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Nitrogen and vacancy clusters in ZnO

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 July 2013

Filip Tuomisto*
Affiliation:
Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
Christian Rauch
Affiliation:
Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
Markus R. Wagner
Affiliation:
ICN2 - Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain; andInstitute of Solid State Physics, Technical University Berlin, 10623 Berlin, Germany
Axel Hoffmann
Affiliation:
Institute of Solid State Physics, Technical University Berlin, 10623 Berlin, Germany
Sebastian Eisermann
Affiliation:
I. Physics Institute, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, 35392 Giessen, Germany
Bruno K. Meyer
Affiliation:
I. Physics Institute, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, 35392 Giessen, Germany
Lukasz Kilanski
Affiliation:
Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw, Poland
Marianne C. Tarun
Affiliation:
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, 99164-2814
Matthew D. McCluskey
Affiliation:
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, 99164-2814
*
a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail: filip.tuomisto@aalto.fi
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Abstract

Understanding the interaction of group V impurities with intrinsic defects in ZnO is important for developing p-type material. We have studied N-doped ZnO thin films and N-doped bulk ZnO crystals, with positron annihilation spectroscopy, in contrast to earlier studies that have concentrated on N-implanted ZnO crystals. We show that the introduction of N impurities into ZnO, irrespective of whether it is done during the growth of thin films or bulk crystals or through implantation and subsequent thermal treatments, leads to the formation of stable vacancy clusters and negative ion-type defects. Interestingly, the stability of these vacancy clusters is found almost exclusively for N introduction, whereas single Zn vacancy defects or easily removable vacancy clusters are more typically found for ZnO doped with other impurities.

Type
Invited Feature Paper
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2013 

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References

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