Hostname: page-component-7d8f8d645b-dvxft Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-05-29T00:30:07.009Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Synthesis of nickel sulfides of different phases for counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells by a solvothermal method with different solvents

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 April 2014

Xiao Yang
Affiliation:
School of Physics and Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China
Lei Zhou
Affiliation:
School of Physics and Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China
Ali Feng
Affiliation:
School of Physics and Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China
Huaibao Tang
Affiliation:
School of Physics and Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China
Haijun Zhang
Affiliation:
School of Physics and Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China
Zongling Ding
Affiliation:
School of Physics and Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China
Yongqing Ma*
Affiliation:
School of Physics and Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China
Mingzai Wu
Affiliation:
School of Physics and Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China
Shaowei Jin
Affiliation:
School of Physics and Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China
Guang Li*
Affiliation:
Anhui Key Laboratory of Information Materials and Devices, Hefei 230601, China
*
a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: liguang1971@ahu.edu.cn
Get access

Abstract

Two phases of nickel sulfide (α-NiS and β-NiS) nanoarchitectures were successfully and controllably synthesized by a facile solvothermal method with two different solvents of alcohol and water, respectively. The products were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. The sphere-like shape for α-NiS and cross-like shape composed of nanorods for β-NiS are uniform and well distributed as well as their size. Both α-NiS and β-NiS powders were used as counter electrodes (CEs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). It is found that the DSSC with an α-NiS CE performs much better than the one with a β-NiS CE. The energy conversion efficiency of the former was 5.2%, whereas the latter was 4.2%, about 20% increment.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

Oregan, B. and Grätzel, M.: A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films. Nature 353, 737740 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ito, S., Murakami, T.N., Comte, P., Liska, P., Grätzel, C., Nazeeruddin, M.K., and Grätzel, M.: Fabrication of thin film dye sensitized solar cells with solar to electric power conversion efficiency over 10%. Thin Solid Films 516, 46134619 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hagfeldt, A., Boschloo, G., Sun, L.C., Kloo, L., and Pettersson, H.: Dye-sensitized solar cells. Chem. Rev. 110, 65956663 (2010).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Prasittichai, C. and Hupp, J.T.: Surface modification of SnO2 photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells: Significant improvements in photovoltage via Al2O3 atomic layer deposition. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 16111615 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yella, A., Lee, H.W., Tsao, H.N., Yi, C., Chandiran, A.K., Nazeeruddin, M.K., Diau, E.W.G., Yeh, C.Y., Zakeeruddin, S.M., and Grätzel, M.: Porphyrin-sensitized solar cells with cobalt (II/III)–based redox electrolyte exceed 12 percent efficiency. Science 334, 629634 (2011).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, M., Anghel, A.M., Marsan, B., Ha, N.L.C., Pootrakulchote, N., Zakeeruddin, S.M., and Grätzel, M.: CoS supersedes Pt as efficient electrocatalyst for triiodide reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 1597615977 (2009).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Li, Z., Gong, F., Zhou, G., and Wang, Z-S.: NiS2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for efficient dyesensitized solar cells. J. Phys. Chem. C 117, 65616566 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, X. and Yang, H.G.: Low-cost SnSx counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Chem. Commun. 49, 57935795 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park, J., Koo, B., Yoon, K.Y., Hwang, Y., Kang, M., Park, J-G., and Hyeon, T.: Generalized synthesis of metal phosphide nanorods via thermal decomposition of continuously delivered metal–phosphine complexes using a syringe pump. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 84338440 (2005).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tai, S.Y., Liu, C.J., Chou, S.W., Chien, F.S-S., Lin, J-Y., and Lin, T-W.: Few-layer MoS2 nanosheets coated onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes as a low-cost and highly electrocatalytic counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. 22, 2475324759 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fang, B., Fan, S-Q., Kim, J.H., Kim, M-S., Kim, M., Chaudhari, N.K., Ko, J., and Yu, J-S.: Incorporating hierarchical nanostructured carbon counter electrode into metal-free organic dye-sensitized solar cell. Langmuir 26, 1123811243 (2010).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pan, Q., Xie, J., Liu, S.Y., Cao, G.S., Zhu, T.J., and Zhao, X.B.: Facile one-pot synthesis of ultrathin NiS nanosheets anchored on graphene and the improved electrochemical Li-storage properties. RSC Adv. 3, 38993906 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sohrabnezhad, S., Pourahmad, A., Sadjadi, M.S., and Zanjanchi, M.A.: Growth and characterization of NiS and NiCoS nanoparticles in mordenite zeolite host. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 28, 202205 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larsson, S.: Localization of electrons and excitations. Chem. Phys. 326 115122 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ku, Z.L. and Han, H.W.: Transparent NiS counter electrodes for thiolate/disulfide mediated dye-sensitized solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. A 1, 237240 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sun, H.C., Qin, D., Huang, S.Q., Guo, X.Z., Li, D.M., Luo, Y.H., and Meng, Q.B.: Dye-sensitized solar cells with NiS counter electrodes electrodeposited by a potential reversal technique. Energy Environ. Sci. 4, 26302637 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ghezelbash, A., Sigman, M.B., and Korgel, B.A.: Solventless synthesis of nickel sulfide nanorods and triangular nanoprisms. Nano Lett. 4, 537542 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hupp, J.T. and Poeppelmeier, K.R.: Better living through nanopore chemistry. Science 309, 20082009 (2005).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gou, X.L., Cheng, F.Y., Shi, Y.H., Zhang, L., Peng, S.J., Chen, H., and Shen, P.W.: Shape-controlled synthesis of ternary chalcogenide ZnIn2S4 and CuIn(S,Se)2 nano-/microstructures via facile solution route. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 72227229 (2006).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abdelhady, A.L., Malik, M.A., O'Brien, P., and Tuna, F.: Nickel and iron sulfide nanoparticles from thiobiurets. J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 22532259 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roosen, A.R. and Carter, W.C.: Simulations of microstructural evolution: Anisotropic growth and coarsening. Physica A 261, 232247 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, H., Chai, L., Wang, X., Xi, G., Liu, Y., and Qian, Y.: Hydrothermal, growth and morphology modification of β-NiS three-dimensional flowerlike architectures. Cryst. Growth Des. 7, 19181922 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Du, Y.P., Yin, Z.Y., Zhu, J.X., Huang, X., Wu, X.J., Zeng, Z.Y., Yan, Q. Y., and Zhang, H.: A general method for the large-scale synthesis of uniform ultrathin metal sulphide nanocrystals. Nat. Commun. 3, 11771183 (2012).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hu, Y., Chen, J.F., Chen, W.M., Lin, X.H., and Li, X.L.: Synthesis of novel sulfide submicrometer hollow spheres. Adv. Mater. 15, 726729 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakamura, M., Fujimori, A., Sacchi, M., Fuggle, J.C., Misu, A., mamori, T., Tamura, H., Matoba, M., and Anzai, S.: Metal-nonmetal transition in NiS induced by Fe and Co substitution: X-ray-absorption spectroscopic study. Phys. Rev. B 48, 1694216947 (1993).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nyari, T., Barvinschi, P., Bǎies, R., Vlǎzan, P., Barvinschi, F., and Dekany, I.: Experimental and numerical results in hydrothermal synthesis of CuInS2 compound semiconductor nanocrystals. J. Cryst. Growth 275, e2383e2387 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Okamura, H., Naitoh, J., Nanba, T., Matoba, M., Nishioka, M., Anzai, S., Shimoyama, I., Fukui, K., Miura, H., Nakagawa, H., Nakagawa, K., and Kinoshita, T.: Optical study of the metal–nonmetal transition in Ni1-δS. Solid State Commun. 112, 9195 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cho, S., Hwang, S.H., Kim, C., and Jang, J.: Polyaniline porous counter-electrodes for high performance dye-sensitized solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. 22, 1216412171(2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yella, A., Lee, H-W., Tsao, H.N., Yi, C., Chandiran, A.K., Nazeeruddin, M.K., Diau, E.W-G., Yeh, C-Y., Zakeeruddin, S.M., and Grätzel, M.: Porphyrin-sensitized solar cells with cobalt (II/III)–based redox electrolyte exceed 12 percent efficiency. Science 334, 629633 (2011).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grätzel, M.: Dye-sensitized solar cells. J. Phys. Chem. C 4, 145153(2003).Google Scholar
Jiang, Q.W., Li, G.R., and Gao, X.P.: Highly ordered TiN nanotube arrays as counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Chem. Commun. 44, 67206722 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nazeeruddin, M.K., Kay, A., Rodicio, I., Humphry-Baker, R., Muller, E., Liska, P., Vlachopoulos, N., and Grätzel, M.: Conversion of light to electricity by cis-X2bis (2,2′-bipyridyl-4,4′-dicarboxylate) ruthenium(II) charge-transfer sensitizers (X = Cl, Br, I, CN, and SCN–) on nanocrystalline titanium dioxide electrodes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 63826390 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, X.N., Zhang, J., Cui, Y.Y., Feng, J.J., and Zhu, Y.J.: Carbon/polymer composite counter-electrode application in dye-sensitized solar cells. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 128, 7579 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar