, 233.

113. Message of Paul V. McNutt to the Special Session of the Seventy-Ninth Indiana General Assembly, 5 March 1936, box 8, Information Files, Records of the Administrator of the Federal Security Agency, RG 235, NACP.

114. “Assembly Leaves Security Bequest,” Indianapolis News, 19 March 1936, pt. 1, p. 1.

115. Under this law, when Hoosiers turned seventy, they became eligible for a maximum monthly pension of $30. After July 1, 1938, residents of Indiana could claim pensions at sixty-five. That change was in anticipation of 1942, when the first pension checks were set to go out under Social Security. Until then, the federal government provided half the dollars for Indiana’s old-age pensions. “Highlights of the Public Welfare Act,” Indianapolis Star, 18 March 1936, 10; Kennedy, Freedom from Fear, 272.

116. McNutt, it must be acknowledged, was able to champion social welfare because his state’s finances had improved and because the federal government would foot nearly half the cost of the Social Security system in Indiana. Neff, “The Early Career and Governorship of Paul V. McNutt,” 275–77.

117. Message of Paul V. McNutt, 5 March 1936, box 8, Information Files, Records of the Administrator of the Federal Security Agency, RG 235, NACP.

118. Inaugural Address of Governor Paul V. McNutt of Indiana, 9 January 1933, box 14, McNutt Papers, LL.

119. An early biographer of McNutt who questioned the sincerity of the governor’s liberalism conceded that he “wholeheartedly approved of the entire social security-welfare system.” Neff, “The Early Career and Governorship of Paul V. McNutt,” 281.

120. Address of Paul V. McNutt, 12 December 1936, box 8, Information Files, Records of the Administrator of the Federal Security Agency, RG 235, NACP.

121. “State Issues Being Cleared,” Indianapolis Star, 15 March 1936, 1.

122. Address of Paul V. McNutt, 12 December 1936, box 8, Information Files, Records of the Administrator of the Federal Security Agency, RG 235, NACP.

123. Stebenne, David L., Modern Republican: Arthur Larson and the Eisenhower Years (Bloomington, Ind., 2006), 154.Google Scholar

124. McGerr, Michael E., A Fierce Discontent: The Rise and Fall of the Progressive Movement in America, 1870–1920 (New York, 2003), 317–18Google Scholar; Leuchtenburg, William E., Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932–1940 (New York, 1963), 339Google Scholar; Gerstle, “The Protean Character of American Liberalism,” 1043–45.

125. Leuchtenburg, William E., The New Deal and Global War (New York, 1964), 37.Google Scholar

126. Patterson, James T., The New Deal and the States: Federalism in Transition (Princeton, 1969), 129.Google Scholar

127. See ibid., 129–67, 194–207.

128. Patterson, The New Deal and the States, 149.

129. “Security Is Battle Cry, Townsend Tells Democrats,” Indianapolis Star, 13 July 1938, 14.

130. Braeman, John, Bremner, Robert H., and Brody, David, “Introduction,” The New Deal, Volume II, The State and Local Levels (Columbus, 1975), xiii.Google Scholar

131. Bernice Bernstein Oral History, 3 March 1965, 34, Oral History Research Office, Columbia University (OHRO-CU), New York.

132. Untitled speech by Paul V. McNutt in Noblesville, Indiana, n.d., folder: Speeches 1935, 18 September, box 15, McNutt Papers, LL.

133. “What do you think the Republican organization has been running on?” he once joshed, “Wind?” Press release, “Governor Answers the Critics,” 24 October 1934, folder: Publicity, box A7141, McNutt Papers, ISA.

134. Blake, Paul V. McNutt, 162.

135. Kennedy, Freedom from Fear, 289; Neff, “The Early Career and Governorship of Paul V. McNutt,” 406–7.

136. Harold L. Ickes Diary, 15 July 1939, 3581, box 5, Harold L. Ickes Papers, LC.

137. Ickes Diary, 24 July 1939, 3597, box 5, Ickes Papers, LC.

138. Frances Perkins Oral History, book 7 (1955), 393, OHRO-CU.

139. Ickes Diary, 15 July 1939, 3586 (both quotations), box 5, Ickes Papers, LC.

140. Downey, The Woman Behind the New Deal, 61–95, 154.

141. Donahoe, Bernard, Private Plans and Public Dangers: The Story of FDR’s Third Nomination (Notre Dame, 1965), 8 (both quotations).Google Scholar

142. McNutt, Roosevelt said, would “talk turkey” to Aubrey Williams, head of the National Youth Administration, and say “that just because a boy wants to go to college is no reason [NYA] should finance it.” Henry Morgenthau Presidential Diary, 11 July 1939, Henry Morgenthau Papers, FDRL. Furthermore, the White House selected the name Federal “Security” Agency partly to link it with the Social Security program and partly to appease conservatives on Capitol Hill, for whom the word “welfare” was anathema. Brinkley, David, Washington Goes to War (New York, 1988), 212Google Scholar; Larry DeWitt, “Never a Finished Thing: Arthur J. Altmeyer and the Formative Years of Social Security,” unpublished manuscript, n.d., p. 140, Social Security Administration Archives (SSAA), Baltimore.

143. Ickes Diary, 15 July 1939, 3586, box 5, Ickes Papers, LC.

144. “Address by the Honorable Paul V. McNutt, Federal Security Administrator, Old Newsboys Association of the City of Toledo,” 5 December 1939, box 17, McNutt Papers, LL.

145. DeWitt, “Never a Finished Thing,” 145–46.

146. Arthur Altmeyer to Stephen Early, 28 March 28 1940, folder: ALJ McNutt Speech Incident, Arthur J. Altmeyer Papers, SSAA.

147. “The Capital Parade,” Washington Evening Star, 15 July 1939, folder: Sullivan, Lawrence Correspondence & Print Mat. June–October 1939, box 228, Individual File, Herbert Hoover Papers, Herbert Hoover Presidential Library (HHPL), West Branch, Iowa.

148. Press release, “Federal Security Administrator McNutt Advocates Universal Pension Plan,” 28 March 1940, folder: ALJ McNutt Speech Incident, Altmeyer Papers, SSAA.

149. Press release, “Federal Security Administrator McNutt Advocates Universal Pension Plan,” 28 March 1940, folder: ALJ McNutt Speech Incident, Altmeyer Papers, SSAA. As early as August 1939, a month after McNutt became head of the FSA, he prepared to deliver a speech describing Social Security as “incomplete.” TGC (Thomas G. Corcoran) to FDR, 7 August 1939, folder: Federal Security Agency 1939, box 1, OF 3700, FDR Papers, FDRL.

150. “We in the Social Security Board,” Altmeyer insisted, “are shocked at the casual way seven years of planning and progress are being brushed aside.” Altmeyer to Early, 28 March 1940, folder: ALJ McNutt Speech Incident, Altmeyer Papers, SSAA.

151. Altmeyer, Arthur J., The Formative Years of Social Security (Madison, 1966), 122–23Google Scholar; DeWitt, “Never a Finished Thing,” 140.

152. Press release, “‘Major Problems of Social Security’: Address of the Honorable Paul V. McNutt, Federal Security Administrator, Before the National Industrial Conference Board,” 28 March 1940, folder: ALJ McNutt Speech Incident, Altmeyer Papers, SSAA.

153. Press release, “Federal Security Administrator McNutt Advocates Universal Pension Plan,” 28 March 1940, folder: ALJ McNutt Speech Incident, Altmeyer Papers, SSAA.

154. Beland, Daniel, Social Security: History and Politics from the New Deal to the Privatization Debate (Lawrence, Kans., 2005), 74.Google Scholar

155. Donahoe, Private Plans and Public Dangers, 195 (quotations).

156. The Indiana novelist and political observer Meredith Nicholson noted: “Paul has more of the President’s own qualities—personality and mentality, courage, initiative, etc. than any other man who could possibly be a contender” in the 1940 election. Meredith Nicholson to Carleton B. McCulloch, 14 July 1939, box 1, Carleton B. McCulloch Papers, Indiana Historical Society Library (IHSL), Indianapolis.

157. Ferrell, Robert H., ed., FDR’s Quiet Confident: The Autobiography of Frank C. Walker (Niwot, Colo., 1997), 152.Google Scholar

158. Ibid., 153.

159. Blake, Paul V. McNutt, 175; Gleeck, The American Governors-General and High Commissioners in the Philippines, 326. According to Henry A. Wallace, Roosevelt, early in 1940, “referred to how McNutt was sent to the Philippine Islands in the first place, said it reminded him of a story of the Arizona Governor who wanted a diplomatic appointment for some political rival. When I asked what it was, he said, ‘Let me see a globe of the world.’ He turned the globe around and found the spot exactly opposite Arizona was Siam. The man thereupon was appointed as Minister to Siam.” Henry A. Wallace Diary, 1 February 1940, Henry A. Wallace Papers, University of Iowa Libraries, Iowa City.

160. Address by Paul V. McNutt at the Ohio Society of New York, New York City, 8 March 1937, box 16, McNutt Papers, LL.

161. Narrative of McNutt’s tenure as high commissioner, n.d., box 1, Information Files, Records of the Administrator of the Federal Security Agency, RG 235, NACP.

162. H. E. Yarnell to McNutt, 1 April 1937, box 9, McNutt Papers, LL (all quotations). See also Frank Hindman Golay, Face of Empire: United States–Philippine Relations, 1898–1946 (Quezon City, 1997), 363–64.

163. “Hoover Carries 810 American and Filipino Refugees,” Philippines Herald, 23 August 1937, 1.

164. “Japan Apology Eases Tensions Felt in America,” Philippines Herald, 15 December 1937, 1.

165. McNutt to Yarnell, 24 December 1938, box 10, McNutt Papers, LL.

166. McNutt to Roy Howard, 11 December 1937, folder: 1937 Philippines, box 133, Roy Howard Papers, LC (all quotations).

167. FDR to McNutt, 1 March 1937, folder: Instructions for High Commissioner, box 6, Records of the Manila Office of the High Commissioner, RG 126, NACP. The proposed neutralization treaty, which never came to much, is covered most extensively in Foster, Anne L., Projections of Power: The United States and Europe in Colonial Southeast Asia, 1919–1941 (Durham, 2010), 161–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

168. McNutt to Howard, 11 December 1937, folder: 1937 Philippines, box 133, Howard Papers, LC.

169. McNutt to Yarnell, 24 December 1938, box 10, McNutt Papers, LL.

170. National Broadcasting Company press release, “Philippine-American Relations,” a speech by Paul V. McNutt, 14 March 1938, folder: 1938 Philippine Islands, box 146, Howard Papers, LC.

171. President William McKinley, who had launched the war against Spain and had made the decision to retain the Philippines as a U.S. colony, cast his policy for the Islands as one of “benevolent assimilation,” rather than selfish imperialism. Golay, Face of Empire, 47.

172. McCoy, Alfred W., Policing America’s Empire: The United States, the Philippines, and the Rise of the Surveillance State (Madison, 2009), 15.Google Scholar

173. Leffler, A Preponderance of Power, 13.

174. “Retreating for Peace,” Manila Bulletin, 21 June 1937, 14.

175. McNutt to FDR, 30 June 1938, box 10, McNutt Papers, LL.

176. Roosevelt believed that delaying independence would impair relations between the United States and the Philippines. FDR to McNutt, 29 September 1938, box 10, McNutt Papers, LL.

177. Golay, Face of Empire, 371–74.

178. Wayne Coy to A. V. H. Hardendorp, 11 March 1940, box 7, Wayne Coy Papers, FDRL. “At no time,” Quezon told McNutt, “did I presume that what I might agree upon and advocate will be accepted by my people.” Quezon to McNutt, n.d. [ca. March 1938], folder 11, box 1, RG 1, Douglas A. MacArthur Papers, Douglas A. MacArthur Archives, Norfolk.

179. Dwight D. Eisenhower Diary, 16 July 1939, folder: Philippine Diaries (2), box 24, Miscellaneous File, Dwight D. Eisenhower Pre-Presidential Papers, DDEL.

180. McNutt to Howard, 11 December 1937, folder: 1937 Philippines, box 133, Howard Papers, LC.

181. “A Michigan Mussolini, Perhaps,” Lansing (Michigan) Journal, 30 January 1933, folder 32, box 3, McNutt Papers, ISA; Blake, Paul V. McNutt, 162.

182. “Inaugural Address of Governor Paul V. McNutt of Indiana,” 9 January 1933, box 14, McNutt Papers, LL.

183. Brands, H. W., Bound to Empire: The United States and the Philippines (New York, 1992), 161–63.Google Scholar See also McCoy, Alfred W., “Quezon’s Commonwealth: The Emergence of Philippine Authoritarianism,” in Philippine Colonial Democracy, ed. Paredes, Ruby R. (Quezon City, 1989), 114–57.Google Scholar George A. Malcolm, an American jurist in Manila, told McNutt that the Commonwealth’s government appeared “designed to consolidate unlimited . . . power in the hands of one man.” George A. Malcolm to McNutt, 6 July 1937, box 9, McNutt Papers, LL.

184. “As American Editors See Us (reprinted editorial from the New York Herald-Tribune),” Manila Bulletin, 13 August 1937, folder 23, box 9, Joseph Ralston Hayden Papers, Bentley Historical Library (BHL), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Quezon answered such criticism with an argument of his own: Filipinos had achieved a democracy without two well-balanced parties because they agreed with the program of the Nationalist Party—autonomy and immediate independence—and had rewarded it at the polls. See Manuel L. Quezon, “The Elimination of Partisanship in a Democracy,” address given at Far Eastern University, Manila, 17 August 1940, in Quezon, Manuel L., Addresses of His Excellency Manuel L. Quezon, President of the Philippines on the Theory of Partyless Democracy (Manila, 1940), 47–53Google Scholar, folder 12, box 24, series 12, Jose P. Laurel Papers, Jose P. Laurel Foundation, Manila.

185. McNutt endorsed a Quezon-backed 5 million-peso appropriation bill that seemed, to him, to provide money for schools and public works and was not just “Pork Barrel” expenditures, as its critics alleged. “Reviving the ‘Pork Barrel,’” Philippines Herald, 16 September 1937, 4.

186. “Germany and P. I.: Reich Consul in Manila Discusses Philippine-German Relations,” Herald Mid-Week Magazine, 2 September 1936, 5, folder: German-Philippine Relations, box 27, J. Weldon Jones Papers, Harry S. Truman Library (HSTL), Independence, Missouri.

187. Untitled narrative of McNutt’s tenure as high commissioner, n.d., folder: Articles for Administrator (Personal), box 1, Information Files, Records of the Administrator of the Federal Security Agency, RG 235, NACP. Sakowski again backed down by allowing the club to determine its own membership. “Washington Reports German Club Row Was over Non-Aryan Members,” Manila Bulletin, 31 August 1938, folder: German-Philippine Relations, box 27, Jones Papers, HSTL.

188. Jay Pierrepont Moffat Diary, 22 August 1938, box 211, Sumner Welles Papers, FDRL.

189. Frank Ephriam, “Draft: Nomination for Righteous Among Nations,” 1 September 2004, Center for Holocaust and Humanity Education, Hebrew Union College (HUC), Cincinnati.

190. Untitled narrative of McNutt’s tenure as high commissioner, n.d., folder: Articles for Administrator (Personal), box 1, Information Files, Records of the Administrator of the Federal Security Agency, RG 235, NACP.

191. See Kotlowski, Dean J., “Breaching the Paper Walls: Paul V. McNutt and Jewish Refugees to the Philippines, 1938–1939,” Diplomatic History 33, no. 5 (2009): 865–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

192. “Slashing Attacks Against Nazi Intolerance Made at Two Gatherings,” Manila Bulletin, 21 November 1938, 1.

193. When enforced strictly, the “likely to become a public charge” rule demanded that immigrants prove, not that they possessed, the minimal “physical or mental skills required for constructive employment,” but that they were likely “to obtain a job under current market conditions”—a daunting task during a worldwide slump. Breitman, Richard and Kraut, Alan M., American Refugee Policy and European Jewry (Bloomington, 1987), 7–8.Google Scholar

194. Feingold, Henry L., The Politics of Rescue: The Roosevelt Administration and the Holocaust, 1933–1945 (New Brunswick, 1970), 295–307Google Scholar; Breitman and Kraut, American Refugee Policy and European Jewry, 9 (quotation).

195. Kotlowski, “Breaching the Paper Walls,” 883–90.

196. For another haven, see Wells, Allen, Tropical Zion: General Trujillo, FDR, and the Jews of Sousa (Durham, 2009).Google Scholar

197. “McNutt Protests Attacks on Jews,” Indianapolis Star, 28 March 1933, 1.

198. “Calls Chicago Jews to ‘War of Justice,’” New York Times, 28 March 1933, 11.

199. “Message of Governor Paul V. McNutt to the Seventy-Eighth Indiana General Assembly,” 10 January 1933, box 14, McNutt Papers, LL.

200. In tribute, the president of the Indianapolis Zionist District explained that McNutt had “acted courageously,” had shown “an understanding of our people’s worth and dignity,” and, significantly, had expressed “continued protests against any injustices heaped upon our people here and abroad.” Cantor Myro Glass to McNutt, 25 January 1935, folder 981, box 97, McNutt Papers, ISA.

201. “Address by His Excellency Paul V. McNutt, United States High Commissioner to the Philippine Islands, at National Sojourners Meeting Manila,” 30 March 1939, box 17, McNutt Papers, LL.

202. McNutt to Abba Hillel Silver, 14 January 1942, box 11, Records of the Federal Security Administrator: General Classified Files, 1939–44, Alphabetical Series, RG 235, NACP.

203. McNutt to Israel Goldstein, 11 October 1944, box 11, McNutt Papers, LL.

204. “Address by the Honorable Paul V. McNutt, Federal Security Administrator, City and County Teacher’s Association, Louisville, Kentucky,” 24 November 1939, box 17, McNutt Papers, LL.

205. “Nearly 600 Hear Talk by McNutt,” Florida Times-Union (Jacksonville), n.d. [November 1939], box 10, McNutt Papers, LL.

206. Editorial, “Danger Lies Within,” n.d., attached to Dick Habbe to McNutt, 27 November 1939, box 10, McNutt Papers, LL.

207. Badger, Anthony J., The New Deal: The Depression Years, 1933–1940 (Chicago, 2002), 225.Google Scholar

208. The politician claimed he was misquoted and had merely said, “I do not know Governor McNutt.” But the implication was clear—that McNutt was not exactly a household word. “Report of Visit of Frank M. McHale, Oscar R. Ewing, and M. L. Fansler to Connecticut,” 1 December 1939, folder: 1939 November, box 10, McNutt Papers, LL.

209. Gould, “Paul Vories McNutt,” 460; McNutt Confirms Minton Report; Says Roosevelt’s Entry in Race Would Mean End to Own Campaign,” Indianapolis Star, 18 June 1939, 1; “Paul McNutt, in L.A., Urges Strong Defenses,” Los Angeles Evening Herald-Express, 11 May 1940, A–4.

210. Quoted in Flynn, The Mess in Washington, 13.

211. On the day McNutt spoke in Bismarck, North Dakota, the local paper headlined: “Germans Seize Copenhagen, Oslo.” Bismarck Tribune, 9 April 1940, 1.

212. On the day McNutt spoke to Democrats in Phoenix, the Arizona Republic observed that “state after state has joined in the demand for a third term and the resounding cries have become louder.” “The Steady Five-Year Approach of Mr. Roosevelt Toward His Goal,” Arizona Republic (Phoenix), 11 May 1940, sec. 2, p. 8. After FDR’s victory in the California primary, McNutt conceded that it was “obvious that the President could be nominated if he would accept.” “Paul McNutt, in L.A., Urges Strong Defenses,” Los Angeles Evening Herald-Express, 11 May 1940, A-4.

213. Press release, 30 May 1940, box 14, Randolph Carpenter Papers, Department of Special Collections, Wichita State University Libraries, Wichita.

214. McNutt issued this statement after consulting with his campaign staff, in “Friends Ponder M’Nutt’s Future,” Indianapolis News, n.d. [ca. 31 May 1940], fiche 3, Department of Indiana, Biographical File: Paul V. McNutt, American Legion Library.

215. Blake, Paul V. McNutt, 278–86.

216. “Henry Wallace Is Nominated by Democrats,” Atlanta Constitution, 19 July 1940, 3 (all quotations).

217. Roosevelt, at McNutt’s prodding, first named McNutt as “Coordinator of Health, Welfare, Recreation and Related Activities.” See McNutt to FDR, 18 November 1940, folder: Federal Security Agency 1940, box 1, OF 3700, FDR Papers, FDRL. This position evolved into ODHWS.

218. “Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services,” n.d., book B, box 2, Records of the Federal Security Agency: Document Files of Dean Atlee Snyder, 1940–58, RG 235, NACP.

219. “Coordination of Health, Welfare, and Related Activities Affect the National Defense,” undated typescript paper, folder: Consumer Materials Nat. Defense Advis. Commission,” box 42, Caroline F. Ware Papers, FDRL (quotation). For McNutt’s role in setting up the USO, see Charles P. Taft to Horace D. Taft, 12 April 1941, folder: Taft Family Papers, box 25, part 1, Charles Taft Papers, LC.

220. “Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services,” n.d., book B, box 2, Records of the Federal Security Agency: Document Files of Dean Atlee Snyder, 1940–58, RG 235, NACP.

221. Child care proved a mixed bag. ODHWS and CWS located sites for day-care centers, and the government built 2,800 such facilities. Unfortunately, day-care centers often were not ready when needed. Final Report by Pearce Davies attached to Davies to Snyder, 15 September 1947, book H, box 4, Records of the Federal Security Agency: Document Files of Dean Atlee Snyder, 1940–58, RG 235, NACP; Polenberg, Richard, War and Society: The United States, 1941–1945 (Philadelphia, 1972), 148–49.Google Scholar

222. Charles P. Taft, the son of President William Howard Taft and the brother of Senator Robert A. Taft, headed ODHWS and CWS and actually ran the agency on a daily basis. See Charles Taft to Seth Taft, 29 April 1943 and 25 September 1943, box 30, and Charles Taft Diary, 17 May 1941, 16 June 1941, and 28 July 1942, box 1—all in part 1, Charles Taft Papers, LC. See also Winchell, Meghan K., Good Girls, Good Food, Good Fun: The Story of USO Hostesses During World War II (Chapel Hill, 2008), 4–5.Google Scholar

223. Paul V. McNutt speech, “Welfare and Defense,” 6 December 1940, box 1 and Federal Security Agency press release, 31 December 1940, box 2—both in Information Files, Records of the Administrator of the Federal Security Agency, RG 235, NACP.

224. Mary E. Switzer speech at Howard University, “The Work of the Federal Security Agency in National Defense,” 10 March 1941, folder 177, box 14, Mary E. Switzer Papers, Schlesinger Library (SL), Harvard University.

225. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, McNutt volunteered for active service—only to have General George C. Marshall, the army’s chief of staff, reject the offer of the fifty-year-old Hoosier. Watson B. Miller to William Wolff-Smith, 22 August 1942, box 12, Records of the Federal Security Administrator: General Classified Files, 1939–44, Alphabetical Series, RG 235, NACP.

226. Flynn, The Mess in Washington, 10.

227. Ibid., 17–19; McNutt tried to forestall “consideration of a National Service Act.” See McNutt to FDR, n.d. (ca. November 1942), folder: War Manpower Commission November–December 1942, box 2, OF 4905, FDR Papers, FDRL.

228. Clearly, McNutt never got the equation right when it came to labor—he was seen as being either too anti- or too pro-labor. How that would have played out, had he pursued elected office after World War II, remains uncertain. Unions had a habit of punishing Democratic politicians who were seen as antilabor. Stebenne, David L., Arthur J. Goldberg: New Deal Liberal (New York, 1996), 96.Google Scholar

229. Polenberg, War and Society, 188.

230. Janeway, Eliot, The Struggle for Survival: A Chronicle of Economic Mobilization in World War II (New Haven, 1951), 325.Google Scholar

231. McNutt withdrew from the vice-presidential race in May 1944. “McNutt Says He Won’t Seek Vice Presidency,” Washington Star, 10 May 1944, B-12.

232. Joseph J. Lowry, “The Forgotten Man,” undated speech draft, folder: 1944 November–December, box 11, McNutt Papers, LL.

233. Remarks of Paul V. McNutt at Princeton, Indiana, 26 October 1948, box 22, McNutt Papers, LL.

234. McNutt to Harry S. Truman, 4 July 1945, and “Reorganization of Federal Programs for Health, Education, and Social Security,” 4 July 1945, folder: OF 103-C Department of National Health (Proposed), box 576, White House Central File: Official File, Harry S. Truman Papers, HSTL.

235. Paul V. McNutt address at Batesville, Indiana, 25 October 1948, box 25, McNutt Papers, LL.

236. Remarks of Paul V. McNutt at the State Convention, American Legion, Indianapolis, 4 August 1947, box 22, McNutt Papers, LL.

237. McNutt campaign speech in Indiana, n.d. [1950], box 23, McNutt Papers, LL.

238. “McNutt Backs Marshall Plan,” Manila Times, 10 October 1947, and “World Outlook Bright—McNutt,” Manila Times, 23 May 1952—both in Manila Times/Daily Mirror Library and Morgue, Lopez Memorial Museum, Pasig City, Philippines.

239. Gleeck, Dissolving the Colonial Bond, 23–28.

240. Robert P. Patterson to William L. Clayton, 4 June 1945, folder: Philippines, box 184, Part 1, Charles Taft Papers, LC.

241. For the often-contentious negotiations over the bases, see Elpidio Quirino, The Memoirs of Elpidio Quirino (Manila, 1990), 225.

242. Address of Paul V. McNutt Before the Beta Theta Pi Fraternity, Indianapolis, 27 November 1946, folder: Geographic File Philippine Is., box 184, Part 1, Charles Taft Papers, LC.

243. See Rosskamm Shalom, Stephen, The United States and the Philippines: A Study of Neocolonialism (Quezon City, 1986), 1–32Google Scholar; Tan, Samuel K., A History of the Philippines (Quezon City, 1987), 80–92.Google Scholar

244. McNutt campaign speech in Indiana, n.d. [1950], box 23, McNutt Papers, LL.

245. Paul V. McNutt address to the American Legion, 24 July 1952, box 23, McNutt Papers, LL.

246. McNutt draft speech, 22 December 1949, box 23, McNutt Papers, LL.

247. McNutt campaign speech in Indiana, n.d. [1950], box 23, McNutt Papers, LL.

248. Leffler, A Preponderance of Power, 19.

249. McNutt campaign speech in Indiana, n.d. [1950], box 23, McNutt Papers, LL.

250. McNutt quipped: “I’ve been taught by experience that the President is the one to pick his own running-mate.” Blake, Paul V. McNutt, 374–75.

251. Paul V. McNutt Speech at the Dedication of the National Headquarters Building of the American Legion, Indianapolis, 20 August 1950, box 23, McNutt Papers, LL.

252. Paul V. McNutt address to the American Legion, 24 July 1952, box 23, McNutt Papers, LL.

253. Paul V. McNutt speech at Huntington, Indiana, 28 October 1948, box 22, McNutt Papers, LL.

254. Zelizer, Julian E., Arsenal of Democracy: The Politics of National Security—From World War II to the War on Terrorism (New York, 2010), 120.Google Scholar

255. von Bothmer, Bernard, Framing the Sixties: The Use and Abuse of a Decade from Ronald Reagan to George W. Bush (Amherst, Mass., 2010), 46.Google Scholar

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