Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-564cf476b6-jjt9s Total loading time: 0.248 Render date: 2021-06-21T08:35:20.381Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Response to governmental COVID-19 restrictions: the role of informal institutions

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 April 2021

Katarzyna Bentkowska
Affiliation:
Warsaw School of Economics, Institute of Markets and Competition, Warsaw, Poland
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

This paper explains how informal institutions influence the reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic and the response to formal restrictions. I claim that it is not enough to introduce countermeasures, as individuals must follow them if they are to be effective. The acceptance of such measures is reflected in individuals' degrees of mobility decrease and contact reduction, the aims of governmental restrictions. I identify a group of attitudes connected with individuals' responses that differ across countries. They are associated with social relations and approaches to dealing with problems. The analysis confirms that formal restrictions can be seen as successful only if they are supported by strong informal institutions. In some cases, they even define individuals' reactions more than formal recommendations. The findings are useful not only for explaining the special case of reaction to pandemic restrictions but also for investigating what generally determines individuals' compliance with formal rules.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Millennium Economics Ltd 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Acemoglu, D. (2006), ‘Modelling Inefficient Institutions’, in Blundell, R., Newey, W. K., and Persson, T. (eds), Advances in Economics and Econometrics. Theory and Applications, Ninth World Congress, New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 341380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Acemoglu, D. and Robinson, J. A. (2012), Why Nations Fail, New York: Crown Publishing Group.Google Scholar
Acemoglu, D., Egorov, G. and Sonin, K. (2013), ‘A Political Theory of Populism’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 128(2): 771805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Acemoglu, D., Gallego, F. A. and Robinson, J. A. (2014), ‘Institutions, Human Capital, and Development’, Annual Review of Economics, 6: 875912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Acemoglu, D., Johnson, S. and Robinson, J. A. (2001), ‘The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation’, American Economic Review, 91(5): 13691401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Acemoglu, D., Johnson, S. and Robinson, J. A. (2002), ‘Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in the Making of the Modern World Income’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 117(4): 12311294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Acemoglu, D., Johnson, S. and Robinson, J. A. (2005), ‘The Rise of Europe: Atlantic Trade, Institutional Change, and Economic Growth’, American Economic Review, 95(3): 546579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ádam, Z. (2020), ‘Re-feudalizing Democracy: An Approach to Authoritarian Populism Taken From Institutional Economics’, Journal of Institutional Economics, 16(1): 105118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Algan, Y., Guriev, S., Papaioannou, E. and Passari, E. (2017), The European Trust Crisis and the Rise of Populism, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, pp.309382.Google Scholar
Aron, J. (2000), ‘Growth and Institutions: A Review of the Evidence’, World Bank Research Observer, 15(1): 99135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boeri, T., Mishra, P., Papageorgiou, C. H. and Spilimbergo, A. (2018), Populism and Civil Society, IMF Working Paper, WP/18/245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boettke, P. J., Coyne, C. J. and Leeson, P. T. (2008), ‘Institutional Stickiness and the New Development Economics’, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 67(2): 331358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Camussi, S. and Mancini, A. L. (2019), ‘Individual Trust: Does Quality of Local Institutions Matter?’, Journal of Institutional Economics, 15(3): 487503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Casson, M. C., Della Giusta, M. and Kambhampati, U. S. (2010), ‘Formal and Informal Institutions and Development’, World Development, 38(2): 137141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cervellati, M., Fortunato, P. and Sunde, U. (2008), ‘Hobbes to Rousseau: Inequality, Institutions and Development’, 118(531): 13541384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chavance, B. (2008), ‘Formal and Informal Institutional Change: The Experience of Postsocialist Transformation’, European Journal of Comparative Economics, 5(1): 5771.Google Scholar
Chavance, B. and Magnin, E. (2000), ‘National Trajectories of Post-Socialist Transformation: Is There a Convergence Towards Western Capitalisms?’, in Dobry, M. (ed), Democratic and Capitalist Transitions in Eastern Europe, Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 221233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chong, A. and Gradstein, M. (2018), ‘Imposed Institutions and Preferences for Redistribution’, Journal of Institutional Economics, 14(1): 127156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chong, A. and Gradstein, M. (2019), ‘Institutional Persistence, Income Inequality, and Individual attitudes’, Journal of Economic Inequality, 17(3): 401413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christensen, T. and Lægreid, P. (2005), ‘Trust in Government: The Relative Importance of Service Satisfaction, Political Factors, and Demography’, Public Performance & Management Review, 28(4): 487511.Google Scholar
Cruz-García, P. and Peiró-Palomino, J. (2019), ‘Informal, Formal Institutions and Credit: Complements or Substitutes?’, Journal of Institutional Economics, 15(4): 649671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Democracy Index. (2019), The Economist Intelligence Unit, https://www.eiu.com/topic/democracy-index (accessed 20.10.2020)Google Scholar
Eggertsson, T. (2006), ‘On the Survival of Imperfect Institutions’, Revista de Analisis Economico, 21(2): 1324.Google Scholar
Eicher, T. S. and Rohn, O. (2007), ‘Institutional Determinants of Economic Performance in OECD Countries – An Institutions Climate Index’, CESifo DICE Report, 5(1): 3849.Google Scholar
EVS. (2020), European Values Study 2017: Integrated Dataset (EVS 2017), GESIS Datenarchiv, Köln, ZA7500 Datenfile Version 3.0.0.Google Scholar
Glaeser, E. L., La Porta, R., Lopez-de-Silanes, F. and Shleifer, A. (2004), ‘Do Institutions Cause Growth?’, Journal of Economic Growth, 9(3): 271303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Google LLC. (2020), Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports. https://www.google.com/covid19/mobility/ (accessed: 08.02.2021).Google Scholar
Gradstein, M. (2008), ‘Institutional Traps and Economic Growth’, International Economic Review, 49(3): 10431066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guiso, L., Herrera, H., Morelli, M. and Sonno, T. (2017), Demand and Supply of Populism, EIEF Working Paper 17/03Google Scholar
Hale, T., Angrist, N., Cameron-Blake, E., Hallas, L., Kira, B., Majumdar, S., Petherick, A., Phillips, T., Tatlow, H. and Webster, S. (2020), Variation in Government Responses to COVID-19, Version 7.0, Blavatnik School of Government Working Paper; dataset (accessed: 27.01.2021).Google Scholar
Helmke, G. and Levitsky, S. (2004), ‘Informal Institutions and Comparative Politics: A Research Agenda’, Perspectives on Politics, 2(4): 725740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hodgson, G. M. (2003), ‘The Hidden Persuaders: Institutions and Individuals in Economic Theory’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 27(2): 159175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hodgson, G. M. (2006), ‘What Are Institutions?’, Journal of Economic Issues, 40(1): 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holcombe, R. G. and Boudreaux, C. J. (2016), ‘Market Institutions and Income Inequality’, Journal of Institutional Economics, 12(2): 263276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knack, S. and Keefer, P. (1995), ‘Institutions And Economic Performance: Cross-Country Tests Using Alternative Institutional Measures’, Economics and Politics, 7(3): 207227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knack, S. and Keefer, P. (1997), ‘Does Social Capital Have an Economic Payoff? A Cross-Country Investigation’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112(4): 12511288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kovac, M. and Spruk, R. (2016), ‘Institutional Development, Transaction Costs and Economic Growth: Evidence From a Cross-Country investigation’, Journal of Institutional Economics, 12(1): 129159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuncic, A. (2014), ‘Institutional Quality Dataset’, Journal of Institutional Economics, 10(1): 135161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kyriacou, A. P. and Lopez Velasquez, F. J. (2015), ‘Inequality and Culture in a Cross-Section of Countries’, Journal of Institutional Economics, 11(1): 141166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leković, V. (2011), ‘Interaction of Formal and Informal Institutions – Impact on Economic Success’, Economics and Organization, 8(4): 357370.Google Scholar
North, D. C. (1994), Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance, New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
North, D. C. (2005), Understanding the Process of Economic Change, Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ostrom, E. (1990), Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ostrom, E. (2000), ‘Collective Action and the Evolution of Social Norms’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14(3): 137158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ostrom, E. (2005), Understanding Institutional Diversity, Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Ostrom, E., Walker, J. and Gardner, R. (1992), ‘Covenants With and Without a Sword: Self-Governance is Possible’, American Political Science Review, 86(2): 404417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ostrom, E., Burger, J., Field, C. B., Norgaard, R. B. and Policansky, D. (1999), ‘Revisiting the Commons: Local Lessons, Global Challenges’, Science, 284(5412): 278282.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Our World in Data. (2020), Data on COVID-1. https://ourworldindata.org/coronavirus (accessed 03.02.2021)Google Scholar
Pejovich, S. (1999), ‘The Effects of the Interaction of Formal and Informal Institutions on Social Stability and Economic Development’, Journal of Markets & Morality, 2(2): 164181.Google Scholar
Platje, J. (2008), ‘“Institutional Capital” as a Factor of Sustainable Development – the Importance of an Institutional equilibrium’, Technological and Economic Development of Economy, 14(2): 144150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rodrik, D., Subramanian, A. and Trebbi, F. (2004), ‘Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions over Geography and Integration in Economic Development’, Journal of Economic Growth, 9(2): 131165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rothstein, B. and Stolle, D. (2008), ‘The State and Social Capital: An Institutional Theory of Generalized Trust’, Comparative Politics, 40(4): 441459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Searle, J. (2005), ‘What is an Institution?’, Journal of Institutional Economics, 1(1): 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sonin, K. (2003), ‘Why the Rich may Favor Poor Protection of Property Right’, Journal of Comparative Economics, 31(4): 715731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tabellini, G. (2010), ‘Culture and Institutions: Economic Development in the Regions of Europe’, Journal of the European Economic Association, 8(4): 677716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
The Legatum Prosperity IndexTM. (2019), Prosperity Rankings: Full 2019 Data set, https://www.prosperity.com/about/resources (accessed 03.06.2020).Google Scholar
Timbro. (2019), Authoritarian Populism Index, https://populismindex.com/report/ (accessed 02.03.2020).Google Scholar
Voigt, S. (2013), ‘How (Not) to Measure Institutions’, Journal of Institutional Economics, 9(1): 126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Voigt, S. (2018), ‘How to Measure Informal Institutions’, Journal of Institutional Economics, 14(1): 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williamson, O. E. (2000), ‘The New Institutional Economics Taking Stock Looking Ahead’, Journal of Economic Literature, 38(3): 595613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williamson, C. R. (2009), ‘Informal Institutions Rule: Institutional Arrangements and Economic Performance’, Public Choice, 139(3/4): 371387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williamson, C. R. and Kerekes, C. B. (2011), ‘Securing Private Property: Formal versus Informal Institutions’, Journal of Law & Economics, 54(3): 537572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zak, P. J. and Knack, S. (2001), ‘Trust and Growth’, Economic Journal, 111(470): 295321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Response to governmental COVID-19 restrictions: the role of informal institutions
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Response to governmental COVID-19 restrictions: the role of informal institutions
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Response to governmental COVID-19 restrictions: the role of informal institutions
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *