A new entomopathogenic nematode in the genus Heterorhabditis is described from South Africa, from two singular isolates found 1000 km from each other, from beneath a fig tree and in a citrus orchard, respectively. Morphological and molecular studies indicate both isolates to be the same and a new undescribed Heterorhabditis species. Comparison of sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA and the D2D3 region of the 28S rDNA gene with available sequences of other described species within the genus, indicate the two isolates as a new species. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data concerned placed the new species, H. noenieputensis n. sp., closest to H. indica and H. gerrardi in the indica-group. The new species, H. noenieputensis n. sp., is distinguished from other species in the genus by a combination of several morphological traits of the males and the infective juveniles (IJs). The new species differs from all other species previously described, as regards the body length of the IJs, except for H. indica and H. taysearae, in which the IJ is smaller. The IJ also differs from that of H. indica in the length of the oesophagus, the body diameter, the length of the tail and the E%. In addition, males of H. noenieputensis n. sp. differ from their closest relative, H. indica, in the position of the excretory pore, SW% and D%; and from H. gerrardi in the length of the oesophagus and SW%. The seventh pair of genital papillae of H. noenieputensis n. sp. are normally developed, while for H. indica they are often branched or swollen at the base, while 8 and 9 are usually absent in both species.