Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-m9kch Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-28T14:01:01.127Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

A ten-faced hexangulaconulariid from Cambrian Stage 2 of South China

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 March 2021

Junfeng Guo
Affiliation:
School of Earth Science and Resources, Key Laboratory of Western China's Mineral Resources and Geological Engineering, Ministry of Education, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710054, P.R. China , <757542074@qq.com>, <2695489023@qq.com>, <512718116@qq.com> Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Early Life and Environment, State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, P.R. China , State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology and Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing210008, P.R. China
Jian Han*
Affiliation:
Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Early Life and Environment, State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, P.R. China ,
Heyo Van Iten*
Affiliation:
Department of Geology, Hanover College, Hanover, Indiana47243, USA Department of Invertebrate Paleontology, Cincinnati Museum Center, 1301 Western Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio45203, USA
Zuchen Song
Affiliation:
School of Earth Science and Resources, Key Laboratory of Western China's Mineral Resources and Geological Engineering, Ministry of Education, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710054, P.R. China , <757542074@qq.com>, <2695489023@qq.com>, <512718116@qq.com>
Yaqin Qiang
Affiliation:
School of Earth Science and Resources, Key Laboratory of Western China's Mineral Resources and Geological Engineering, Ministry of Education, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710054, P.R. China , <757542074@qq.com>, <2695489023@qq.com>, <512718116@qq.com>
Wenzhe Wang
Affiliation:
School of Earth Science and Resources, Key Laboratory of Western China's Mineral Resources and Geological Engineering, Ministry of Education, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710054, P.R. China , <757542074@qq.com>, <2695489023@qq.com>, <512718116@qq.com>
Zhifei Zhang
Affiliation:
Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Early Life and Environment, State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, P.R. China ,
Guoxiang Li
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology and Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing210008, P.R. China
*
*Corresponding Author.
*Corresponding Author.

Abstract

Hexangulaconulariids (Cambrian stages 1–2) are an extinct group of medusozoan polyps having a biradially symmetrical, fan-shaped periderm that is distinct from those of medusozoan polyps showing three-, four-, five-, or six-fold radial symmetry. Hexangulaconulariids exhibit substantial variation in gross morphology, including variation in the number of faces on each of the two major sides of the periderm. An intermediate taxon of hexangulaconulariids with ten faces (five on each major side) was expected. Here we describe a new hexangulaconulariid, Decimoconularia isofacialis new genus new species from Bed 5 of the Yanjiahe Formation (Cambrian Stage 2) in the Three Gorges area of Hubei Province, China. The new taxon differs from other hexangulaconulariids (Arthrochites, Hexaconularia, and Septuconularia) mainly in possessing a total of ten faces. The two lateral margins are each marked by a ridge in about the apertural half of the periderm and by a collinear furrow in about the apical half, while the five faces on each major side are bounded by a furrow in about the apertural half and by a collinear ridge in about the apical half. Among hexangulaconulariids, Decimoconularia and Septuconularia may be more closely related to each other than either genus is to Arthrochites or Hexaconularia.

UUID: http://zoobank.org/ca270a3b-25ee-4d1f-bdeb-91a963370e70

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Paleontological Society

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Barnes, R.D., 1987, Invertebrate Zoology (fifth edition): Philadelphia, Saunders College Publishing, 893 p.Google Scholar
Cartwright, P., Halgedahl, S.L., Hendricks, J.R., Jarrard, R.D., Marques, A.C., Collins, A.G., and Lieberman, B.S., 2007, Exceptionally preserved jellyfishes from the middle Cambrian: PLoS One, v. 2, e1121.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chang, S., Clausen, S., Zhang, L., Feng, Q.L., Steiner, M., Bottjer, D.J., Zhang, Y., and Shi, M., 2018, New probable cnidarian fossils from the lower Cambrian of the Three Gorges area, South China, and their ecological implications: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 505, p. 150166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chang, S., Zhang, L., Clausen, S., and Feng, Q.L., 2020, Source of silica and silicification of the lowermost Cambrian Yanjiahe Formation in the three Gorges area, South China: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 548, 109697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, M., 1982, The new knowledge of the fossil assemblages from Maidiping section, Emei County, Sichuan with reference to the Sinian–Cambrian boundary: Scientia Geologica Sinica, no. 3, p. 253263. [in Chinese with English abstract]Google Scholar
Chen, P., 1984, Discovery of lower Cambrian small shelly fossils from Jijiapo, Yichang, west Hubei and its significance: Professional Papers of Stratigraphy and Palaeontology, v. 13, p. 4964. [in Chinese with English abstract]Google Scholar
Conway Morris, S., and Chen, M., 1992, Carinachitids, hexaconulariids, and Punctatus: problematic metazoans from the early Cambrian of South China: Journal of Paleontology, v. 66, p. 384406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duan, B., Dong, X., Porras, L., Vargas, K., Cunningham, J.A., and Donoghue, P.C.J., 2017, The early Cambrian fossil embryo Pseudooides is a direct-developing cnidarian, not an early ecdysozoan: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, v. 284, 20172188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guo, J., Li, Y., Han, J., Zhang, X., Zhang, Z., Ou, Q., Liu, J., Shu, D., Maruyama, S., and Komiya, T., 2008, Fossil association from the lower Cambrian Yanjiahe Formation in the Yangtze Gorges area, Hubei, South China: Acta Geologica Sinica (English edition), v. 82, p. 11241132.Google Scholar
Guo, J., Li, Y., and Li, G., 2014, Small shelly fossils from the early Cambrian Yanjiahe Formation, Yichang, Hubei, China: Gondwana Research, v. 25, 9991007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guo, J., Han, J., Van Iten, H., Song, Z., Qiang, Y., Wang, W., Zhang, Z., Li, G., Sun, Y., and Sun, J., 2020a, A new tetraradial olivooid (Medusozoa) from the lower Cambrian (Stage 2) Yanjiahe Formation, South China: Journal of Paleontology, v. 94, p. 457466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guo, J., Han, J., Van Iten, H., Wang, X., Qiang, Y., Song, Z., Wang, W., Zhang, Z. and Li, G., 2020b, A fourteen-faced hexangulaconulariid from the early Cambrian (Stage 2) Yanjiahe Formation, South China: Journal of Paleontology, v. 94, p. 4555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guo, J., Li, G., Qiang, Y., Song, Z., Zhang, Z., Han, J., and Wang, W., 2020c, Watsonella crosbyi from the lower Cambrian (Terreneuvian, Stage 2) Yanjiahe Formation in Three Gorges area, South China: Palaeoworld, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palwor.2020.04.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Han, J., Kubota, S., Li, G., Yao, X., Yang, X., et al. , 2013, Early Cambrian pentamerous cubozoan embryos from South China: PLoS One, v. 8, e70741.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Han, J., Hu, S., Cartwright, P., Zhao, F., Ou, Q., Kubota, S., Wang, X., and Yang, X., 2016a, The earliest pelagic jellyfish with rhopalia from Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 449, p. 166173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Han, J., Kubota, S., Li, G., Ou, Q., Wang, X., et al. , 2016b, Divergent evolution of medusozoan symmetric patterns: evidence from the microanatomy of Cambrian tetramerous cubozoans from South China: Gondwana Research, v. 31, p. 150163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Han, J., Li, G., Kubota, S., Ou, Q., Toshino, S., et al. , 2016c, Internal microanatomy and zoological affinity of the early Cambrian Olivooides: Acta Geologica Sinica (English edition), v. 90, p. 3865.Google Scholar
Han, J., Li, G., Wang, X., Yang, X., Guo, J., Sasaki, O., and Komiya, T., 2018, Olivooides-like tube aperture in early Cambrian carinachitids (Medusozoa, Cnidaria): Journal of Paleontology, v. 92, p. 313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Han, J., Guo, J., Ou, Q., Song, Z., Liu, P., Hao, W., Sun, J., and Wang, X., 2020, Evolutionary framework of early Cambrian cnidarians in South China: Earth Science Frontiers. v. 27, p. 6778. [in Chinese with English abstract]Google Scholar
He, T., 1987, Early Cambrian conulariids from Yangtze platform and their early evolution: Journal of Chengdu College of Geology, v. 14, p. 718. [in Chinese with English abstract]Google Scholar
He, Y., and Yang, X., 1986, Early Cambrian coelenterates from Nanjiang, Sichuan: Bulletin of the Chengdu Institute of Geological and Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, no. 7, p. 31–43. [in Chinese with English abstract]Google Scholar
Li, Z., 1984, The discovery and its significance of small shelly fossils in Hexi area, Xixiang, Shaanxi: Geology of Shaanxi, v. 2, p. 7377.Google Scholar
Liu, Y., Li, Y., Shao, T., Zhang, H., Wang, Q., and Qiao, J., 2014, Quadrapyrgites from the lower Cambrian of South China: growth pattern, post-embryonic development, and affinity: Chinese Science Bulletin, v. 59, p. 40864095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, Y., Shao, T., Zhang, H., Wang, Q., Zhang, Y., Chen, C., Liang, Y., and Xue, J., 2017, A new scyphozoan from the Cambrian Fortunian Stage of South China: Palaeontology, v. 60, p. 511518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, R.C., and Harrington, H.J., 1956, Conulata, in Moore, R.C., ed. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part F, Coelenterata: Boulder, Colorado, and Lawrence, Kansas, Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press, p. F54–F66.Google Scholar
Petersen, K.W., 1979, Development of coloniality in Hydrozoa, in Larwood, G., and Rosen, B., eds., Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms, Special Volume 11: Systematics Association, p. 105139.Google Scholar
Qian, Y., Li, G., He, T., and Xie, Y., 2001, Helmet-like fossils from the basal Cambrian phosphoric strata of China: Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, v. 40, p. 486496. [in Chinese with English abstract]Google Scholar
Steiner, M., Qian, Y., Li, G., Hagadorn, J.W., and Zhu, M., 2014, The developmental cycles of early Cambrian Olivooidae fam. nov. (?Cycloneuralia) from the Yangtze Platform (China): Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 398, p. 97124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steiner, M., Yang, B., Hohl, S., Zhang, L., and Chang, S., 2020, Cambrian small skeletal fossil and carbon isotope records of the southern Huangling Anticline, Hubei (China) and implications for chemostratigraphy of the Yangtze Platform: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 554, 109817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Iten, H., 1992, Morphology and phylogenetic significance of the corners and midlines of the conulariid test: Palaeontology, v. 35, p. 335358.Google Scholar
Van Iten, H., Zhu, M., and Li, G., 2010, Redescription of Hexaconularia He and Yang, 1986 (lower Cambrian, South China): implications for the affinities of conulariid-like small shelly fossils: Palaeontology, v. 53, p. 191199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Iten, H., Muir, L.A., Botting, J.P., Zhang, Y., and Lin, J., 2013, Conulariids and Sphenothallus (Cnidaria, Medusozoa) from the Tonggao Formation (Lower Ordovician, China): Bulletin of Geosciences, v. 88, p. 713722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verrill, A.E., 1865, Classification of polyps (extract condensed from Synopsis of the Polyps and Corals of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition under Commodore C. Ringgold and Captain John Rogers, U. S. N.): Communications of the Essex Institute, v. 4, p. 145152.Google Scholar
Young, G.A., and Hagadorn, J.W., 2010, The fossil record of cnidarian medusae: Palaeoworld, v. 19, p. 212221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhu, M., Yang, A., Yuan, J., Li, G., Zhang, J., Zhao, F., Ahn, S.Y., and Miao, L., 2019, Cambrian integrative stratigraphy and timescale of China: Science China Earth Sciences, v. 62, p. 2560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar