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Hetero-epitaxy of high quality germanium film on silicon substrate for optoelectronic integrated circuit applications

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 September 2017

Kwang Hong Lee*
Low Energy Electronic Systems (LEES), Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), Singapore 138602, Singapore
Shuyu Bao
Low Energy Electronic Systems (LEES), Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), Singapore 138602, Singapore; and School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore
Yiding Lin
Low Energy Electronic Systems (LEES), Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), Singapore 138602, Singapore; and School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore
Wei Li
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore
P Anantha
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore
Lin Zhang
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore
Yue Wang*
Low Energy Electronic Systems (LEES), Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), Singapore 138602, Singapore
Jurgen Michel
Low Energy Electronic Systems (LEES), Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), Singapore 138602, Singapore; and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
Eugene A. Fitzgerald
Low Energy Electronic Systems (LEES), Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), Singapore 138602, Singapore; and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
Chuan Seng Tan*
Low Energy Electronic Systems (LEES), Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), Singapore 138602, Singapore; and School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore
a) Address all correspondence to these authors. e-mail:
b) e-mail:
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Integration of photonic devices on silicon (Si) substrates is a key method in enabling large scale manufacturing of Si-based photonic–electronic circuits for next generation systems with high performance, small form factor, low power consumption, and low cost. Germanium (Ge) is a promising material due to its pseudo-direct bandgap and its compatibility with Si-CMOS processing. In this article, we present our recent progress on achieving high quality germanium-on-silicon (Ge/Si) materials. Subsequently, the performance of various functional devices such as photodetectors, lasers, waveguides, and sensors that are fabricated on the Ge/Si platform are discussed. Some possible future works such as the incorporation of tin (Sn) into Ge will be proposed. Finally, some applications based on a fully monolithic integrated photonic–electronic chip on an Si platform will be highlighted at the end of this article.

Invited Article
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2017 

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Contributing Editor: Mmantsae Diale



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