Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-lmg95 Total loading time: 0.439 Render date: 2021-10-18T18:24:20.152Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

SAME-SEX RELATIONS AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH: HOW LAW AND DOCTRINE HAVE EVOLVED, 1820–2020

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 January 2020

Charles J. Reid Jr.*
Affiliation:
Professor, School of Law, University of St. Thomas

Abstract

This article surveys the evolution of the Catholic Church's official response to same-sex relations over the last two centuries. While the church has not altered its condemnation of same-sex relations, the justifications it offers for this negative judgment have shifted substantially, and they have moved, especially recently, in a direction that makes possible the acceptance of same-sex relations at some future—and perhaps not too-distant—date. This article explores the manualist tradition of the nineteenth and early to mid-twentieth centuries; twentieth-century developments in canon law; and the period of retrenchment and reaction under popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI. Its final section looks at developments under Pope Francis. It closes by considering the way the church's teaching shifted over the course of its history—penance and the forgiveness of sins; anti-Semitism; and the sin against natural-law of taking interest on a loan (usury). It proposes that we might witness the church undergo a similar shift on same-sex relations.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Center for the Study of Law and Religion at Emory University 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1 Curran, Charles E., The Origins of Moral Theology in the United States: Three Different Approaches (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1997), 54Google Scholar.

2 [T]he manualist genre saw itself as prizing conservatism and continuity, not innovation.Lacey, Michael J. and Oakley, Francis, The Crisis of Authority in Catholic Modernity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 240CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

3 McClendon, James William, Ethics: Systematic Theology, rev. ed. (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 2002), 74Google Scholar.

4 Pilario, Daniel Franklin, Back to the Rough Ground of Praxis: Exploring Theological Method with Pierre Bourdieu (Leuven: Peeters, 2005), 263Google Scholar.

5 Bohr, David, Catholic Moral Tradition, Revised, rev. ed. (1999; repr., Eugene: Wipf and Stock, 2006), 70Google Scholar.

6 Gallagher, John A., Time Past, Time Future: An Historical Study of Catholic Moral Theology (1990; repr., Eugene: Wipf and Stock, 2003), 37Google Scholar.

7 Himes, Michael J., “The Development of Ecclesiology: Modernity to the Twentieth Century,” in The Gift of the Church: A Textbook on Ecclesiology in Honor of Patrick C. Granfield, O.S.B., ed. Phan, Peter C. (Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 2000), 4567, at 61Google Scholar.

8 Duffy, Eamon, Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes, 2nd ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006), 293300Google Scholar.

9 Raedts, Peter, “The Church as Nation-State: A New Look at Ultra-Montane Catholicism (1850–1900),” Nederlands archief voor kerkgeschiedenis 84, no. 1 (2004): 476–96, at 483–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

10 Francis, Mark R., “Liturgy and Popular Piety in a Historical Perspective,” in Directory on Popular Piety and Liturgy: Principles and Guidelines, ed. Phan, Peter C. (Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 2005), 19–43, at 4041Google Scholar.

11 Seasholtz, R. Kevin, A Virtuous Church: Catholic Theology, Ethics, and Liturgy for the Twenty-First Century (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 2012), 104Google Scholar.

12 Lauchert, Friedrich, “Joseph Ambrose Stapf,” Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 14 (1913)Google Scholar, Wikisource, April 2013, https://en.wikisource.org/w/index.php?title=Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Joseph_Ambrose_Stapf&oldid=4397882.

13 Lauchert, “Joseph Ambrose Stapf.”

14 Healy, James, The Just Wage, 1750–1890: A Study of the Moralists from Saint Alphonsus to Leo XIII (Berlin: Springer, 1966), 292–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

15 Stapf, Joseph Ambrose, Theologia Moralis in Compendium Redacta [Compendium of moral theology], 5th ed., vol. 2 (Innsbruck: Wagner, 1841), 306–07Google Scholar.

16 Stapf, Theologica Moralis, 304–05.

17 Stapf, 306 (the other crimes against nature included masturbation and bestiality). All translations from the Latin in the text and notes are mine.

18 Stapf, 306. Cf. Fantina, Richard, Straight Writ Queer: Non-Normative Expressions of Heterosexuality in Literature (Jefferson: McFarland, 2006), 17Google Scholar (providing the history of this distinction).

19 Stapf, Theologial Moralis, 307 (“quae ad animum ab hac nefanda ipsius naturae contumelia”).

20 Stapf, 306.

21 Stapf, 306.

22 Gousset, J., Le Cardinal Gousset: sa vie, ses ouvrages, son influence [Cardinal Gouset: His life, his work, his influence] (Besançon: Henri Bossane, 1903), 512Google Scholar (“un moraliste d'un jugement et d'un tact remarquable”).

23 Guerber, Jean, La ralliement du clergé français à la morale liguorienne: L'abbé Gousset et ses précurseurs (1785–1832) [The rally of French clergy to Liguorian morality: Abbot Gousset and his precursors] (Rome: Università Pontificia Gregoriana Editrice, 1973), 213–27Google Scholar.

24 Gousset, Thomas Marie Joseph, Théologie morale à l'usage des curés et des confesseurs [Moral theology for use by priests and confessors], 5th ed., vol. 1 (Paris: Jacques Lecoffre, 1848), 300–01Google Scholar.

25 Gousset, Théologie morale, 300.

26 Gousset, Théologie morale, 301.

27 O'Hanlon, John Canon, “The Two Kenricks,” American Catholic Quarterly Review 17, no. 66 (1892): 382406, at 391–92Google Scholar.

28 Longley, Max, For the Union and the Catholic Church: Four Converts in the Civil War (Jefferson: McFarland, 2015), 11Google Scholar.

29 Curran, Charles E., Catholic Moral Theology in the United States: A History (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2008), 14Google Scholar; Kochuthara, Shaji George, The Concept of Sexual Pleasure in the Catholic Moral Tradition (Rome: Editrice Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 2007), 243Google Scholar.

30 Kenrick, Francis, Theologia Moralis [Moral theology], vol. 1 (Mechelen: H. Dessain, 1861), 84Google Scholar.

31 Kenrick, Theologia Moralis, 84. The secular criminal codes of the latter Middle Ages and early modern period, which Kenrick seems to have in mind, sometimes subjected gay persons to death by burning at the stake. Coward, D. A., “Attitudes to Homosexuality in Eighteenth-Century France,” Journal of European Studies 10, no. 40 (1980): 231–55, at 231–33CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed. Sodomy and heresy were often equated in the criminal courts. The German criminal code, the Constitutio Criminalis Carolina, similarly imposed burning for both offenses, but the punishment for sodomy was often commuted to decapitation. Puff, Helmut, Sodomy in Reformation Germany and Switzerland: 1400–1600 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), 29Google Scholar; see also Burgwinkle, William E., Sodomy, Masculinity, and Law in Medieval Literature: France and England, 1050–1230 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 201CrossRefGoogle Scholar (for further details).

32 Devoti, Giovanni, Institutiones Canonicae [Canonical institutions], 4th ed., vol. 4 (Venice: Sebastianus Valle, 1827), 145Google Scholar.

33 Devoti, Institutiones Canonicae, 145.

34 Ballerini, Antonio and Palmieri, Domenico, Opus Theologicum Morale [Comprehensive moral theology], vol. 2 (Prato: Giachetti, 1890), 721–27Google Scholar.

35 Ballerini and Palmieri, Opus Theologicum Morale, 726.

36 Ballerini and Palmieri, 722.

37 Varceno, Gabriele de, ed., Compendium Theologiae Moralis [Compendium of moral theology], vol. 1 (Turin: Marietti, 1872), 263–64Google Scholar.

38 Flipper, Joseph S., Between Apocalypse and Eschaton: History and Eternity in Henri de Lubac (Minneapolis: Fortress, 2015), 41CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

39 Barnett, S. J., The Enlightenment and Religion: The Myths of Modernity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 183Google Scholar.

40 Reese, Thomas J., Inside the Vatican: The Politics and Organization of the Catholic Church (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996), 1718Google Scholar.

41 Massaro, Thomas, “The Social Question in the Papacy of Leo XIII,” in The Papacy Since 1500: From Italian Prince to Universal Pastor, ed. Corkery, James and Worcester, Thomas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 143–61, at 147Google Scholar.

42 Coppa, Frank J., The Modern Papacy Since 1789 (1998; repr., New York: Routledge, 2013), 136Google Scholar.

43 Binchy, Daniel A., “The Papacy in a Changing World,” Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review 26, no. 104 (1937): 641–47, at 643–45Google Scholar.

44 Bequette, John P., Christian Humanism: Creation, Redemption, and Reintegration (Lanham: University Press of America, 2007), 9293Google Scholar; Charles J. Reid, Jr., “Catholics Must Honor Labor,” (blog), Huffington Post, September 5, 2016 (updated September 5, 2017) https://www.huffpost.com/entry/catholics-must-honor-labo_b_11863226.

45 Schelkens, Karim, Dick, John A., and Mettepenningen, Jürgen, Aggiornamento? Catholicism from Gregory XVI to Benedict XVI (Leiden: Brill, 2013), 6567Google Scholar.

46 Coughlin, John J., Canon Law: A Comparative Study with Anglo-American Legal Theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 3536Google Scholar.

47 Metz, René, “Pouvoir, centralisation, et droit: La codification du droit de l’Église catholique au début du XXe siècle” [Power, centralization, and law: the codification of Catholic Church law in the early twentieth century] Archives de sciences sociales des religions 51, no. 1 (1981): 4964, at 49, 51–52, 58–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

48 Keenan, James F., A History of Catholic Moral Theology in the Twentieth Century: From Confessing Sins to Liberating Consciences (London: Continuum, 2010), 18Google Scholar.

49 Gury, J. P., Compendium Theologiae Moralis, edited for seminaries by Sabetti, Aloysius, 15th ed. prepared by Barrett, A. Timothy (Cincinnati: Frederick Pustet, 1916), 278Google Scholar.

50 Vermeersch, Arthur, De Castitate et de Vitiis Contrariis: Tractatus Doctrinalis et Moralis [On chastity and the sins against it: A doctrinal and moral treatise] (Rome: Università Pontificia Gregoriana, 1921), 335Google Scholar (sodomy as violation of nature), 338 (comparison to bestiality). Vermeersch thought that bestiality might be slightly worse than sodomy but that it was a distinction almost without a difference. Vermeersch, De Castitate et de Vitiis Contrariis, 338.

51 Slater, Thomas, A Manual of Moral Theology, 6th ed. (London: Burns, Oates, and Washbourn, 1928), 217Google Scholar.

52 Lehmkuhl, Augustine, Theologia Moralis, vol. 1, 10th ed. (Freiburg: Herder, 1902), 525Google Scholar.

53 Lehmkuhl, Theologia Moralis, 525.

54 Ferreres, Giovanni, Compendium Theologiae Moralis ad Normam Codicis Canonici [Compendium of moral theology with respect to the code of canon law], vol. 1 (Barcelona: Eugenius Subirana, 1925), 383Google Scholar.

55 Ferreres, Compendium Theologiae Moralis, 383.

56 Prümmer, Dominicus, Manuale Theologiae Moralis secundum Principia S. Thomae Aquinitatis [Manual of moral theology according to principles of St. Thomas Aquinas], 3 vols. (Freiburg: Herder and Company, 1931), 1:244Google Scholar.

57 Prümmer, Manuale Theologiae Moralis, 2:543.

58 Prümmer, 2:543.

59 Prümmer, Dominicus, Manuale Juris Ecclesiastici [Manual of ecclesiastical law] (Freiburg: Herder and Company, 1920), 650Google Scholar.

60 Wouters, Ludovicus, Manuale Theologiae Moralis [Manual of moral theology], 2 vols. (Bruges: Beyaert, 1932), 2:697Google Scholar.

61 Wouters, Manuale Theologiae Moralis, 1:33.

62 Wouters, 1:33.

63 Odozor, Paulinus Ikechukwo, “Christology and Moral Theology,” in “Christology,” ed. McMahon, Christopher and McCarthy, David Matzko, special issue, Journal of Moral Theology 2, no. 1 (2013): 24, 28Google Scholar.

64 Leslie C. Griffin, “Catholic Moral Theology at the Supreme Court,” America, July 2, 2014, https://www.americamagazine.org/content/all-things/catholic-moral-theology-supreme-court.

65 Davis, Henry, Moral and Pastoral Theology, 4th ed., 4 vols. (New York: Sheed and Ward, 1943), 2:246 (In Latin.)Google Scholar

66 Davis, Moral and Pastoral Theology, 2:246.

67 Davis, 2:246.

68 Davis, 2:246. See also Romans, 1:26–27.

69 Petri, Thomas, Aquinas and the Theology of the Body (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2016), 4142CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

70 Buckley, Michael J., Morality and the Homosexual: A Catholic Approach to a Moral Problem (Westminster: Newman Press, 1960), 150Google Scholar. In the same paragraph, Buckley considered the claim “that the homosexual is such by the will of God and is [not] to be blamed for the direction of his sexual drive.” This proposition, Buckley found contrary to “revealed truth” and “reason.” Buckley, 150.

71 Crompton, Louis, Homosexuality and Civilization (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003), 205Google Scholar.

72 Jordan, Mark D., The Invention of Sodomy in Christian Theology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997), 4551Google Scholar.

73 Clark, David, Between Medieval Men: Male Friendships and Desire in Early Medieval English Literature (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 62CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Holsinger, Bruce W., Music, Body, and Desire In Medieval Culture: Hildegard of Bingen to Chaucer (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001), 157Google Scholar; Sharpe, Richard, “Appendix: The Prefaces of Quadripartitus,” in Law and Government in Medieval England and Normandy: Essays in Honour of Sir James Holt, ed. Garnett, George and Hudson, John (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 148–72, at 153n25Google Scholar.

74 Bodnár, István, “The Problemata Physica: An Introduction,” in The Aristotelian Problemata Physica: Philosophical and Scientific Investigations, ed. Mayhew, Robert (Leiden: Brill, 2014), 110Google Scholar.

75 Hoenen, Maarten J. F. M. and Leemans, Pieter de, “Pietro d'Abano between Text and Tradition: Introduction,” in Between Text and Tradition: The Reception of Pseudo-Aristotle's Problemata Physica in the Middle Ages, ed. de Leemans, Pieter and Hoenen, Maarten J. F. M. (Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2016), xixivi, at xivCrossRefGoogle Scholar.

76 Borris, Kenneth, ed., Same-Sex Desire in the English Renaissance: A Sourcebook of Texts, 1470–1650 (New York: Routledge, 2004), 116–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

77 Joan Cadden, “Sex and Sensibilities in the Medieval Problemata Tradition: Pietro d'Abano and His Readers,” in Leemans and Hoenen, Between Text and Tradition, 53–80, at 69–75; Wallis, Faith, “Giulio Guastavini's Commentary on Pseudo-Aristotle's Account of Male Same-Sex Coitus,” in The Sciences of Homosexuality in Early Modern Europe, ed. Borris, Kenneth and Rousseau, George (New York: Routledge, 2008), 5773Google Scholar; Greenberg, David F., The Construction of Homosexuality (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), 278CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

78 Gardella, Peter, Innocent Ecstasy: How Christianity Gave America an Ethic of Sexual Pleasure (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985), 3738Google Scholar.

79 Farley, Margaret A., “Sexual Ethics,” in Sexuality and the Sacred: Sources of Theological Reflection, ed. Nelson, James B. and Longfellow, Sandra P. (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1994), 5470, at 64–65Google Scholar.

80 Lawler, Ronald, Boyle, Joseph Jr., and May, William E., Catholic Sexual Ethics: A Summary, Explanation, and Defense, 2nd ed. (Huntington: Our Sunday Visitor Press, 1998), 122–39Google Scholar.

81 Phillips, Roderick, Untying the Knot: A Short History of Divorce (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 103Google Scholar; Jones, Karen, Gender and Petty Crimes in Late Medieval England: The Local Courts in Kent, 1460–1560 (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2006), 136–37Google Scholar.

82 Portmann, John, A History of Sin: Its Evolution to Today and Beyond (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007), 8398Google Scholar; Tentler, Leslie Woodcock, Catholics and Contraception: An American History (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004), 9293Google Scholar.

83 Mormando, Franco, The Preacher's Demons: Bernardino of Siena and the Social Underworld of Early Renaissance Italy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 121–30Google Scholar.

84 Dinshaw, Carolyn, Getting Medieval: Sexualities and Communities, Pre- and Postmodern (Durham: Duke University Press, 1999), 67CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

85 Davis, Whitney, Queer Beauty: Sexuality and Aesthetics from Winckelmann to Freud and Beyond (New York: Columbia University Press, 2010), 244CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

86 Tobin, Robert Deam, Peripheral Desires: The German Discovery of Sex (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015), 16CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Robb, Graham, Strangers: Homosexual Love in the Nineteenth Century (New York: W. W. Norton, 2003), 6768Google Scholar.

87 Tobin, Robert Deam, “Kertbeny, ‘Homosexuality,’ and the Language of Nationalism,” in Genealogies of Identity: Interdisciplinary Readings on Sex and Sexuality, ed. Breen, Margaret Sönser and Peters, Fiona (Amsterdam: Rodolpi, 2005), 318, at 5Google Scholar.

88 Robinson, Paul A., “Havelock Ellis and Modern Sexual Theory,” Salmagundi, no. 21 (1973): 2762, at 49Google Scholar.

89 Oram, Alison, “A Sudden Orgy of Decadence: Writing about Sex between Women in the Interwar Popular Press,” in Sapphic Modernities: Sexuality, Women, and National Culture, ed. Doan, Laura and Garrity, Jane (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), 165–82, at 183, 186CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

90 Brink, Andrew, “Havelock Ellis: Eros and Explanation,” Russell: The Journal of Bertrand Russell Studies, no. 37–40 (1980): 5964Google Scholar; Black, Allida M., “Perverting the Diagnosis: The Lesbian and the Scientific Basis of Stigma,” Historical Reflections 20, no. 2 (1994): 201–16, at 208Google Scholar.

91 Clarke, Victoria, Ellis, Sonja J., Peel, Elizabeth, and Riggs, Damien W., Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Queer Psychology: An Introduction (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 8CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

92 Ekins, Richard and King, Dave, The Transgender Phenomenon (London: Sage, 2006), 62Google Scholar.

93 Stok, Fabio, “Psychology,” in A Companion to the Classical Tradition, ed. Kallendorf, Craig W. (Malden: Blackwell, 2007), 355–70, at 355, 367CrossRefGoogle Scholar. See generally, Armstrong, Richard H., A Compulsion for Antiquity: Freud and the Ancient World (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005)Google Scholar.

94 Freud, Sigmund, Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, Strachey, James, ed. and trans. (New York: Basic Books, 2000), 8385Google Scholar.

95 Cordón, Luis A., Freud's World: An Encyclopedia of His Life and Times (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2012), 192Google Scholar.

96 Edsall, Nicholas C., Toward Stonewall: Homosexuality and Society in the Modern Western World (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2003), 242Google Scholar.

97 Edsall, Toward Stonewall, 194–96.

98 Socarides, Charles, “Homosexuality, Psychoanalytic Theory Of,” in The Freud Encyclopedia: Theory, Therapy, and Culture, ed. Erwin, Edward (London: Routledge, 2002), 258–60, at 260Google Scholar.

99 Murphy, Timothy F., “Freud Reconsidered: Bisexuality, Homosexuality, and Moral Judgment,” in Bisexual and Homosexual Identities: Critical Theoretical Issues, ed. DeCecco, John P. and Shively, Michael G. (New York: Haworth Press, 1984), 6578, at 65, 71Google Scholar.

100 Robinson, Paul, “Freud and Homosexuality,” in Whose Freud: The Place of Psychoanalysis in Contemporary Culture, ed. Brooks, Peter and Woloch, Alex (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 144–49, at 145Google Scholar.

101 Elms, Alan C., Uncovering Lives: The Uneasy Alliance of Biography and Psychology (Oxford: University of Oxford Press, 1994), 43Google Scholar.

102 Dean, Tim, “Homosexuality and the Problem of Otherness,” in Homosexuality and Psychoanalysis, ed. Dean, Tim and Lane, Christopher (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001), 120–45, at 122–26Google Scholar; Dollimore, Jonathan, Sexual Dissidence: Augustine to Wilde, Freud to Foucault (Oxford: University of Oxford Press, 1991), 177CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

103 Robert M. Friedman, “The Psychoanalytic Model of Male Homosexuality: A Historical and Theoretical Critique,” in Toward a New Psychology of Men: Psychoanalytic and Social Perspectives,” ed. Friedman, Robert M. and Lerner, Leila, special issue, Psychoanalytic Review 73, no. 4 (1986): 79–115, at 61, 6871Google Scholar.

104 Friedman, Richard C. and Downey, Jennifer I., Sexual Orientation and Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: Science and Clinical Practice (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), 296Google Scholar.

105 Rosario, Vernon A., ed., Homosexuality and Science: A Guide to the Debates (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2002), 129Google Scholar.

106 Campbell, J. Louis III, Jack Nichols: Gay Pioneer: ‘Have You Heard My Message?’ (2007; repr., New York: Routledge, 2012), 84CrossRefGoogle Scholar (quoting Irving Bieber); cf. LeVay, Simon, Queer Science: The Use and Abuse of Research into Homosexuality (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar (extensively documenting and criticizing neo-Freudian efforts to therapeutically ameliorate or “reverse” homosexual tendencies).

107 Drescher, Jack, “‘I'm Your Handyman’: A History of Reparative Therapies,” in Sexual Conversion Therapy: Ethical, Clinical, and Research Perspectives, ed. Shidlo, Ariel, Schroeder, Michael, and Drescher, Jack (Binghamton: Haworth Press, 2001), 5–24, at 5, 1112Google Scholar.

108 Fenichel, Otto, The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis (New York: W. W. Norton, 1945), 324Google Scholar.

109 Dennis, Jeffrey P., “What Is Homosexuality Doing in Deviance?,” in The Handbook of Deviance, ed. Goode, Erich (Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 2015), 172–88, at 174–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

110 Fejes, Fred, Gay Rights and Moral Panic: The Origins of America's Debate on Homosexuality (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), 17Google Scholar. See generally, Johnson, David K., The Lavender Scare: The Cold War Persecution of Gays in the Federal Government (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004)Google Scholar.

111 Reumann, Miriam G., American Sexual Character: Sex, Gender, and National Identity in the Kinsey Reports (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005), 194Google Scholar.

112 Bergler, Edmund, Homosexuality: Disease or Way of Life? (New York: Hill and Wang, 1956)Google Scholar.

113 Terry, Jennifer, An American Obsession: Science, Medicine, and Homosexuality in Modern Society (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 466n38CrossRefGoogle Scholar (documenting seven editions through 1971).

114 Noël, Lise, Intolerance (Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1994), 64Google Scholar.

115 Spencer, J. William, Contexts of Deviance: Statuses, Institutions, and Interactions (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015), 266Google Scholar.

116 West, D. J., Homosexuality: Its Nature and Causes (1967; repr., New Brunswick: Aldine/Transaction, 2008), 228–37Google Scholar; Angelides, Steven, A History of Bisexuality (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001), 8890Google Scholar.

117 Murphy, Timothy F., “Redirecting Sexual Orientation: Techniques and Justifications,” Journal of Sex Research 29, no. 4 (1992): 501–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Silverstein, Charles, “Psychological and Medical Treatments of Homosexuality,” in Homosexuality: Research for Public Policy, ed. Gonsiorek, John C. and Weinrich, James D. (London: Sage, 1991), 101–17, at 104–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Clive Irving, “The Castration of Alan Turing, Britain's Code-Breaking World War II Hero,” Daily Beast, November 29, 2014, https://www.thedailybeast.com/the-castration-of-alan-turing-britains-code-breaking-wwii-hero.

118 Minton, Henry L., Departing from Deviance: A History of Homosexual Rights and Emancipatory Science in America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 219258Google Scholar.

119 Minton, Departing from Deviance, 258–62; Waidzunas, Tom, The Straight Line: How the Fringe Science of Ex-gay Therapy Reoriented Sexuality (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015), 7077CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

120 For one example, see the American Academy of Pediatrics, “Promoting the Well-Being of Children Whose Parents Are Gay or Lesbian,” Pediatrics 131, no. 4 (2013): 827–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

121 Peterkin, Allan and Risdon, Cathy, Caring for Lesbian and Gay People: A Clinical Guide (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003), 156–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Isay, Richard, Becoming Gay: The Journey to Self-Acceptance (New York: Vintage Books, 1997), 39Google Scholar.

122 Besen, Wayne, “The Rise and Fall of the ‘Ex-gay’ Myth,” Gay and Lesbian Review 19, no. 5 (2012): 5Google Scholar.

123 Coram Parrillo, August 12, 1929: Decisiones seu Sententiae [hereafter RRDec] 21: 433, 441.

124 Coram Massimi, August 12, 1935, RRDec 27: 357.

125 Staffa sided with the conservative minority during the early phases of the Second Vatican Council. O'Malley, John W., What Happened at Vatican II (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008), 110Google Scholar. He defended the use of liturgical Latin against all odds. O'Meara, Thomas F., “Reflections on Yves Congar and Theology in the United States,” U.S. Catholic Historian 17, no. 2 (1999): 91105, at 92Google Scholar.

126 Coram Staffa, July 29, 1955, RRDec 47: 674, 676.

127 Coram Grazioli, March 16, 1943, RRDec 35: 204, 207 (“Acriter sane controvertitur, an habenda sit acquisita vel potius uti congenita, seu utrum vitium an sit morbus”). The potius uti construction is difficult to render in English. It signifies that the latter choice is probably to be preferred over the former. I have rendered it “perhaps more likely” above.

128 Coram Jullien, February 16, 1940, RRDec 32: 141.

129 Coram Jullien, RRDec 32: 145. The petitioner alleged that her husband suffered from congenital and incurable sexual inversion” (“ad inversione sessuale congenita ed inguarabile”). Coram Jullien, 145.

130 Coram Jullien, 146–48.

131 Coram Jullien, 143 (“morbo vel conditioni pathologicae cognitae vel acquisitae”).

132 Coram Jullien, 153–54. Cf. Tobin, William J., Homosexuality and Marriage: A Canonical Evaluation of the Relationship of Homosexuality to the Validity of Marriage in the Light of Recent Rotal Jurisprudence (Rome: Catholic Book Agency, 1964), 9899Google Scholar (further evaluating coram Jullien).

133 Coram Lamas, March 15, 1956, RRDec 48: 237.

134 Coram Lamas, RRDec 32: 237.

135 Coram Lamas, 241.

136 Coram Lamas, 241.

137 Coram Lamas, 241.

138 Coram Lamas, 241–42 (“praedictam anomaliam emendabilem esse, licet sanatio difficultatibus non careat” [The aforementioned anomaly is correctable, even if a cure is not without difficulty]).

139 Coram Lamas, 246.

140 Coram Bonet, May 25, 1959, RRDec 51: 285.

141 Coram Bonet, RRDec 51: 286. “Homosexualitas seu psychica deviatio erga personas eiusdem sexus vitium constituit quod non raro minuit vel aliquando fere aufert proclivitatem sexualem in personas alterius sexus.” I render the noun deviatio as “disordered … preference.” Vitium is often, and correctly, rendered as “vice,” but in context I believe “sexual disorder” is the better translation of sexus vitium.

142 Coram Sabbatani, December 20, 1963, RRDec 55: 959.

143 Coram Sabbatani, RRDec 55: 960 (“Nam homosexualitas … ut indicat absolutam et invincibilem repulsionem physicam vel psychicam in alterum sexum, ita ut homosexualis haud possit intimatem tolerare personae diversi sexus”). Haud is an intensifier; in context, it stresses the idea of impossibility.

144 Coram Sabbatani, 960–61.

145 Coram Sabbatani, 962 (“Uxor conventa nuptias contraxi in statu psychicae debilitationis ob distortam suam sexualitatem” [The wife-defendant contracted marriage in a state of psychological weakness caused by her distorted sexuality]).

146 Coburn, Vincent P., “Homosexuality and the Invalidation of Marriage,” Jurist 20, no. 4 (1960): 441–59, at, 444–46Google Scholar. Although Coburn does not commit himself on the question, he indicated that many Catholic writers doubted the existence of organic causes for homosexuality. Coburn, “Homosexuality and the Invalidation of Marriage,” 445–46.

147 Coburn, 454.

148 Coburn, 453.

149 Ritty, Charles J., “Possible Invalidity of Marriage by Reason of Sexual Anomalies,” Jurist 23, no. 4 (1963): 394442, at 394, 422Google Scholar.

150 Keating, John R., The Bearing of Mental Impairment on the Validity of Marriage: An Analysis of Rotal Jurisprudence (Rome: Gregorian University Press, 1964), 196200Google Scholar.

151 Keating, The Bearing of Mental Impairment on the Validity of Marriage, 199.

152 Keating, 199.

153 Tobin, Homosexuality and Marriage, 42.

154 Tobin, 60.

155 Tobin, 68–74.

156 Schmidt, John Rogg, “Homosexuality and Validity of Marriage: A Study in Homo-Psychosexual Inversion,” Jurist 32, no. 3 (1972): 381–99Google Scholar; Schmidt, John Rogg, “Homosexuality and Validity of Marriage: A Study in Homo-Psychosexual Inversion: Elaboration of Principles; Consideration of Cases,” Jurist 32, no. 4 (1972): 494530Google Scholar; Schmidt, John Rogg, “Homosexuality and Validity of Marriage: A Study in Homo-Psychosexual Inversion: Etiology of Psychosexual Inversion,” Catholic Lawyer 21, no. 2 (1975): 85121Google Scholar. To a considerable extent, Schmidt was elaborating on claims made more briefly by Cavanaugh, John R., “Homosexuality as an Impediment to Marriage,” Bulletin of the Guild of Catholic Psychiatrists 7, no. 2 (1960): 96109Google Scholar; and by Oesterle, Gerard, “De Relatione Homosexualitatis ad Matrimonium” [On the relationship of homosexuality to marriage], Revista Hispañola de derecho canónico 10, no. 28 (1955): 760Google Scholar.

157 See the bibliography of Stankiewicz's works at Killermann, Stefan, Die Rota Romana: Wesen und Wirken des päpstlichen Gerichtshofes im Wandel der Zeit [The Roman Rota: Ways and means of papal judicial headship in changing times] (Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2009), 613CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

158 Coram Stankiewicz, November 23, 1983, RRDec 75: 673, 675.

159 Coram Stankiewicz, RRDec 75: 676.

160 Coram Stankiewicz, 676 (citing to the work of Irving Bieber and Charles Socarides, both of whom were also firm believers in the possibility of “reversing” homosexuality through psychoanalysis).

161 García, Carmen Peña, Homosexualidad y matrimonio: Estudio sobre la jurisprudencia y la doctrina canónica [Homosexuality and marriage: Study of the jurisprudence and canonical doctrine] (Madrid: Comillas, 2004), 190–92Google Scholar.

162 Coram Stankiewicz, RRDec 75: 679.

163 See Cormac Burke, “Curriculum Vitae,” http://www.cormacburke.or.ke/cv/1 (last accessed October 16, 2019).

164 Coram Burke, July 9, 1998, RRDec 90: 512.

165 Coram Burke, RRDec 90: 515.

166 Coram Burke, 515.

167 Coram Burke, 515.

168 Coram Burke, 516.

169 Coram Burke, 516.

170 Coram Burke, 517.

171 Coram Burke, 517. Cf. Sabshin, Melvin, “Turning Points in Twentieth-Century Psychiatry,” American Journal of Psychiatry 147, no. 10 (1990): 1267–74Google Scholar; cf. Sabshin, Melvin, Changing American Psychiatry: A Personal Perspective (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2008), 181–83Google Scholar (welcoming the changes to the DSM).

172 Coram Burke, RRDec 90: 518. See also Vaillant, George, “The Disadvantages of DSM III Outweigh Its Advantages,” American Journal of Psychiatry 141, no. 4 (1984): 542–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

173 Coram Burke, RRDec 90: 519 (quoting DSM-IV).

174 Coram Burke, 523 (quoting Stone, Alan, “Conceptual Ambiguity and Morality in Modern Psychiatry,” American Journal of Psychiatry 137, no. 8 (1980): 887–91, at 887, 888Google ScholarPubMed).

175 Coram Burke, RRDec 90: 524–25.

176 John Paul II, “Discorso di Giovanni Paolo II ai Membri del Tribunale della Rota Romana” [Address by John Paul II to the members of the tribunal of the Roman Rota (February 5, 1987), §4, https://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/it/speeches/1987/february/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_19870205_roman-rota.html (in Italian) (“inconciliabile con gli elementi essenziali dell'antropologia cristiana, perché chiusa ai valori e significati che trasecendono il dato immanente e che permettono all'uomo di orientarsi verso l'amore di Dio e del prossimo come sua ultima vocazione” [irreconcilable with the essential elements of Christian anthropology, and closed to the value and significance of that immanent and transcendent fact which directs man in his orientation to God and his final vocation]). (My translation.)

177 Coram Burke, RRDec 90: 528.

178 Coram Burke, 528–29. Cf. Burke, Cormac, “Does Homosexuality Nullify a Marriage? Canon Law and Recent Developments in Psychology and Psychiatry,” in Same-Sex Attraction: A Parent's Guide, ed. Harvey, John F. and Bradley, Gerard V. (South Bend: St. Augustine's Press, 2003), 3349Google Scholar. Burke there even more directly announced his opposition to trends in modern science: “Even if the majority of psychiatrists—for whatever reasons—were to conclude that homosexuality is no longer to be considered a disorder, Christian anthropology cannot accept this conclusion.” Burke, “Does Homosexuality Nullify a Marriage?,” 39.

179 Burke, Cormac, The Theology of Marriage: Personalism, Doctrine, and Canon Law (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2015), 179CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

180 Burke, The Theology of Marriage, 179.

181 Burke, 179–80.

182 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, “Persona Humana: Declaration on Certain Questions Concerning Sexual Ethics”] (December 29, 1975), §8, http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc_19751229_persona-humana_en.html.

183 United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, To Live in Christ Jesus: A Pastoral Reflection on the Moral Life (Washington, DC: United States Catholic Conference, 1976), §52Google Scholar.

184 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons (October 1, 1986), §3, http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc_19861001_homosexual-persons_en.html.

185 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Letter on the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons, §5.

186 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Letter on the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons, §7 (“moral disorder”), §9 (“pressure groups”).

187 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Letter on the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons, §12.

188 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, “Some Considerations Concerning the Response to Legislative Proposals on the Non-Discrimination of Homosexual Persons” (July 24, 1992), §10, http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc_19920724_homosexual-persons_en.html.

189 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, “Some Considerations Concerning the Response to Legislative Proposals,” §12.

190 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, “Some Considerations Concerning the Response to Legislative Proposals,” §15.

191 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, “Considerations Regarding Proposals to Give Legal Recognition to Unions between Homosexual Persons” (June 6, 2003), §7, http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc_20030731_homosexual-unions_en.html.

192 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, “Considerations Regarding Proposals to Give Legal Recognition to Unions between Homosexual Persons,” §10.

193 Paul, John II, Man and Woman He Created Them: A Theology of the Body, Waldstein, Michael, ed. and trans. (Boston: Pauline Books, 2006), 148–49Google Scholar.

194 John Paul II, Man and Woman He Created Them, 156. See also Genesis 2:18.

195 John Paul II, 157. See also Genesis 1:27.

196 John Paul II, 157–58.

197 Echeverria, Eduardo J., “In the Beginning …”: A Theology of the Body (Eugene: Wipf and Stock, 2011), 246Google Scholar.

198 One such example is John Obergefell, the named plaintiff in Obergefell v. Hodges, who remained committed to his partner, John Arthur, for twenty years, tended to his needs following a diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and wanted the state to list Arthur as his spouse on Arthur's death certificate. Obergefell v. Hodges, 135 S. Ct. 2584 (2015); cf. Timothy M. Phelps, “The Accidental Pioneer: Ohio Man's Suit Led to Supreme Court Case on Gay Marriage,” Los Angeles Times, April 15, 2015. Another example is Edith Windsor, the named plaintiff in Windsor v. United States, 570 U.S. 744 (2013). She had been informally married to her partner for forty years and formally married—in a Canadian ceremony—for some time before her partner's death. Cf. Adam Gabbatt, “Edith Windsor and Thea Spyer: A Love Affair that Just Kept On and On and On,” Guardian, June 26, 2013.

199 Luke Timothy Johnson, “Homosexuality and the Church,” Commonweal, June 11, 2007.

200 Johnson, “Homosexuality and the Church.”

201 Johnson.

202 Johnson.

203 Johnson.

204 Perry, Michael J., “The Morality of Homosexual Conduct: A Response to John Finnis,” in “Symposium on Sexual Orientation,” special issue, Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics, and Public Policy 9, no. 1 (1995), 4174, at 41–51Google Scholar.

205 Church, Catholic, “Chastity in Homosexuality,” in Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2nd ed. (Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1992), § 2357Google Scholar.

206 “Chastity in Homosexuality,” § 2357.

207 “Chastity in Homosexuality,” § 2358.

208 John L. Allen, Jr., “Pope On Homosexuals: Who Am I to Judge?,” National Catholic Reporter, July 29, 2013.

209 Charles J. Reid, Jr., “The Pope Said ‘Gay’—What Happens Next?” (blog), Huffington Post, August 1, 2013 (updated October 1, 2013), https://www.huffpost.com/entry/the-pope-said-gay-what-ha_b_3683862.

210 Antonio Spadaro, “A Big Heart Open to God: An Interview with Pope Francis,” America, September 30, 2013; Ed Pilkington, “Pope Francis Sets out Vision for More Gay People and Women in ‘New Church,’” Guardian, September 19, 2013.

211 Spadaro, “A Big Heart Open to God.”

212 Spadaro.

213 Michelle Boorstein, Dan Zak, and Sarah Pulliam, “Pope Francis Met with a Friend Who is Gay, and His Partner, While in DC,” Washington Post, October 2, 2015.

214 Joshua J. McElwee, “Francis: Christians Must Apologize to Gay People for Marginalizing Them,” National Catholic Reporter, June 26, 2016.

215 McElwee, “Francis”; Delia Gallagher and Daniel Burke, “Pope Says Christians Should Apologize to Gay People,” CNN, June 27, 2016, https://www.cnn.com/2016/06/26/world/pope-apologize-gays/index.html.

216 Stephanie Kirchgaessner, “Pope Francis Tells Gay Man: God Made You Like This,” Guardian, May 20, 2018.

217 Nicole Winfield, “LGBT Community Cheers Pope Francis’ ‘God Made You Like This’ Remark,” America, May 21, 2018; Inés San Martín, “Abuse Victim Says Pope Francis Told Him ‘Being Gay Doesn't Matter,’” Crux, May 21, 2018.

218 Tom Kington, “Pope's Reported Comment to a Gay Man May Indicate a New Level of Acceptance of Homosexuality,” Los Angeles Times, May 20, 2018.

219 Gehring, John, The Francis Effect: A Radical Pope's Challenge to the American Catholic Church (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2015), 136–38Google Scholar.

220 Synod of Bishops, “The Pastoral Challenges of the Family in the Context of Evangelization,” June 24, 2014, para. 115, http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/synod/documents/rc_synod_doc_20140626_instrumentum-laboris-familia_en.html.

221 Synod of Bishops, “The Pastoral Challenges of the Family in the Context of Evangelization,” para. 117.

222 Joshua J. McElwee, “Among First Synod Discussions: Changing Harsh Language, Trying ‘Graduality,’” National Catholic Reporter, October 7, 2014.

223 McElwee, “Among First Synod Discussions.”

224 Emma Green, “The Vatican's New Stance toward Gays and Divorcees,” Atlantic, October 13, 2014.

225 Lizzy Davies, “Vatican: ‘Homosexuals Have Gifts and Qualities to Offer Christians,’” Guardian, October 13, 2014.

226 Philip Pullella, “Vatican Document Challenges Church to Change Attitude to Gays,” Reuters, October 13, 2014; and Josephine McKenna, “Vatican Calls for Catholic Church to Welcome Gays,” Telegraph, October 13, 2014.

227 Philip Pullella, “Catholic Bishops Drop Moves to Accept Gays,” Reuters, October 18, 2014; Eric J. Lyman, “Pope Francis: ‘God Is Not Afraid of New Things,’” USA Today, October 20, 2014.

228 Austen Ivereigh, “Pope Francis’ Healing, Loving Revolution Is Unstoppable,” Guardian October 19, 2014; Paul Vallely, “The Catholic Church Is Changing—And the Gates of Reaction Shall Not Prevail against It,” Independent, October 24, 2014; Michael Walsh, “In the Battle of Papal Politics, Pope Francis Will Triumph,” Al-Jazeera, October 20, 2014.

229 Jonathan Capehart, “Pope Francis and Gays Will Win by Losing This Round on Synod Draft,” Washington Post, October 20, 2014.

230 Andrew Brown, “A Catholic Church Schism under Pope Francis Isn't Out of the Question,” Guardian, October 30, 2014.

231 John Bingham and Andrea Vogt, “Vatican Call for Church to Welcome Gay People Did Not Go ‘Far Enough’—Cardinal Vincent Nichols,” Telegraph, October 19, 2014.

232 John L. Allen, Jr., “Pope Francis Extends His Moderate Makeover of Church Leadership,” Crux, November 6, 2015; and John L. Allen, Jr., “New Belgian Cardinal Poised to Be Key Ally in Europe,” Crux, October 11, 2016.

233 John A. Dick, “Belgian Bishop Advocates Church Recognition of Gay Relationships,” National Catholic Reporter, December 30, 2014.

234 Johan Bonny, “Synod on the Family: Expectations of a Diocesan Bishop,” trans. Brian Doyle, September 1, 2014, 14, https://www.associationofcatholicpriests.ie/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/SYNOD-ON-FAMILY-ENG.pdf.

235 Sarah McDonald, “Cardinal Marx: Society Must Create Structures to Respect Gay Rights,” National Catholic Reporter, June 28, 2016.

236 Anian Christoph Wimmer, “Cardinal Marx Endorses Blessing Ceremonies for Same-Sex Couples,” Crux, February 4, 2018; Michael J. O'Laughlin, “German Cardinal Urges Pastoral Care of Gay Couples,” America, February 7, 2018; cf. Francis Z. Rocca, “The Catholic Church's Looming Fight over Same-Sex Blessings,” Wall Street Journal, May 22, 2018.

237 Joyce Duriga, “Chicago Archdiocesan Outreach to Gay Community Remembers Orlando Victims,” Catholic News Service, June 21, 2016; Michael J. O'Laughlin, “Chicago's Cardinal Cupich: Saying Gay, Lesbian, and LGBT Is a Step toward Respect,” America, July 18, 2017.

238 Vikki Ortiz Healy and Manya Brachear Pashman, “Cupich's Influence to Grow as Cardinal: Archbishop Carries out Pope's Vision in Chicago and Now on Global Scale,” Chicago Tribune, November 18, 2016.

239 Alexander Santora, “N.J. Cardinal Offers Historic Welcome to LGBT Community,” nj.com, May 7, 2017; Francis De Bernardo, “Newark Cardinal Will Welcome Catholic LGBT Pilgrimage,” New Ways Ministry, May 9, 2017; Robert Shine, “Cardinal's Welcome to LGBT Catholics ‘Felt Like a Miracle,’” New Ways Ministry, June 14, 2017.

240 “San Diego Bishop: Some Catholics Have ‘Corrosive and Repugnant’ Views on Homosexuality,” California Catholic Daily, February 8, 2018, https://cal-catholic.com/san-diego-bishop-some-catholics-have-corrosive-and-repugnant-views-on-homosexuality/; Robert Shine, “Bishop McElroy: Right Wing Attacks on LGBT Issues a ‘Wake-Up Call’ For Catholics,” New Ways Ministry, September 20, 2017.

241 Charles J. Reid, Jr., “Shadow over Springfield: The Failures of a Warrior Bishop” (blog), Huffington Post, December 18, 2013 (updated February 17, 2014), https://www.huffpost.com/entry/bishop-thomas-paprocki_b_4442069.

242 Anthony Ruff, “A Pastoral Disaster: Bishop Morlino and the Parish in Platteville, WI,” PrayTell, May 3, 2012; Kathleen Williams, “Bishop Morlino Wrong to Attack Pope,” Madison.com, September 9, 2018.

243 Heidi Schlumpf, “Madison Priests Get Directives on Funerals of LGBT People,” National Catholic Reporter, October 23, 2017; “Madison, Wisconsin's Bishop's Ban on Funerals for Gay People ‘Outrageous and Shameful,’” Dignity USA, October 22, 2017.

244 Hayes, Diana, “Reflections on Slavery,” in Changes in Official Catholic Moral Teachings, ed. Curran, Charles E. (New York: Paulist, 2003), 6575Google Scholar.

245 Noonan, John T., The Lustre of Our Country: The American Experience of Religious Freedom (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), 329–53Google Scholar.

246 Kerman Calvo Borobia, “Necesidades Políticas y Protesta Colectiva en la Regulación de los Matrimonios Homosexuales en España” [Political necessities and collective protest on the regulation of homosexual unions in Spain], Anuario de la Facultad de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (2006), 139–59; Borobia, Kerman Calvo, “Moviementos sociales, y Reconocimiento de Derechos Civiles: La Legalización de Matrimonio Entre Personas de Mismo Sexo en España” [Social movements and the reception of civil laws: The legalization of marriages between persons of the same sex], Revista de Estudios Politicos, no. 147, (2010): 137–67Google Scholar.

247 Martí, José Luis and Pettit, Philip, A Political Philosophy in Public Life: Civic Republicanism in Zapatero's Spain (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010), 122–23Google Scholar.

248 Ciaran Giles, “Spain's Gay Marriage Bill Nears Passage: Predominantly Catholic Nation Could Be Third in Europe to Legalize Same-Sex Marriage,” Houston Chronicle, April 22, 2005.

249 Elizabeth Nash, “Gay Couples Win Right to Marry in Spain Despite Opposition,” Independent, July 1, 2005; Renwick McLean, “Mostly Catholic Spain Legalizes Gay Marriage: Law among the Most Liberal in the World,” South Florida Sun-Sentinel, July 1, 2005.

250 José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, “A Lesson in Tolerance from Spain,” Washington Post, May 28, 2015.

251 “Same-Sex Marriage Bill Debate in Upper House Generates Mixed Feelings among Society's Representatives,” Buenos Aires Herald, June 29, 2010.

252 Bonomo, Christine A., “Case Studies in the Advancement of Sexual Orientation Rights and the Role of Developing International Legal Norms: Argentina and Brazil,” Chicago Journal of International Law 14, no. 1 (2013): 259–89, at 272–78Google Scholar.

253 Vaggione, Juan Marco, “Sexual Rights and Religion: Same-Sex Marriage and Lawmakers’ Catholic Identity in Argentina,” in “Gender Justice and Human Rights in the Americas,” special issue, University of Miami Law Review 65, no. 3 (2011): 935–54, at 941–45Google Scholar; “Bergoglio Accuses Same-Sex Marriage Bill of ‘Being Satan's Work to Destroy God's Plan,’” Buenos Aires Herald, July 8, 2010.

254 Michael Warren, “Argentina Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage. Politically Risky Move Is First by a Nation in Latin America,” Houston Chronicle, July 16, 2010; Soledad Gallego-Díaz, “Same-Sex Marriage Comes to Argentina,” El Pais, July 21, 2010.

255 Alexei Barrionuevo, “Argentina Approves Gay Marriage, in First for Region,” New York Times, July 15, 2010.

256 Kathy Sheridan, “How Gay Marriage Went Mainstream,” Irish Times, July 14, 2012; Cathal Dervan, “Top Church of Ireland Minister Reveals His Same-Sex Marriage,” IrishCentral, September 5, 2011.

257 Parkes, Aisling, “National Report—Ireland,” American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy, and Law 19, no. 1 (2011): 221–23, at 222Google Scholar.

258 Busse, Anna Grzymała, Nations under God: How Churches Use Moral Authority to Influence Policy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015), 104Google Scholar.

259 Frances Mulraney, “Date Set for Ireland's Same-Sex Marriage Referendum,” IrishCentral, February 21, 2015.

260 Max Rossi, “Pope Accepts Resignation of Head of Scandal-Plagued Irish Church,” Newsweek, September 8, 2014; Henry McDonald, Riazat Butt, and Tom Kington, “Irish Cardinal Refuses to Quit over Paedophilia Cover-Up,” Guardian, March 14, 2010.

261 John Manley, “Bishops Urge MLAs’ to Reject Motion on Same-Sex Marriage,” Irish Times, April 29, 2014; Gerry Moriarty, “Bishops Oppose SF Move on Gay Marriage: Catholic Church Hierarchy Sends Open Letter to Assembly Members before Vote,” Irish Times, April 29, 2014.

262 Ronan McGreevy, “Church ‘Moving towards Acceptance’ of Gay People,” Irish Times, February 13, 2014; and Caomhán Keane, “Gay Catholics Pray 2015 Will Be the Year of the Welcome,” Irish Times, May 25, 2015.

263 Patsy McGarry, “Priests’ Group Stays Neutral on Referendum,” Irish Times, March 25, 2015. See also Patsy McGarry, “‘Comfortable Being Gay’: A Priest Speaks,” Irish Times, January 11, 2014 (Irish priest calls for reform of the way church speaks about “marriage, contraception, homosexuality”).

264 Patsy McGarry, “Archbishop Warns Over Insensitive Language,” Irish Times, February 25, 2015.

265 Diarmuid Martin, “I Encourage Everyone to Vote and Reflect Carefully,” Irish Times, May 19, 2015.

266 Martin, “I Encourage Everyone to Vote and Reflect Carefully.”

267 Martin, “I Encourage Everyone to Vote and Reflect Carefully.”

268 Murphy, Yvonne, “The Marriage Equality Referendum, 2015,” Irish Political Studies 31, no. 2 (2016): 315–30, at 325CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

269 Diarmuid Martin, “‘Reality Check’ for Catholic Church,” Irish Times, May 25, 2015.

270 Omar Encarnación, “There's Something about Marriage: Why the Vote in Ireland Was Bad for Same-Sex Rights,” Foreign Affairs, May 31, 2015.

271 Encarnación, “There's Something about Marriage.”

272 See, for example, Sullivan, John, Catholic Education: Distinctive and Inclusive (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 2001), 8286CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

273 Galatians 2:1–10.

274 Acts 2:38; 2 Peter 1:9.

275 Horn, Cornelia B., “Penitence in Early Christianity in Its Historical and Theological Settings: Trajectories from Eastern and Western Sources,” in Repentance in Christian Theology, Boda, Mark J. and Smith, Gordon T. (Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 2006), 153–88, at 164–69Google Scholar; Browning, Robert L. and Reed, Roy A., Forgiveness, Reconciliation, and Moral Courage: Motives and Designs For Ministry in a Troubled World (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 2004), 106Google Scholar.

276 Duffy, Regis, A Roman Catholic Theology of Pastoral Care (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1983), 3637Google Scholar; Wei, John C., Gratian the Theologian (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2016), 7576CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

277 John 8:35.

278 John 8:44.

279 John 5:16.

280 Matthew 27:25.

281 Revelation 2:9.

282 Stow, Kenneth R., “The Church and the Jews: St. Paul to Pius IX,” in Pope, Church, and Jews in the Middle Ages: Confrontation and Response (Burlington: Ashgate, 2007), 1–70, especially 1, 2425Google Scholar.

283 Richards, Jeffrey, Sex, Dissidence, and Damnation: Minority Groups in the Middle Ages (New York: Routledge, 1991), 107–09Google Scholar.

284 Chazan, Robert, From Anti-Judaism to Anti-Semitism: Ancient and Medieval Constructions of Jewish History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), 136–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

285 Foa, Anna, “The Difficult Apprenticeship of Diversity,” in The Catholic Church and the Jewish People: Recent Reflections from Rome, ed. Cunningham, Philip A., Hoffman, Norbert J., and Sievers, Joseph. (New York: Fordham University Press, 2007), 4153, at 51–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

286 Harris, Ruth, “The Assumptionists and the Dreyfus Affair,” Past and Present 194, no. 1 (2007): 175211CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

287 Athans, Mary Christine, “A New Perspective on Father Charles E. Coughlin,” Church History 56, no. 2 (1987): 224–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

288 Dudley, Martin, “The Jews in the Good Friday Liturgy,” Anglican Theological Review 76, no. 1 (1994): 6170Google Scholar; James Martin, “The Jews, the Latin Mass, and Good Friday,” America, February 7, 2008.

289 Korn, Eugene, “On Modern Miracles,” in A Jubilee for All: The Copernican Revolution in Jewish-Christian Relations, ed. Rosenfeld, Gilbert S. (Eugene: Pickwick Publications, 2014), 288–94, at 289–90Google Scholar.

290 “Pope Praises Jews as ‘Our Elder Brothers in the Faith,’” Los Angeles Times, August 20, 1987.

291 Luke 6:35.

292 Alan Kirk, “‘Love Your Enemies’: The Golden Rule and Ancient Reciprocity (Luke 6:27–35),” Journal of Biblical Literature 122, no. 4 (2003): 667–86.

293 Decretales Gregorii IX [The decretals of Gregory IX], X 5.19.10.

294 Noonan, John T. Jr., “Authority, Usury, and Contraception,” CrossCurrents 16, no. 1 (1966): 5579, at 57Google Scholar.

295 See, for example, Dante, Inferno, Canto 14, lines 21–42; Canto 15, lines 22–96; and Canto 16: 22–48; cf. Boswell, John, “Dante and the Sodomites,” Dante Studies 112 (1994): 6376Google Scholar (on the sexual nature of these transgressors’ sins).

296 Dante, Inferno, Canto 17, lines 34–78.

1
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

SAME-SEX RELATIONS AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH: HOW LAW AND DOCTRINE HAVE EVOLVED, 1820–2020
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

SAME-SEX RELATIONS AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH: HOW LAW AND DOCTRINE HAVE EVOLVED, 1820–2020
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

SAME-SEX RELATIONS AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH: HOW LAW AND DOCTRINE HAVE EVOLVED, 1820–2020
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *