Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-54jdg Total loading time: 0.422 Render date: 2022-08-09T13:59:20.435Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Recovering authentic global position system L1 signals under spoofing using dual receiver direct positioning

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 March 2021

Chao Sun
Affiliation:
School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, China
Joon Wayn Cheong
Affiliation:
The Australian Centre for Space Engineering Research (ACSER), School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Andrew G. Dempster
Affiliation:
The Australian Centre for Space Engineering Research (ACSER), School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Hongbo Zhao*
Affiliation:
School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, China
Wenquan Feng
Affiliation:
School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, China
*
*Corresponding author. E-mail: bhzhb@buaa.edu.cn

Abstract

Spoofing is a kind of deliberate interference that aims to manipulate global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers into counterfeit position solutions. Conventional anti-spoofing methods are implemented prior to the calculation of the position solution, depending on the specific spoofing attack mechanisms. The paper presents a spoofing detection and mitigation method implemented in the position domain. The proposed method projects the correlograms of the visible satellites to a position-clock bias domain to construct the position domain projected correlogram. P(Y) code signatures retrieved from a reference station receiver are used to identify the counterfeit position solution and remove it from the victim receiver. Compared with the conventional single-channel spoofing detection technique, the proposed anti-spoofing method is more robust against thermal noise by combining the energy from multiple satellites. Detailed mathematical derivation of the statistical characteristics of this method is presented. Its effectiveness is validated using a realistic dataset generated by a Spirent GNSS simulator and NordNav wideband front-end. Results show that the proposed algorithm is capable of not only detecting a spoofing attack but also removing the spoofing effect from the victim receiver.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Royal Institute of Navigation 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Ali, K., Manfredini, E. G. and Dovis, F. (2014). Vestigial Signal Defense Through Signal Quality Monitoring Techniques Based on Joint Use of Two Metrics. Proc. IEEE/ION PLANS 2014. Institute of Navigation, Monterey, CA, 12401247.10.1109/PLANS.2014.6851499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andrianarison, M., Sahmoudi, M. and Landry, R. J. (2017). Efficient and innovative techniques for collective acquisition of weak GNSS signals. Journal of Computer and Communications, 5(6), 84113.10.4236/jcc.2017.56006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Axelrad, P., Donna, J. and Mitchell, M. (2009). Enhancing GNSS Acquisition by Combining Signals from Multiple Channels and Satellites. Proc. ION GNSS 2009. Institute of Navigation, Savannah, GA, pp. 26172628.Google Scholar
Axelrad, P., Bradley, B. K., Donna, J., Mitchell, M. and Mohiuddin, S. (2011). Collective detection and direct positioning using multiple GNSS satellites. Navigation, 58(4), 305321.10.1002/j.2161-4296.2011.tb02588.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bhatti, J. and Humphreys, T. E. (2017). Hostile control of ships via false GPS signals: Demonstration and detection. Navigation. Journal of the Institute of Navigation, 64(1), 5166.Google Scholar
Blum, R., Dütsch, N., Stoeber, C., Dampf, J. and Pany, T. (2020). New and Existing Signal Quality Monitoring Metrics Tested Against Simulations and Time Synchronized Signal Generator Attacks. Proc. ION GNSS+, 2020, 38353853.Google Scholar
Borio, D. and Akos, D. (2009). Noncoherent integrations for GNSS detection: Analysis and comparisons. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 45(1), 360375.10.1109/TAES.2009.4805285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borio, D., Camoriano, L. and Presti, L. L. (2008). Impact of GPS acquisition strategy on decision probabilities. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 44(3), 9961011.10.1109/TAES.2008.4655359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradley, B. K., Axelrad, P., Donna, J. and Mohiuddin, S. (2010). Performance Analysis of Collective Detection of Weak GPS Signals. Proc. ION GNSS 2010. Institute of Navigation, 30413053.Google Scholar
Cheong, J. W. (2011). Towards Multi-Constellation Collective Detection for Weak Signals: A Comparative Experimental Analysis. Proc. ION GNSS 2011. Institute of Navigation, Portland, OR, 3709–3719.Google Scholar
Cheong, J. W., Wu, J., Dempster, A. G. and Rizos, C. (2011). Efficient Implementation of Collective Detection. Proc. IGNSS Symposium, Sydney, Australia, 1517.Google Scholar
Cheong, J. W., Wu, J. and Dempster, A. G. (2015). Dichotomous search of coarse time error in collective detection for GPS signal acquisition. GPS Solutions, 19(1), 6172.10.1007/s10291-014-0365-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Closas, P., Fernandez-Prades, C. and Fernandez-Rubio, J. A. (2007). Maximum likelihood estimation of position in GNSS. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 14(5), 359362.10.1109/LSP.2006.888360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dehghanian, V., Nielsen, J. and Lachapelle, G. (2012). GNSS Spoofing Detection Based on Receiver C/N0 Estimates. Proc. ION GNSS 2012. Institute of Navigation, Nashville, TN, 28782884.10.1155/2012/313527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Domínguez, E., López-Almansa, J. M., Seco-Granados, G., Salcedo, J., Egea, D., Aguado, E., Lowe, D., Naberezhnykh, D., Dovis, F. and Boyero, J. P. (2015). Multi-Antenna Techniques for NLOS and Spoofing Detection Using Vehicular Real Signal Captures in Urban and Road Environments. Proc. ION GNSS 2015, Institute of Navigation, Tampa, FL, 29662982.Google Scholar
Gamba, M. T., Truong, M. D., Motella, B., Falletti, E. and Ta, T. H. (2017). Hypothesis testing methods to detect spoofing attacks: A test against the TEXBAT datasets. GPS Solutions, 21(2), 577589.10.1007/s10291-016-0548-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Han, S., Chen, L., Meng, W. and Li, C. (2017). Improve the security of GNSS receivers through spoofing mitigation. IEEE Access, 5, 105721069.10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2754414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hu, Y., Bian, S., Li, B. and Zhou, L. (2018). A novel array-based spoofing and jamming suppression method for GNSS receiver. IEEE Sensors Journal, 18(7), 29522958.10.1109/JSEN.2018.2797309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, J., Presti, L. L., Motella, B. and Pini, M. (2016). GNSS spoofing detection: Theoretical analysis and performance of the Ratio Test metric in open sky. ICT Express, 2(1), 3740.10.1016/j.icte.2016.02.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Humphreys, T. E., Ledvina, B. M., Psiaki, M. L., O'Hanlon, B. W. and Kintner, P. M. (2008). Assessing the spoofing threat: development of a portable GPS civilian spoofer. Proc. ION GNSS 2008, Institute of Navigation, Savannah, GA, 23142325.Google Scholar
Jafarnia-Jahromi, A., Broumandan, A., Nielsen, J. and Lachapelle, G. (2012a). GPS spoofer counter-measure effectiveness based on signal strength, noise power, and C/N0 measurements. International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking, 30, 181191.10.1002/sat.1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jafarnia-Jahromi, A., Lin, T., Broumandan, A., Nielsen, J. and Lachapelle, G. (2012b). Detection and Mitigation of Spoofing Attacks on a Vector-Based Tracking GPS Receiver. Proc. ION ITM 2012, Institute of Navigation, Newport Beach, CA, USA, 790800.Google Scholar
Jafarnia-Jahromi, A., Broumandan, A., Daneshmand, S., Lachapelle, G. and Ioannides, R. T. (2016). Galileo Signal Authenticity Verification Using Signal Quality Monitoring Methods. Proceedings of ICL-GNSS 2016. IEEE, Barcelona, Spain, 18.Google Scholar
Jovanovic, A., Botteron, C. and Farine, P. A. (2014). Multi-Test Detection and Protection Algorithm Against Spoofing Attacks on GNSS Receivers. Proc. IEEE/ION PLANS 2014, Monterey, CA, 12581271.10.1109/PLANS.2014.6851501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kerns, A. J., Shepard, D. P., Bhatti, J. A. and Humphreys, T. E. (2014). Unmanned aircraft capture and control via GPS spoofing. Journal of Field Robotics, 31(4), 617636.10.1002/rob.21513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Konovaltsev, A., Cuntz, M., Haettich, C. and Meurer, M. (2013). Autonomous Spoofing Detection and Mitigation in a GNSS Receiver with an Adaptive Antenna Array. Proc. ION GNSS 2013. Institute of Navigation, Nashville, TN, 29372948.Google Scholar
Li, L., Cheong, J. W., Wu, J. and Dempster, A. G. (2014). Improvement to multi-resolution collective detection in GNSS receivers. The Journal of Navigation, 67(2), 277293.10.1017/S0373463313000635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Magiera, J. and Katulski, R. (2015). Detection and mitigation of GPS spoofing based on antenna array processing. The Journal of Applied Research and Technology, 13(1), 4557.10.1016/S1665-6423(15)30004-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manfredini, E. G., Dovis, F. and Motella, B. (2014). Validation of Signal Quality Monitoring Technique Over a set of Spoofed Scenarios. Proceedings of the 7th ESA Workshop on Satellite Navigation Technologies and European Workshop on GNSS Signals and Signal Processing, NAVITEC 2014, ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, December. doi:10.1109/NAVITEC.2014.7045136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mosavi, M. R., Nasrpooya, Z. and Moazedi, M. (2016). Advanced anti-spoofing methods in tracking loop. The Journal of Navigation, 69(4), 883904.10.1017/S0373463315001010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nielsen, J., Broumandan, A. and Lachapelle, G. (2011). GNSS spoofing detection for single antenna handheld receivers. Navigation-US, 58(4), 335344.10.1002/j.2161-4296.2011.tb02590.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
O'Hanlon, B. W., Psiaki, M. L., Humphreys, T. E. and Bhatti, J. A. (2010). Real-Time Spoofing Detection in Narrow-Band Civil GPS Receiver. Proc. ION GNSS 2010. Institute of Navigation, Portland, OR, 22112220.Google Scholar
Pirsiavash, A., Broumandan, A. and Lachapelle, G. (2016). Two-Dimensional Signal Quality Monitoring for Spoofing Detection. Proceedings of the ESA/ESTEC NAVITEC, 2016) Conference, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, December 14–16.Google Scholar
Psiaki, M. L., O'Hanlon, B. W., Bhatti, J. A., Shepard, D. P. and Humphreys, T. E. (2011). Civilian GPS Spoofing Detection Based on Dual-Receiver Correlation of Military Signals. Proc. ION GNSS 2011. Institute of Navigation, Portland, OR, 26192645.Google Scholar
Psiaki, M. L., O'Hanlon, B. W., Bhatti, J. A., Shepard, D. P. and Humphreys, T. E. (2013a). GPS spoofing detection via dual-receiver correlation of military signals. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 49(4), 22502267.10.1109/TAES.2013.6621814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Psiaki, M. L., Powell, S. P. and O'Hanlon, B. W. (2013b). GNSS Spoofing Detection Using High-Frequency Antenna Motion and Carrier-Phase Data. Proc. ION GNSS 2013. Institute of Navigation, Nashville, TN, 29492991.Google Scholar
Sun, C., Cheong, J. W., Dempster, A. G., Zhao, H. and Feng, W. (2018a). GNSS spoofing detection by means of signal quality monitoring (SQM) metric combinations. IEEE Access, 2018 (6), 6642866441.10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2875948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sun, C., Cheong, J. W., Dempster, A. G., Demicheli, L., Cetin, E., Zhao, H. and Feng, W. (2018b). Moving variance-based signal quality monitoring method for spoofing detection. GPS Solutions, 22(3), 83.10.1007/s10291-018-0745-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sun, C., Cheong, J. W., Dempster, A. G., Zhao, H., Demicheli, L. and Feng, W. (2018c). A New Signal Quality Monitoring Method for Anti-Spoofing. Proc. CSNC 2018. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg and Xi'an, 221231.10.1007/978-981-13-0014-1_20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, F., Li, H. and Lu, M. (2017). GNSS spoofing detection and mitigation based on maximum likelihood estimation. Sensors - Basel, 17(7), 1532.10.3390/s17071532CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wesson, K. D., Rothlisberger, M. and Humphreys, T. (2012). Practical cryptographic civil GPS signal authentication. Navigation. Journal of The Institute of Navigation, 59(3), 177193.Google Scholar
Yang, Y., Li, H. and Lu, M. (2015). Performance Assessment of Signal Quality Monitoring Based GNSS Spoofing Detection Techniques. Proceedings of CSNC 2015. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg and Xi'an, 1: 783793.10.1007/978-3-662-46638-4_68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
1
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Recovering authentic global position system L1 signals under spoofing using dual receiver direct positioning
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Recovering authentic global position system L1 signals under spoofing using dual receiver direct positioning
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Recovering authentic global position system L1 signals under spoofing using dual receiver direct positioning
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *