Hostname: page-component-7d684dbfc8-hsbzg Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-09-26T07:14:49.426Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForArticlePurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForBookPurchase": false, "coreDisableEcommerceForElementPurchase": false, "coreUseNewShare": true, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Two-stage plasma nitridation approach for rapidly synthesizing aluminum nitride powders

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 January 2017

Mei-Chen Sung
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
Yi-Ming Kuo
Department of Environmental and Safety Engineering, Chung Hwa College of Medical Technology, Tainan 717, Taiwan
Lien-Te Hsieh
Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan
Cheng-Hsien Tsai*
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
a) Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:
Get access


The synthesis of aluminum nitride (AlN) powders from aluminum (Al) particles via a thermal nitridation process was carried out at high temperature (>900 °C) with a long reaction time (∼several hours). This study proposes a two-stage plasma-chemical synthesis process to efficiently minimize the agglomeration of Al particles, reduce the reaction time and temperature, and promote the formation of AlN powders. In the first stage, partially nitrided Al powders were produced at temperatures lower than 600 °C in atmospheric-pressure microwave N2 plasma. The particle size of the as-prepared powders was similar to that of the original Al powders. In the second stage, the reaction temperature was increased to 700–800 °C and the reaction time was less than 5 min in N2 plasma. Well-dispersed AlN powders with almost no agglomeration were produced. Moreover, the particle size was lower than that of the original Al.

Copyright © Materials Research Society 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Contributing Editor: Yanchun Zhou



Kim, K.: Plasma synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline aluminum nitride particles by aluminum plasma jet discharge. J. Cryst. Growth 283, 540546 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paul, R.K., Song, H.Y., Lee, K.H., and Lee, B.T.: Formation of AlN nanowires using Al powder. Mater. Chem. Phys. 112, 562565 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Selvaduray, G. and Sheet, L.: Aluminum nitride: Review of synthesis methods. Mater. Sci. Technol. Ser. 9, 463473 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fu, R., Zhou, H., Chen, L., and Wu, Y.: Synthesis of aluminum nitride fibres from aluminum silicate fibres by carbothermal reduction method. J. Mater. Sci. 34, 36053608 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, M.C., Tsai, M.S., and Wu, N.C.: Effect of heat treatment on phase transformation of aluminum nitride ultrafine powder prepared by chemical vapor deposition. J. Cryst. Growth 210, 487495 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Radwan, M. and Bahgat, M.: A modified direct nitridation method for formation of nano-AlN whiskers. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 181, 99105 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chung, S.L., Yu, W.L., and Liu, C.N.: A self-propagating high temperature synthesis method for synthesis of AlN powder. J. Mater. Res. 14, 19281933 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin, C.N., Hsieh, C.Y., Chung, S.L., Cheng, J., and Agrawal, D.K.: Combustion synthesis of AlN powder and its sintering properties. Allerton Press Inc 13, 93106 (2004).Google Scholar
Shahien, M., Yamada, M., Yasui, T., and Fukumoto, M.: Influence of NH4Cl powder addition for fabrication of aluminum nitride coating in reactive atmospheric plasma spray process. J. Therm. Spray Technol. 20, 205212 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yu, S., Li, D., Sun, H., Li, H., Yang, H., and Zou, G.: Microanalysis of single-phase AlN nanocrystals and AlN-Al nanocomposites prepared by DC arc-discharge. J. Cryst. Growth 183, 284288 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Renevier, N., Czerwiec, T., Billard, A., Stebut, J.V., and Michel, H.: A way to decrease the nitriding temperature of aluminum: The low-pressure arc-assisted nitriding process. Surf. Coat. Technol. 116, 380385 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zheng, X., Ren, Z., Li, X., and Wang, Y.: Microstructural characterization and mechanical properties of nitrided layers on aluminum substrate prepared by nitrogen arc. Appl. Surf. Sci. 259, 508514 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chazels, C., Coudert, J.F., Jarrige, J., and Fauchais, P.: Synthesis of ultra fine particles by plasma transferred arc: Influence of anode material on particle properties. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26, 34993507 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iwata, M., Adachi, K., Furukawa, S., and Amakawa, T.: Synthesis of purified AlN nano powder by transferred type arc plasma. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 10411047 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheng, H., Sun, Y., and Hing, P.: The influence of deposition conditions on structure and morphology of aluminum nitride films deposited by radio frequency reactive sputtering. Thin Solid Films 434, 112120 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Galca, A.C., Stan, G.E., Trinca, L.M., Negrila, C.C., and Nistor, L.C.: Structural and optical properties of c-axis oriented aluminum nitride thin films prepared at low temperature by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. Thin Solid Films 524, 328333 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park, J.R., Rhee, S.W., and Lee, K.H.: Gas-phase synthesis of AlN powders from AlCl3–NH3–N2 . J. Mater. Sci. 28, 5764 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kinemuchi, Y., Murai, K., Sangurai, C., Cho, C.H., Suematsu, H., Jiang, W., and Yatsui, K.: Nanosize powders of aluminum nitride synthesized by pulsed wire discharge. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 86, 420424 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ishihara, S., Suematsu, H., Nakayama, T., Suzuki, T., and Niihara, K.: Synthesis of nanosized alumina powders by pulsed wire discharge in air flow atmosphere. Ceram. Int. 38, 44774484 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sangurai, C., Kinemuchi, Y., Suzuki, T., Jiang, W., and Yatsui, K.: Synthesis of nanosize powders of aluminum nitride by pulsed wire discharge. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 10701072 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, C.H., Kao, L.H., Chen, M.J., Wang, Y.F., and Tsai, C.H.: Rapid preparation of aluminum nitride powders by using microwave plasma. J. Alloys Compd. 542, 7884 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Axelbaum, R.L., Lottes, C.R., Huertas, J.I., and Rosen, L.J.: Gas-phase combustion synthesis of aluminum nitride powder. Symp. (Int.) Combust. 26, 18911897 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenband, V. and Gany, A.: Activation of combustion synthesis of aluminum nitride powder. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 147, 197203 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuang, J.C., Zang, C.R., Zhou, X.G., and Wang, S.Q.: Synthesis of high thermal conductivity nano-scale aluminum nitride by a new carbothermal reduction method form combustion precursor. J. Cryst. Growth 256, 288291 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kameshima, Y., Irie, M., Yasumori, A., and Okada, K.: Mechanochemical effect on low temperature synthesis of AlN by direct nitridation method. Solid State Ionics 172, 182190 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shi, Z., Radwan, M., Kirihara, S., Miyamoto, Y., and Jin, Z.: Morphology-controlled synthesis of quasi-aligned AlN nanowhiskers by combustion method: Effect of NH4Cl additive. Ceram. Int. 35, 27272733 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Qiu, Y. and Gao, L.: Nitridation reaction of aluminum powder in flowing ammonia. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 23, 20152022 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Timmermans, E.A.H., Jonkers, J., Rodero, A., Quintero, M.C., Sola, A., Gamero, A., Schram, D.C., and Mullen van der, J.A.M.: The behavior of molecules in microwave-induced plasma studies by optical emission spectroscopy. 2: Plasma at reduced pressure. Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 54, 10851098 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hsueh, H.P., McGrath, R.T., Ji, B., Felker, B.S., Langan, J.G., and Karwacki, E.J.: Ion energy distribution and optical emission spectra in NF3-based process chamber plasma. J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 19, 13471357 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sun, Q., Zhu, A.M., Yang, X.F., Niu, J.H., Xu, Y., Song, Z.M., and Liu, J.: Plasmacatalytic selective reduction of NO with C2H4 in the presence of excess oxygen. Chin. Chem. Lett. 16, 839842 (2005).Google Scholar
Deng, X.T., Shi, J.J., and Kong, M.G.: Protein destruction by a helium atmospheric pressure glow discharge: Capability and mechanisms. J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074701-1074701-9 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ageorges, H., Megy, S., Chang, K., Baronnet, J.M., Williams, J.K., and Chapman, C.: Synthesis of aluminum nitride in transferred arc plasma furnaces. Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 13, 613632 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jeong, B.Y. and Kim, M.H.: Effects of the process parameters on the layer formation behavior of plasma nitrided steel. Surf. Coat. Technol. 141, 182189 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar