Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-cf9d5c678-dksz7 Total loading time: 0.8 Render date: 2021-07-29T03:28:49.952Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Revision of the long-proboscid scorpionflies, Lichnomesopsyche Ren, Labandeira, and Shih, 2010

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 March 2021

Xinneng Lian
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Chenyang Cai
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Life Sciences Building, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TQ, UK
Diying Huang
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
Corresponding

Abstract

The Mesozoic mecopteran family Mesopsychidae has attracted extensive attention by their long proboscis that is presumably associated with pollination of early gymnosperms. Three previously reported species of Lichnomesopsyche Ren, Labandeira, and Shih, 2010 from the Middle−Upper Jurassic Haifanggou Formation at Daohugou (Inner Mongolia, northeastern China) display distinct resemblances in wing venation, so that their classification, based on currently described characters, remains elusive. Herein, we describe and figure exquisitely preserved male genital structures of L. gloriae Ren, Labandeira, and Shih, 2010, L. daohugouensis Ren, Labandeira, and Shih, 2010, and L. prochorista Lin et al., 2016, which can be used for defining and recognizing the three species. Our discovery indicates that the male genitalia are the major critical structures for species-level classification of the peculiar genus Lichnomesopsyche. Details of the maxillary palps and legs of L. gloriae and L. daohugouensis are also described.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Paleontological Society

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Bashkuev, A.S., 2011, Nedubroviidae, a new family of Mecoptera: The first Paleozoic long-proboscid scorpionflies: Zootaxa, v. 2895, p. 4757, https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2895.1.3.Google Scholar
Beutel, R.G., Friedrich, F., and Whiting, M.F., 2008, Head morphology of Caurinus (Boreidae, Mecoptera) and its phylogenetic implications: Arthropod Structure & Development, v. 37, p. 418433, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asd.2008.02.002.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bicha, W.J., 2010, A review of the scorpionflies (Mecoptera) of Indochina with the description of a new species of Neopanorpa from northern Thailand: Zootaxa, v. 2480, p. 6167, https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2480.1.6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cai, L.J., Huang, P.Y., and Hua, B.Z., 2008, Sinopanorpa, a new genus of Panorpidae (Mecoptera) from the oriental China with descriptions of two new species: Zootaxa, v. 1941, p. 4354, https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1941.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friedrich, F., and Beutel, R.G., 2010, The thoracic morphology of Nannochorista (Nannochoristidae) and its implications for the phylogeny of Mecoptera and Antliophora: Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, v. 48, p. 5074, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0469.2009.00535.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gao, T.P., Shih, C.K., Rasnitsyn, A.P., Xu, X., Wang, S., and Ren, D., 2013, New transitional fleas from China highlighting diversity of Early Cretaceous ectoparasitic insects: Current Biology, v. 23, p. 12611266, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.05.040.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gao, T.P., Shih, C.K., Rasnitsyn, A.P., Xu, X., Wang, S., and Ren, D., 2014, The first flea with fully distended abdomen from the Early Cretaceous of China: BMC Evolutionary Biology, v. 14, p. 168, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-014-0168-1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grimaldi, D., and Engel, M.S., 2005, Evolution of the Insects: Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, 755 p.Google Scholar
Grimaldi, D., and Johnston, M.A., 2014, The long-tongued Cretaceous scorpionfly Parapolycentropus Grimaldi and Rasnitsyn (Mecoptera: Pseudopolycentropodidae): New data and interpretations: American Museum Novitates, v. 2014, p. 124, https://doi.org/10.1206/3793.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grimaldi, D., Rasnitsyn, A., Zhang, J.F., and Fraser, N., 2005, Revision of the bizarre Mesozoic scorpionflies in the Pseudopolycentropodidae (Mecopteroidea): Insect Systematics & Evolution, v. 36, p. 443458, https://doi.org/10.1163/187631205794761021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Handlirsch, A., 1925, Palaeontologie, in Schröder, C.H., ed., Handbuch der Entomologie, Volume 3: Jena, Germany, Verlag Gustav Fischer, p. 117306.Google Scholar
Huang, D.Y., ed., 2016, [The Daohugou Biota]: Shanghai, Shanghai Science and Technology Press, 330 p. [in Chinese]Google Scholar
Huang, D.Y., 2019, [Jurassic integrative stratigraphy and timescale of China]: Science China Earth Sciences, v. 62, p. 223255, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-017-9268-7. [in Chinese]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, D.Y., Engel, M.S., Cai, C.Y., and Nel, A., 2012, Diverse transitional giant fleas from the Mesozoic era of China: Nature, v. 438, p. 201204, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, D.Y., Cai, C.Y., and Nel, A., 2018a, New damsel-dragonflies with ‘calopterygid’-like wing shape from the Middle Jurassic of China (Odonata: Isophlebioidea: Campterophlebiidae): Geobios, v. 51, p. 181186, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geobios.2018.04.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, D.Y., Cai, C.Y., Fu, Y.Z., and Su, Y.T., 2018b, The Middle−Late Jurassic Yanliao entomofauna: Palaeoentomology, v. 1, p. 331, https://doi.org/10.11646/palaeoentomology.1.1.2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kopeć, K., Soszyńska-Maj, A., Krzemiński, W., and Coram, R.A., 2016, A new hangingfly (Insecta, Mecoptera, Bittacidae) from the Purbeck Limestone Group (Lower Cretaceous) of southern England and a review of Cretaceous Bittacidae: Cretaceous Research, v. 57, p. 122130, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2015.08.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Labandeira, C.C., 2010, The pollination of mid Mesozoic seed plants and the early history of long-proboscid insects1,2,3: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, v. 97, p. 469513, https://doi.org/10.3417/2010037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Labandeira, C.C., Kvaček, J., and Mostovski, M.B., 2007, Pollination drops, pollen, and insect pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms: Taxon, v. 56, p. 663695, https://doi.org/10.2307/25065852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin, X.D., Shih, M.J., Labandeira, C.C., and Ren, D., 2016, New data from the Middle Jurassic of China shed light on the phylogeny and origin of the proboscis in the Mesopsychidae (Insecta: Mecoptera): BMC Evolutionary Biology, v. 16, p. 840847, https://bmcecolevol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12862-015-0575-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin, X.D., Labandeira, C.C., Shih, C.K., Hotton, C.L., and Ren, D., 2019a, Life habits and evolutionary biology of new two-winged long-proboscid scorpionflies from mid-Cretaceous Myanmar amber: Nature Communications, v. 10, p. 114, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09236-4.Google Scholar
Lin, X.D., Shih, C.K., Li, S., and Ren, D., 2019b, Mecoptera-scorpionflies and hangingflies, in Ren, D., Shih, C.K., Gao, T.P., Wang, Y.J, and Yao, Y.Z., eds., Rhythms of Insect Evolution: Evidence from the Jurassic and Cretaceous in Northern China: New York, Wiley-Blackwell, 728 p.Google Scholar
Packard, A.S., 1886, A new arrangement of the orders of insects: The American Naturalist, v. 20, p. 808.Google Scholar
Rasnitsyn, A.P., and Kozlov, M.V., 1990, New group of fossil insects: Scorpions with cicad and butterfly adaptations: Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, v. 310, p. 233236.Google Scholar
Rasnitsyn, A.P., Aristov, D.S., Gorochov, A.V., Rowland, J.M., and Sinitshenkova, N.D., 2004, Important new insect fossils from Carrizo Arroyo and the Permo-Carboniferous faunal boundary: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, v. 25, p. 215246.Google Scholar
Ren, D., Labandeira, C.C., Santiago-Blay, J.A., Rasnitsyn, A., Shih, C.K., Bashkuev, A., Logan, M.A.V., Hotton, C.L., and Dilcher, D., 2009, A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies: Science, v. 326, p. 840847, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1178338.Google ScholarPubMed
Ren, D., Labandeira, C.C., and Shih, C.K., 2010, New Mesozoic Mesopsychidae (Mecoptera) from northeastern China: Acta Geologica Sinica, v. 84, p. 720731, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-6724.2010.00244.x.Google Scholar
Shih, C.K., Qiao, X., Labandeira, C.C., and Ren, D., 2013, A new mesopsychid (Mecoptera) from the Middle Jurassic of northeastern China: Acta Geologica Sinica, v. 87, p. 12351241, https://doi.org/10.1111/1755-6724.12124.Google Scholar
Soszyńska-Maj, A., Krzemiński, W., Kopeć, K., Cao, Y.Z., and Ren, D., 2018, Large Jurassic scorpionflies belonging to a new subfamily of the family Orthophlebiidae (Mecoptera): Annales Zoologici, v. 68, p. 8593, https://doi.org/10.3161/00034541ANZ2018.68.1.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tihelka, E., Giacomelli, M., Huang, D.Y., Pisani, D., Donoghue, P.J., and Cai, C.Y., 2020, Fleas are parasitic scorpionflies: Palaeoentomology, v. 3, p. 641653, http://doi.org/0.11646/palaeoentomology.3.6.16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tillyard, R., 1917, Mesozoic insects of Queensland, 1, Planipennia, Trichoptera, and the new order Protomecoptera: Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, v. 42, p. 175200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whiting, M.F., 2002, Mecoptera is paraphyletic: Multiple genes and phylogeny of Mecoptera and Siphonaptera: Zoologica Scripta, v. 31, p. 93104, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0300-3256.2001.00095.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whiting, M.F., Carpenter, J.C., Wheeler, Q.D., and Wheeler, W.C., 1997, The Strepsiptera problem: Phylogeny of the holometabolous insect orders inferred from 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences and morphology: Systematic Biology, v. 46, p. 168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, J.X., Shih, C.K., Petrulevičius, J.F., and Ren, D., 2011, A new fossil eomeropid (Insecta, Mecoptera) from the Jiulongshan Formation, Inner Mongolia, China: Zoosystema, v. 33, p. 443450, https://doi.org/10.5252/z2011n4a2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhao, X.D., Wang, B., Bashkuev, A.S., Aria, C., Zhang, Q.Q., Zhang, H.C., Tang, W.T., and Engel, M.S., 2020, Mouthpart homologies and life habits of Mesozoic long-proboscid scorpionflies: Science Advances, v. 6, p. eaay1259, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aay1259.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Revision of the long-proboscid scorpionflies, Lichnomesopsyche Ren, Labandeira, and Shih, 2010
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Revision of the long-proboscid scorpionflies, Lichnomesopsyche Ren, Labandeira, and Shih, 2010
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Revision of the long-proboscid scorpionflies, Lichnomesopsyche Ren, Labandeira, and Shih, 2010
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *