Published online by Cambridge University Press: 02 January 2020
This article surveys the evolution of the Catholic Church's official response to same-sex relations over the last two centuries. While the church has not altered its condemnation of same-sex relations, the justifications it offers for this negative judgment have shifted substantially, and they have moved, especially recently, in a direction that makes possible the acceptance of same-sex relations at some future—and perhaps not too-distant—date. This article explores the manualist tradition of the nineteenth and early to mid-twentieth centuries; twentieth-century developments in canon law; and the period of retrenchment and reaction under popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI. Its final section looks at developments under Pope Francis. It closes by considering the way the church's teaching shifted over the course of its history—penance and the forgiveness of sins; anti-Semitism; and the sin against natural-law of taking interest on a loan (usury). It proposes that we might witness the church undergo a similar shift on same-sex relations.
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129 Coram Jullien, RRDec 32: 145. The petitioner alleged that her husband suffered from congenital and incurable sexual inversion” (“ad inversione sessuale congenita ed inguarabile”). Coram Jullien, 145.
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140 Coram Bonet, May 25, 1959, RRDec 51: 285.
141 Coram Bonet, RRDec 51: 286. “Homosexualitas seu psychica deviatio erga personas eiusdem sexus vitium constituit quod non raro minuit vel aliquando fere aufert proclivitatem sexualem in personas alterius sexus.” I render the noun deviatio as “disordered … preference.” Vitium is often, and correctly, rendered as “vice,” but in context I believe “sexual disorder” is the better translation of sexus vitium.
142 Coram Sabbatani, December 20, 1963, RRDec 55: 959.
143 Coram Sabbatani, RRDec 55: 960 (“Nam homosexualitas … ut indicat absolutam et invincibilem repulsionem physicam vel psychicam in alterum sexum, ita ut homosexualis haud possit intimatem tolerare personae diversi sexus”). Haud is an intensifier; in context, it stresses the idea of impossibility.
144 Coram Sabbatani, 960–61.
145 Coram Sabbatani, 962 (“Uxor conventa nuptias contraxi in statu psychicae debilitationis ob distortam suam sexualitatem” [The wife-defendant contracted marriage in a state of psychological weakness caused by her distorted sexuality]).
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158 Coram Stankiewicz, November 23, 1983, RRDec 75: 673, 675.
159 Coram Stankiewicz, RRDec 75: 676.
160 Coram Stankiewicz, 676 (citing to the work of Irving Bieber and Charles Socarides, both of whom were also firm believers in the possibility of “reversing” homosexuality through psychoanalysis).
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162 Coram Stankiewicz, RRDec 75: 679.
163 See Cormac Burke, “Curriculum Vitae,” http://www.cormacburke.or.ke/cv/1 (last accessed October 16, 2019).
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165 Coram Burke, RRDec 90: 515.
166 Coram Burke, 515.
167 Coram Burke, 515.
168 Coram Burke, 516.
169 Coram Burke, 516.
170 Coram Burke, 517.
171 Coram Burke, 517. Cf. Sabshin, Melvin, “Turning Points in Twentieth-Century Psychiatry,” American Journal of Psychiatry 147, no. 10 (1990): 1267–74Google Scholar; cf. Sabshin, Melvin, Changing American Psychiatry: A Personal Perspective (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2008), 181–83Google Scholar (welcoming the changes to the DSM).
173 Coram Burke, RRDec 90: 519 (quoting DSM-IV).
175 Coram Burke, RRDec 90: 524–25.
176 John Paul II, “Discorso di Giovanni Paolo II ai Membri del Tribunale della Rota Romana” [Address by John Paul II to the members of the tribunal of the Roman Rota (February 5, 1987), §4, https://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/it/speeches/1987/february/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_19870205_roman-rota.html (in Italian) (“inconciliabile con gli elementi essenziali dell'antropologia cristiana, perché chiusa ai valori e significati che trasecendono il dato immanente e che permettono all'uomo di orientarsi verso l'amore di Dio e del prossimo come sua ultima vocazione” [irreconcilable with the essential elements of Christian anthropology, and closed to the value and significance of that immanent and transcendent fact which directs man in his orientation to God and his final vocation]). (My translation.)
177 Coram Burke, RRDec 90: 528.
178 Coram Burke, 528–29. Cf. Burke, Cormac, “Does Homosexuality Nullify a Marriage? Canon Law and Recent Developments in Psychology and Psychiatry,” in Same-Sex Attraction: A Parent's Guide, ed. Harvey, John F. and Bradley, Gerard V. (South Bend: St. Augustine's Press, 2003), 33–49Google Scholar. Burke there even more directly announced his opposition to trends in modern science: “Even if the majority of psychiatrists—for whatever reasons—were to conclude that homosexuality is no longer to be considered a disorder, Christian anthropology cannot accept this conclusion.” Burke, “Does Homosexuality Nullify a Marriage?,” 39.
180 Burke, The Theology of Marriage, 179.
181 Burke, 179–80.
182 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, “Persona Humana: Declaration on Certain Questions Concerning Sexual Ethics”] (December 29, 1975), §8, http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc_19751229_persona-humana_en.html.
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184 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons (October 1, 1986), §3, http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc_19861001_homosexual-persons_en.html.
185 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Letter on the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons, §5.
186 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Letter on the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons, §7 (“moral disorder”), §9 (“pressure groups”).
187 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Letter on the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons, §12.
188 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, “Some Considerations Concerning the Response to Legislative Proposals on the Non-Discrimination of Homosexual Persons” (July 24, 1992), §10, http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc_19920724_homosexual-persons_en.html.
189 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, “Some Considerations Concerning the Response to Legislative Proposals,” §12.
190 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, “Some Considerations Concerning the Response to Legislative Proposals,” §15.
191 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, “Considerations Regarding Proposals to Give Legal Recognition to Unions between Homosexual Persons” (June 6, 2003), §7, http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc_20030731_homosexual-unions_en.html.
192 Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, “Considerations Regarding Proposals to Give Legal Recognition to Unions between Homosexual Persons,” §10.
193 Paul, John II, Man and Woman He Created Them: A Theology of the Body, Waldstein, Michael, ed. and trans. (Boston: Pauline Books, 2006), 148–49Google Scholar.
194 John Paul II, Man and Woman He Created Them, 156. See also Genesis 2:18.
195 John Paul II, 157. See also Genesis 1:27.
196 John Paul II, 157–58.
197 Echeverria, Eduardo J., “In the Beginning …”: A Theology of the Body (Eugene: Wipf and Stock, 2011), 246Google Scholar.
198 One such example is John Obergefell, the named plaintiff in Obergefell v. Hodges, who remained committed to his partner, John Arthur, for twenty years, tended to his needs following a diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and wanted the state to list Arthur as his spouse on Arthur's death certificate. Obergefell v. Hodges, 135 S. Ct. 2584 (2015); cf. Timothy M. Phelps, “The Accidental Pioneer: Ohio Man's Suit Led to Supreme Court Case on Gay Marriage,” Los Angeles Times, April 15, 2015. Another example is Edith Windsor, the named plaintiff in Windsor v. United States, 570 U.S. 744 (2013). She had been informally married to her partner for forty years and formally married—in a Canadian ceremony—for some time before her partner's death. Cf. Adam Gabbatt, “Edith Windsor and Thea Spyer: A Love Affair that Just Kept On and On and On,” Guardian, June 26, 2013.
199 Luke Timothy Johnson, “Homosexuality and the Church,” Commonweal, June 11, 2007.
200 Johnson, “Homosexuality and the Church.”
204 Perry, Michael J., “The Morality of Homosexual Conduct: A Response to John Finnis,” in “Symposium on Sexual Orientation,” special issue, Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics, and Public Policy 9, no. 1 (1995), 41–74, at 41–51Google Scholar.
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206 “Chastity in Homosexuality,” § 2357.
207 “Chastity in Homosexuality,” § 2358.
208 John L. Allen, Jr., “Pope On Homosexuals: Who Am I to Judge?,” National Catholic Reporter, July 29, 2013.
209 Charles J. Reid, Jr., “The Pope Said ‘Gay’—What Happens Next?” (blog), Huffington Post, August 1, 2013 (updated October 1, 2013), https://www.huffpost.com/entry/the-pope-said-gay-what-ha_b_3683862.
210 Antonio Spadaro, “A Big Heart Open to God: An Interview with Pope Francis,” America, September 30, 2013; Ed Pilkington, “Pope Francis Sets out Vision for More Gay People and Women in ‘New Church,’” Guardian, September 19, 2013.
211 Spadaro, “A Big Heart Open to God.”
213 Michelle Boorstein, Dan Zak, and Sarah Pulliam, “Pope Francis Met with a Friend Who is Gay, and His Partner, While in DC,” Washington Post, October 2, 2015.
214 Joshua J. McElwee, “Francis: Christians Must Apologize to Gay People for Marginalizing Them,” National Catholic Reporter, June 26, 2016.
215 McElwee, “Francis”; Delia Gallagher and Daniel Burke, “Pope Says Christians Should Apologize to Gay People,” CNN, June 27, 2016, https://www.cnn.com/2016/06/26/world/pope-apologize-gays/index.html.
216 Stephanie Kirchgaessner, “Pope Francis Tells Gay Man: God Made You Like This,” Guardian, May 20, 2018.
217 Nicole Winfield, “LGBT Community Cheers Pope Francis’ ‘God Made You Like This’ Remark,” America, May 21, 2018; Inés San Martín, “Abuse Victim Says Pope Francis Told Him ‘Being Gay Doesn't Matter,’” Crux, May 21, 2018.
218 Tom Kington, “Pope's Reported Comment to a Gay Man May Indicate a New Level of Acceptance of Homosexuality,” Los Angeles Times, May 20, 2018.
219 Gehring, John, The Francis Effect: A Radical Pope's Challenge to the American Catholic Church (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2015), 136–38Google Scholar.
220 Synod of Bishops, “The Pastoral Challenges of the Family in the Context of Evangelization,” June 24, 2014, para. 115, http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/synod/documents/rc_synod_doc_20140626_instrumentum-laboris-familia_en.html.
221 Synod of Bishops, “The Pastoral Challenges of the Family in the Context of Evangelization,” para. 117.
222 Joshua J. McElwee, “Among First Synod Discussions: Changing Harsh Language, Trying ‘Graduality,’” National Catholic Reporter, October 7, 2014.
223 McElwee, “Among First Synod Discussions.”
224 Emma Green, “The Vatican's New Stance toward Gays and Divorcees,” Atlantic, October 13, 2014.
225 Lizzy Davies, “Vatican: ‘Homosexuals Have Gifts and Qualities to Offer Christians,’” Guardian, October 13, 2014.
226 Philip Pullella, “Vatican Document Challenges Church to Change Attitude to Gays,” Reuters, October 13, 2014; and Josephine McKenna, “Vatican Calls for Catholic Church to Welcome Gays,” Telegraph, October 13, 2014.
227 Philip Pullella, “Catholic Bishops Drop Moves to Accept Gays,” Reuters, October 18, 2014; Eric J. Lyman, “Pope Francis: ‘God Is Not Afraid of New Things,’” USA Today, October 20, 2014.
228 Austen Ivereigh, “Pope Francis’ Healing, Loving Revolution Is Unstoppable,” Guardian October 19, 2014; Paul Vallely, “The Catholic Church Is Changing—And the Gates of Reaction Shall Not Prevail against It,” Independent, October 24, 2014; Michael Walsh, “In the Battle of Papal Politics, Pope Francis Will Triumph,” Al-Jazeera, October 20, 2014.
229 Jonathan Capehart, “Pope Francis and Gays Will Win by Losing This Round on Synod Draft,” Washington Post, October 20, 2014.
230 Andrew Brown, “A Catholic Church Schism under Pope Francis Isn't Out of the Question,” Guardian, October 30, 2014.
231 John Bingham and Andrea Vogt, “Vatican Call for Church to Welcome Gay People Did Not Go ‘Far Enough’—Cardinal Vincent Nichols,” Telegraph, October 19, 2014.
232 John L. Allen, Jr., “Pope Francis Extends His Moderate Makeover of Church Leadership,” Crux, November 6, 2015; and John L. Allen, Jr., “New Belgian Cardinal Poised to Be Key Ally in Europe,” Crux, October 11, 2016.
233 John A. Dick, “Belgian Bishop Advocates Church Recognition of Gay Relationships,” National Catholic Reporter, December 30, 2014.
234 Johan Bonny, “Synod on the Family: Expectations of a Diocesan Bishop,” trans. Brian Doyle, September 1, 2014, 14, https://www.associationofcatholicpriests.ie/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/SYNOD-ON-FAMILY-ENG.pdf.
235 Sarah McDonald, “Cardinal Marx: Society Must Create Structures to Respect Gay Rights,” National Catholic Reporter, June 28, 2016.
236 Anian Christoph Wimmer, “Cardinal Marx Endorses Blessing Ceremonies for Same-Sex Couples,” Crux, February 4, 2018; Michael J. O'Laughlin, “German Cardinal Urges Pastoral Care of Gay Couples,” America, February 7, 2018; cf. Francis Z. Rocca, “The Catholic Church's Looming Fight over Same-Sex Blessings,” Wall Street Journal, May 22, 2018.
237 Joyce Duriga, “Chicago Archdiocesan Outreach to Gay Community Remembers Orlando Victims,” Catholic News Service, June 21, 2016; Michael J. O'Laughlin, “Chicago's Cardinal Cupich: Saying Gay, Lesbian, and LGBT Is a Step toward Respect,” America, July 18, 2017.
238 Vikki Ortiz Healy and Manya Brachear Pashman, “Cupich's Influence to Grow as Cardinal: Archbishop Carries out Pope's Vision in Chicago and Now on Global Scale,” Chicago Tribune, November 18, 2016.
239 Alexander Santora, “N.J. Cardinal Offers Historic Welcome to LGBT Community,” nj.com, May 7, 2017; Francis De Bernardo, “Newark Cardinal Will Welcome Catholic LGBT Pilgrimage,” New Ways Ministry, May 9, 2017; Robert Shine, “Cardinal's Welcome to LGBT Catholics ‘Felt Like a Miracle,’” New Ways Ministry, June 14, 2017.
240 “San Diego Bishop: Some Catholics Have ‘Corrosive and Repugnant’ Views on Homosexuality,” California Catholic Daily, February 8, 2018, https://cal-catholic.com/san-diego-bishop-some-catholics-have-corrosive-and-repugnant-views-on-homosexuality/; Robert Shine, “Bishop McElroy: Right Wing Attacks on LGBT Issues a ‘Wake-Up Call’ For Catholics,” New Ways Ministry, September 20, 2017.
241 Charles J. Reid, Jr., “Shadow over Springfield: The Failures of a Warrior Bishop” (blog), Huffington Post, December 18, 2013 (updated February 17, 2014), https://www.huffpost.com/entry/bishop-thomas-paprocki_b_4442069.
242 Anthony Ruff, “A Pastoral Disaster: Bishop Morlino and the Parish in Platteville, WI,” PrayTell, May 3, 2012; Kathleen Williams, “Bishop Morlino Wrong to Attack Pope,” Madison.com, September 9, 2018.
243 Heidi Schlumpf, “Madison Priests Get Directives on Funerals of LGBT People,” National Catholic Reporter, October 23, 2017; “Madison, Wisconsin's Bishop's Ban on Funerals for Gay People ‘Outrageous and Shameful,’” Dignity USA, October 22, 2017.
244 Hayes, Diana, “Reflections on Slavery,” in Changes in Official Catholic Moral Teachings, ed. Curran, Charles E. (New York: Paulist, 2003), 65–75Google Scholar.
245 Noonan, John T., The Lustre of Our Country: The American Experience of Religious Freedom (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), 329–53Google Scholar.
246 Kerman Calvo Borobia, “Necesidades Políticas y Protesta Colectiva en la Regulación de los Matrimonios Homosexuales en España” [Political necessities and collective protest on the regulation of homosexual unions in Spain], Anuario de la Facultad de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (2006), 139–59; Borobia, Kerman Calvo, “Moviementos sociales, y Reconocimiento de Derechos Civiles: La Legalización de Matrimonio Entre Personas de Mismo Sexo en España” [Social movements and the reception of civil laws: The legalization of marriages between persons of the same sex], Revista de Estudios Politicos, no. 147, (2010): 137–67Google Scholar.
247 Martí, José Luis and Pettit, Philip, A Political Philosophy in Public Life: Civic Republicanism in Zapatero's Spain (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010), 122–23Google Scholar.
248 Ciaran Giles, “Spain's Gay Marriage Bill Nears Passage: Predominantly Catholic Nation Could Be Third in Europe to Legalize Same-Sex Marriage,” Houston Chronicle, April 22, 2005.
249 Elizabeth Nash, “Gay Couples Win Right to Marry in Spain Despite Opposition,” Independent, July 1, 2005; Renwick McLean, “Mostly Catholic Spain Legalizes Gay Marriage: Law among the Most Liberal in the World,” South Florida Sun-Sentinel, July 1, 2005.
250 José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, “A Lesson in Tolerance from Spain,” Washington Post, May 28, 2015.
251 “Same-Sex Marriage Bill Debate in Upper House Generates Mixed Feelings among Society's Representatives,” Buenos Aires Herald, June 29, 2010.
252 Bonomo, Christine A., “Case Studies in the Advancement of Sexual Orientation Rights and the Role of Developing International Legal Norms: Argentina and Brazil,” Chicago Journal of International Law 14, no. 1 (2013): 259–89, at 272–78Google Scholar.
253 Vaggione, Juan Marco, “Sexual Rights and Religion: Same-Sex Marriage and Lawmakers’ Catholic Identity in Argentina,” in “Gender Justice and Human Rights in the Americas,” special issue, University of Miami Law Review 65, no. 3 (2011): 935–54, at 941–45Google Scholar; “Bergoglio Accuses Same-Sex Marriage Bill of ‘Being Satan's Work to Destroy God's Plan,’” Buenos Aires Herald, July 8, 2010.
254 Michael Warren, “Argentina Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage. Politically Risky Move Is First by a Nation in Latin America,” Houston Chronicle, July 16, 2010; Soledad Gallego-Díaz, “Same-Sex Marriage Comes to Argentina,” El Pais, July 21, 2010.
255 Alexei Barrionuevo, “Argentina Approves Gay Marriage, in First for Region,” New York Times, July 15, 2010.
256 Kathy Sheridan, “How Gay Marriage Went Mainstream,” Irish Times, July 14, 2012; Cathal Dervan, “Top Church of Ireland Minister Reveals His Same-Sex Marriage,” IrishCentral, September 5, 2011.
257 Parkes, Aisling, “National Report—Ireland,” American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy, and Law 19, no. 1 (2011): 221–23, at 222Google Scholar.
258 Busse, Anna Grzymała, Nations under God: How Churches Use Moral Authority to Influence Policy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015), 104Google Scholar.
259 Frances Mulraney, “Date Set for Ireland's Same-Sex Marriage Referendum,” IrishCentral, February 21, 2015.
260 Max Rossi, “Pope Accepts Resignation of Head of Scandal-Plagued Irish Church,” Newsweek, September 8, 2014; Henry McDonald, Riazat Butt, and Tom Kington, “Irish Cardinal Refuses to Quit over Paedophilia Cover-Up,” Guardian, March 14, 2010.
261 John Manley, “Bishops Urge MLAs’ to Reject Motion on Same-Sex Marriage,” Irish Times, April 29, 2014; Gerry Moriarty, “Bishops Oppose SF Move on Gay Marriage: Catholic Church Hierarchy Sends Open Letter to Assembly Members before Vote,” Irish Times, April 29, 2014.
262 Ronan McGreevy, “Church ‘Moving towards Acceptance’ of Gay People,” Irish Times, February 13, 2014; and Caomhán Keane, “Gay Catholics Pray 2015 Will Be the Year of the Welcome,” Irish Times, May 25, 2015.
263 Patsy McGarry, “Priests’ Group Stays Neutral on Referendum,” Irish Times, March 25, 2015. See also Patsy McGarry, “‘Comfortable Being Gay’: A Priest Speaks,” Irish Times, January 11, 2014 (Irish priest calls for reform of the way church speaks about “marriage, contraception, homosexuality”).
264 Patsy McGarry, “Archbishop Warns Over Insensitive Language,” Irish Times, February 25, 2015.
265 Diarmuid Martin, “I Encourage Everyone to Vote and Reflect Carefully,” Irish Times, May 19, 2015.
266 Martin, “I Encourage Everyone to Vote and Reflect Carefully.”
267 Martin, “I Encourage Everyone to Vote and Reflect Carefully.”
269 Diarmuid Martin, “‘Reality Check’ for Catholic Church,” Irish Times, May 25, 2015.
270 Omar Encarnación, “There's Something about Marriage: Why the Vote in Ireland Was Bad for Same-Sex Rights,” Foreign Affairs, May 31, 2015.
271 Encarnación, “There's Something about Marriage.”
273 Galatians 2:1–10.
274 Acts 2:38; 2 Peter 1:9.
275 Horn, Cornelia B., “Penitence in Early Christianity in Its Historical and Theological Settings: Trajectories from Eastern and Western Sources,” in Repentance in Christian Theology, Boda, Mark J. and Smith, Gordon T. (Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 2006), 153–88, at 164–69Google Scholar; Browning, Robert L. and Reed, Roy A., Forgiveness, Reconciliation, and Moral Courage: Motives and Designs For Ministry in a Troubled World (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 2004), 106Google Scholar.
277 John 8:35.
278 John 8:44.
279 John 5:16.
280 Matthew 27:25.
281 Revelation 2:9.
282 Stow, Kenneth R., “The Church and the Jews: St. Paul to Pius IX,” in Pope, Church, and Jews in the Middle Ages: Confrontation and Response (Burlington: Ashgate, 2007), 1–70, especially 1, 24–25Google Scholar.
283 Richards, Jeffrey, Sex, Dissidence, and Damnation: Minority Groups in the Middle Ages (New York: Routledge, 1991), 107–09Google Scholar.
288 Dudley, Martin, “The Jews in the Good Friday Liturgy,” Anglican Theological Review 76, no. 1 (1994): 61–70Google Scholar; James Martin, “The Jews, the Latin Mass, and Good Friday,” America, February 7, 2008.
289 Korn, Eugene, “On Modern Miracles,” in A Jubilee for All: The Copernican Revolution in Jewish-Christian Relations, ed. Rosenfeld, Gilbert S. (Eugene: Pickwick Publications, 2014), 288–94, at 289–90Google Scholar.
290 “Pope Praises Jews as ‘Our Elder Brothers in the Faith,’” Los Angeles Times, August 20, 1987.
291 Luke 6:35.
292 Alan Kirk, “‘Love Your Enemies’: The Golden Rule and Ancient Reciprocity (Luke 6:27–35),” Journal of Biblical Literature 122, no. 4 (2003): 667–86.
293 Decretales Gregorii IX [The decretals of Gregory IX], X 5.19.10.
294 Noonan, John T. Jr., “Authority, Usury, and Contraception,” CrossCurrents 16, no. 1 (1966): 55–79, at 57Google Scholar.
295 See, for example, Dante, Inferno, Canto 14, lines 21–42; Canto 15, lines 22–96; and Canto 16: 22–48; cf. Boswell, John, “Dante and the Sodomites,” Dante Studies 112 (1994): 63–76Google Scholar (on the sexual nature of these transgressors’ sins).
296 Dante, Inferno, Canto 17, lines 34–78.