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Checklist of marine mammal parasites in New Zealand and Australian waters

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 June 2019

K. Lehnert*
Affiliation:
Institute for Terrestrial and Aquatic Wildlife Research, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bünteweg 2, 30559 Hannover, Germany
R. Poulin
Affiliation:
Department of Zoology, University of Otago, 340 Great King Street, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
B. Presswell
Affiliation:
Department of Zoology, University of Otago, 340 Great King Street, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
*
Author for correspondence: K. Lehnert, E-mail: kristina.lehnert@tiho-hannover.de
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Abstract

Marine mammals are long-lived top predators with vagile lifestyles, which often inhabit remote environments. This is especially relevant in the oceanic waters around New Zealand and Australia where cetaceans and pinnipeds are considered as vulnerable and often endangered due to anthropogenic impacts on their habitat. Parasitism is ubiquitous in wildlife, and prevalence of parasitic infections as well as emerging diseases can be valuable bioindicators of the ecology and health of marine mammals. Collecting information about parasite diversity in marine mammals will provide a crucial baseline for assessing their impact on host and ecosystem ecology. New studies on marine mammals in New Zealand and Australian waters have recently added to our knowledge of parasite prevalence, life cycles and taxonomic relationships in the Australasian region, and justify a first host–parasite checklist encompassing all available data. The present checklist comprises 36 species of marine mammals, and 114 species of parasites (helminths, arthropods and protozoans). Mammal species occurring in New Zealand and Australian waters but not included in the checklist represent gaps in our knowledge. The checklist thus serves both as a guide for what information is lacking, as well as a practical resource for scientists working on the ecology and conservation of marine mammals.

Type
Review Article
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BY
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019

Introduction

In the oceanic waters around New Zealand (NZ) and Australia, marine mammals are considered as vulnerable wildlife and often endangered due to anthropogenic impacts on their habitat. Strandings of these long-lived top predators and often pelagic species are rare and individuals are seldom available for data collection. A recent assessment has shown that the conservation status of NZ marine mammals has not improved (Baker et al., Reference Baker, Chilvers, Constantine, DuFresne, Mattlin, Van Helden and Hitchmough2010). Furthermore, three endemic NZ marine mammals, i.e. NZ sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri), Hector's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori hectori) (both endangered) and Maui's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori maui) (nationally critical) are regarded as threatened. Thirteen taxa are considered data deficient (Baker et al., Reference Baker, Chilvers, Constantine, DuFresne, Mattlin, Van Helden and Hitchmough2010). Around Australia, at least seven species are classified threatened, among them the iconic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), and the conservation status of 25 cetacean species is unknown due to insufficient data (Schumann et al., Reference Schumann, Gales, Harcourt and Arnould2013). Australian and NZ waters include critical feeding and breeding grounds for permanent cetacean residents and visitors that migrate from summer feeding grounds in the Antarctic to the warmer waters of the Australian coast during the winter (Bannister et al., Reference Bannister, Kemper and Warneke1996; Salgado Kent et al., Reference Salgado Kent, Jenner, Jenner, Bouchet and Rexstad2012). Recent dangers to pinnipeds in Australasian waters include exposure to marine debris and bycatch in fishing gear, which is an acute threat for the endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) (Kovacs et al., Reference Kovacs, Aguilar and Aurioles2012) and NZ sea lion (Robertson & Chilvers, Reference Robertson and Chilvers2011). Continuous pressure of anthropogenic impacts such as fisheries, entanglement, vessel strike and chemical and noise pollution has prompted researchers to evaluate the effects of cumulative stress on marine mammals in Oceania and to implement conservation strategies to protect their survival (Kingsford et al., Reference Kingsford, Watson and Lundquist2009).

Parasitism is ubiquitous in wildlife, and parasites in marine mammals are common. While a certain parasite load may not hamper host physiology, heavy infections can have serious pathogenic effects on host fitness (Measures, Reference Measures, Samuel, Pybus and Kocan2001; Siebert et al., Reference Siebert, Wünschmann, Weiss, Frank, Benke and Frese2001). Although Australian and NZ waters are a hotspot for marine mammal species richness (Pompa et al., Reference Pompa, Ehrlich and Ceballos2011), little is known of their parasite diversity.

Parasitic infections, their prevalence and intensity as well as emerging species have proven to be valuable bioindicators of the ecology and health of marine mammals (Siebert et al., Reference Siebert, Gilles, Lucke, Ludwig, Benke, Kock and Scheidat2006; Lehnert et al., Reference Lehnert, Seibel, Hasselmeier, Wohlsein, Iversen, Nielsen and Siebert2014), reflecting habitat use (Aznar et al., Reference Aznar, Raga, Corcuera and Monzón1995), diet (Marcogliese, Reference Marcogliese2002), social behaviour and population dynamics (Balbuena and Raga, Reference Balbuena and Raga1994), but also as markers for exposure and detrimental effects of xenobiotics (Sures, Reference Sures2004; Pascual & Abollo, Reference Pascual and Abollo2005; Marcogliese & Pietrock, Reference Marcogliese and Pietrock2011). They reveal evolutionary host–parasite relationships and highlight their biogeography and phylogeny over historical timescales (Anderson, Reference Anderson1982; Leidenberger et al., Reference Leidenberger, Harding and Härkönen2007). In the future, metazoan parasites, emerging infectious diseases and microparasites like viruses may be used as markers for the effects of anthropogenic stress on the health of marine mammals, as their role also as indicators for global change has become evident (Gulland & Hall, Reference Gulland and Hall2007; van Bressem et al., Reference Van Bressem, Raga and Di Guardo2009). Additionally, some parasites of marine mammals have zoonotic potential, causing public health concerns and economic harm. Both the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum and anisakid nematodes (e.g. Anisakis spp., Pseudoterranova spp.) increasingly cause zoonotic infections in humans (Dorny et al., Reference Dorny, Praet, Deckers and Gabriël2009; Shamsi, Reference Shamsi2014), and can induce severe gastro-intestinal disease when ingested via undercooked fish (Mattiucci et al., Reference Mattiucci, Fazii and De Rosa2013; Bao et al., Reference Bao, Pierce, Pascual, González-Muñoz, Mattiucci, Mladineo, Cipriani, Bušelić and Strachan2017). These parasites are transmitted to their definitive cetacean and pinniped hosts via infective larvae within prey intermediate hosts, while infected fillets cause economic losses for the fishery industries (Llarena-Reino et al., Reference Llarena-Reino, Abollo, Regueira, Rodríguez and Pascual2015). Zoonotic protozoans like Giardia and Cryptosporidium are significant enteropathogens in NZ, causing higher infection rates than in other developed countries (Britton et al., Reference Britton, Hales, Venugopal and Baker2010). Faeces from humans, pets and farm animals are discharged in runoff, bringing encysted parasites to coastal waters. They are filtered and concentrated by invertebrates and consumed by marine mammals, infecting a wide range of hosts, resulting in morbidity and mortality to some species (Fayer et al., Reference Fayer, Dubey and Lindsay2004).

Collecting information about parasite diversity in marine mammals will provide a crucial baseline for assessing their impact on host and ecosystem ecology (Poulin et al., Reference Poulin, Blasco-Costa and Randhawa2016). Study design in live marine mammals is restricted by legal as well as ethical constraints so that, since the cessation of whaling, data are collected mostly opportunistically from stranded or bycaught individuals. In the oceanic waters of the southern hemisphere, many species are seldom found stranded; therefore, few parasitological records (Berón-Vera et al., Reference Berón-Vera, Crespo and Raga2008; Nikolov et al., Reference Nikolov, Cappozzo, Berón-Vera, Crespo, Raga and Fernández2010) exist. Parasitology increasingly complements marine ecology to further our understanding of ecosystem dynamics (Poulin et al., Reference Poulin, Blasco-Costa and Randhawa2016), but, so far, little is known about the biodiversity of Australasian marine parasites (Poulin, Reference Poulin2004; Stockin et al., Reference Stockin, Duignan, Roe, Meynier, Alley and Fettermann2009). New studies on marine mammals in NZ and Australian waters have recently added to our knowledge about parasite prevalence, life cycles (Tomo et al., Reference Tomo, Kemper and Lavery2010; Lehnert et al., Reference Lehnert, Randhawa and Poulin2017) and taxonomic relationships (Shamsi et al., Reference Shamsi, Gasser and Beveridge2012, Hernández-Orts et al., Reference Hernández-Orts, Smales, Pinacho-Pinacho, García-Varela and Presswell2017), and justify a first host–parasite checklist encompassing all available data. Previous marine mammal parasite checklists include Baylis (Reference Baylis1932), Delyamure (Reference Delyamure1955), Dailey & Brownell (Reference Dailey, Brownell and Ridgway1972), Raga (Reference Raga, Robineau, Duguy, Robineau and Klima1994), Felix (Reference Felix2013) and Fraija-Fernández et al. (Reference Fraija-Fernández, Fernández, Raga and Aznar2016). Most include host data, but geographical data are scanty. Australian lists include that of the internal parasites of mammals by MacKerras (Reference Mackerras1958), the references of which are unfortunately disconnected from the text and, therefore, not useable, and Arundel (Reference Arundel1978), which records parasites found in all marine mammals that are found in Australian waters. This list, however, does not differentiate between parasites found in the host species within Australian waters and those found in the same species in other parts of the world. There are no equivalent lists for the marine mammals of NZ.

A couple of useful lists are available for particular host taxa (e.g. Blair, Reference Blair1981: dugong monostome digeneans; Bowie, Reference Bowie1984: bottle-nosed dolphin parasites), and parasite taxa (e.g. Price, Reference Price1932: trematodes in marine mammals; Leung, Reference Leung1967: whale lice of cetaceans). There have also been compilations with a veterinary perspective (e.g. Duignan, Reference Duignan2000; Dailey, Reference Dailey, Dierauf and Gulland2001; Ladds, Reference Ladds2009; McFarlane et al., Reference McFarlane, Norman, Jones, Kerry and Riddle2009) and those looking at certain pathologies (e.g. Baylis & Daubney, Reference Baylis and Daubney1925: lungworms of cetacean; Spratt, Reference Spratt2002: respiratory parasites in Australian mammals; Measures, Reference Measures, Samuel, Pybus and Kocan2001: lungworms of marine mammals).

Here, we present a host–parasite checklist collating all information about the metazoan and protozoan parasites of marine mammals in NZ and Australian waters. Although viruses (e.g. morbillivirus) and bacteria (e.g. Brucella) are relevant pathogens with zoonotic potential that can cause mortality in marine mammals (Castinel et al., Reference Castinel, Duignan, Pomroy, Lopez-Villalobos, Gibbs, Chilvers and Wilkinson2007), we limit our list to the better-known eukaryotic parasites. Where possible, we also identify knowledge gaps and research needs, especially with regard to human interactions and zoonoses, as well as marine mammal conservation.

Material and methods

We present a list of the parasites found in pinnipeds, cetaceans and sirenians of NZ and Australia, as far as possible up to date at the time of publication. The list was assembled from primary publications found through searches on Google Scholar using all combinations of relevant keywords, plus searches of the reference lists in those publications. The parasites are presented in alphabetical order of Families under their relevant Phylum, Class and Order. Within Families, species are listed in alphabetical order. Classifications followed for helminths are: Anderson et al. (Reference Anderson, Chabaud and Willmott2009) (Nematoda); Caira & Jensen (Reference Caira and Jensen2017) (Cestoda); Olson et al. (Reference Olson, Cribb, Tkach, Bray and Littlewood2003), Gibson et al. (Reference Gibson, Jones and Bray2002), Jones et al. (Reference Jones, Bray and Gibson2005) and Bray et al. (Reference Bray, Gibson and Jones2008) (Trematoda); and Amin (Reference Amin2013) (Acanthocephala). For arthropods and protozoa higher taxonomy was taken from the records cited, or from searches for more up-to-date phylogenetic studies. Synonyms are taken from the references in square brackets following the entries, with corrections and updates from primary sources in some cases.

Localities of records are given as indicated in the original source. Standard abbreviations are used for Australian states: New South Wales, NSW; Queensland, QLD; South Australia, SA; Victoria, VIC; Tasmania, TAS; Western Australia, WA; and New Zealand, NZ. We have included only those records that fall within the geographical boundaries of Australia and NZ, and their subantarctic islands. Records for mainland Antarctica have not been included, because there is no geographical distinction between Australian or NZ-held territory, and those territories belonging to other countries. Although there are many records for mainland Antarctica, these are best dealt with as a separate entity.

Where there is more than one reference source, hosts and localities bear a superscript number that refers to the numbered reference. In a few cases, where references cite differing infection sites, these are also numbered with the relevant superscript number. Multiple references are listed in chronological order.

For host taxonomy we have adhered to WoRMS (2018) (Pinnipeda and Cetacea), Berta and Churchill (Reference Berta and Churchill2012) (Pinnipeda) and Perrin (Reference Perrin2018) (Cetacea). Host names listed are considered to be up to date as of publication. Where hosts were named differently in the original source, we have noted this in the relevant Remarks section. Hosts’ common names can be found in the host–parasite list.

The developmental stage of the parasite has been noted, where given in the original source. If such information was not given, worms are assumed to be adult if egg presence is noted or egg measurements are given.

Remarks sections contain information on intermediate hosts when available, notes on prevalence and intensity, and on pathology when available; short summaries of the latest research on disputed or complicated species; and mention of molecular data if available (i.e. from papers listed in the references and placed on GenBank) with the genetic markers used.

A list of host–parasite associations follows the parasite–host checklist.

Results

Parasite–host list

  • Phylum: Acanthocephala

  • Class: Palaeoacanthocephala Meyer, 1931

  • Order: Polymorphida Petrochenko, 1956

  • Family: Polymorphidae Meyer, 1931

Parasite name: Bolbosoma balaenae (Gmelin, 1790) Porta, 1908

  • Synonyms. Bolborhynchus porrigens Porta, 1906; Bolbosoma porrigens (Rudolphi, 1814) Porta, 1908; Echinorhynchus balaenae Gmelin, 1790; E. lendix Phipps, 1774; E. mysticeti Beneden, 1870; E. porrigens Rudolphi, 1819; Sipunculus lendix Phipps, 1774 [Amin, Reference Amin2013; Yamaguti, Reference Yamaguti1963].

  • Hosts. Megaptera novaeangliae.

  • Localities. Bondi Beach, NSW.

  • Infection site.

  • Stage.

  • References. Johnston & Deland (Reference Johnston and Deland1929).

  • Remarks. Called B. porrigens in this paper. Host reported as probably M. nodosa (= longimana); both now synonymized with M. novaeangliae.

Parasite name: Bolbosoma capitatum (von Linstow, 1880) Porta, 1908

Parasite name: Bolbosoma sp.

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Tursiops truncatus.

  • Localities. Otago Harbour, NZ.

  • Infection site. Intestine.

  • Stage. Immature.

  • References. Bowie (Reference Bowie1984).

  • Remarks. Single specimen.

Parasite name: Corynosoma australe Johnston, 1937

Parasite name: Corynosoma bullosum (von Linstow, 1892) Railliet & Henry, 1907

  • Synonyms. Corynosoma arctocephali Zdzitowiecki, 1984; C. mirabilis Skrjabin, 1966 (fide Zdzitowiecki, 1986); C. singularis Skrjabin & Nikolski, 1971, in part; Echinorhynchus bullosus von Linstow, 1892 [The World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS); Amin, Reference Amin2013].

  • Hosts. Hydrurga leptonyx (2), Mirounga leonine (1–3).

  • Locality. (1) Auckland/Campbell Island, NZ; (2, 3) Heard Island, Australia; (2) Macquarie Island, Australia.

  • Infection site. Intestine.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. (1) Johnston & Edmonds (Reference Johnston and Edmonds1953); (2) Edmonds (Reference Edmonds1955); (3) Edmonds (Reference Edmonds1957a).

  • Remarks. Edmonds reported 200 (Reference Edmonds1957a), and over 100 (Reference Edmonds1955) specimens from single hosts. He states that the larval stages are found encysted in the mesenteries of Notothenia coriiceps.

Parasite name: Corynosoma cetaceum Johnston & Best, 1942

  • Synonyms. Corynosoma semerme sensu Cordero, 1933; Polymorphus arctocephali Smales, 1986 (nec arctocephalus); Polymorphus (Polymorphus) cetaceum (Johnston & Best, 1942) Schmidt & Dailey, 1971 [Amin, Reference Amin2013].

  • Hosts. Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (2), Delphinus delphis (1), Tursiops truncatus (1).

  • Locality. (1) Port Lincoln, SA; (1) St. Vincent Gulf, SA; (2) Phillip Island, VIC.

  • Infection site. Stomach and small intestine.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. (1) Johnston & Best (Reference Johnston and Best1942); (2) Smales (Reference Smales1986).

  • Remarks. Described as new species in Johnston & Best (Reference Johnston and Best1942). Described as P. arctocephali n. sp., and host as A. pusillus in Smales (Reference Smales1986), synonymized by Aznar et al. (Reference Aznar, Bush and Raga1999).

Parasite name: Coryosoma semerme (Forssell, 1904) Lühe, 1905

  • Synonyms. Corynosoma gibber (Olsson, 1894) Lühe, 1911; Echinorhynchus semermis Forssell, 1904 (Amin, Reference Amin2013).

  • Hosts. Phocarctos hookeri.

  • Locality. Auckland/Campbell Island, NZ.

  • Infection site.

  • Stage.

  • References. Johnston & Edmonds (Reference Johnston and Edmonds1953).

  • Remarks. Host called Otaria hookeri in this paper.

Parasite name: Corynosoma sp.

  • Phylum: Nemathelminthes

  • Class: Nematoda Rudolphi, 1808

  • Order: Ascaridida Sprehn, 1927

  • Family: Anisakidae Railliet & Henry, 1912

Parasite name: Anisakis berlandi Mattiucci, Nascetti, Cianchi, Paggi, Arduino, Margolis, Brattey, Webb, D'Amelio, Orecchia & Bullini, 1997

Parasite name: Anisakis brevispiculata Dollfus, 1966

Parasite name: Anisakis nascettii Mattiucci, Paoletti & Webb, 2009

Parasite name: Anisakis oceanica (Johnston & Mawson, 1951) Davey, 1971

Parasite name: Anisakis pegreffii Campana-Rouget & Biocca, 1955

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Delphinus delphis, Tursiops truncatus.

  • Locality. Blairgowrie and Apollo Bay, VIC.

  • Infection site. Stomach.

  • Stage. Adult plus immatures in D. delphis, larvae in T. truncatus.

  • References. Shamsi et al. (Reference Shamsi, Gasser and Beveridge2012).

  • Remarks. Molecular data available (ITS1&2).

Parasite name: Anisakis physeteris Baylis, 1923

  • Synonyms. Anisakis skrjabini Mozgovoi, 1949 [WoRMS].

  • Hosts. Kogia breviceps.

  • Locality. Wellington Beach, NZ.

  • Infection site. Stomach.

  • Stage.

  • References. Hurst (Reference Hurst1980).

  • Remarks. A single host harboured 61 specimens.

Parasite name: Anisakis simplex sensu lato

Parasite name: Anisakis sp.

Parasite name: Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860) Baylis, 1920

Parasite name: Anisakis ziphidarum Paggi, Nascetti, Webb, Mattiucci, Cianchi & Bullini, 1988

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Mesoplodon bowdoini.

  • Locality. South Pacific Ocean, off NZ.

  • Infection site. Stomach.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. Mattiucci et al. (Reference Mattiucci, Paoletti and Webb2009).

  • Remarks. Molecular data available (cox2).

Parasite name: Contracaecum mirounga Nikolskii, 1974

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Hydrurga leptonyx, Mirounga leonina.

  • Locality. Heard Island and Macquarie Island, Australia.

  • Infection site. Stomach.

  • Stage.

  • References. Fagerholm (Reference Fagerholm1988).

  • Remarks. Using the arrangement of the male caudal papillae, this study found that C. mirounga was restricted to southern hemisphere hosts, compared to C. osculatum and C. ogmorhini, which were more widespread in both hemispheres.

Parasite name: Contracaecum ogmorhini Johnston & Mawson, 1941

Parasite name: Contracaecum osculatum (Rudolphi, 1802) Baylis, 1920

  • Synonyms. Ascaris osculata Rudolphi, 1802; C. antarcticum Johnston, 1937; C. gypsophocae Johnston & Mawson, 1941; Phocascaris hydrurgae Johnston & Mawson, 1941 [WoRMS].

  • Hosts. Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (3), Arctophoca australis forsteri (3, 5, 6), Hydruruga leptonyx (2, 3), Mirounga leonine (3, 4), Neophoca cinerea (1).

  • Locality. (1) Pearson Island, SA; (2) Port Adelaide, SA; (3) Franklin Island Derwent Heads, TAS; (3, 4) Macquarie Island, TAS; (3) Heard Island, Australia; (5) in captivity, NZ; (6) Open Bay Island, Wellington, NZ.

  • Infection site. Stomach and small intestine.

  • Stage. Adults and immatures.

  • References. (1) Johnston (Reference Johnston1937); (2) Johnston & Mawson (Reference Johnston and Mawson1941); (3) Mawson (Reference Mawson1953): (4) Morgan et al. (Reference Morgan, Caple, Westbury and Campbell1978); (5) Cordes & O'Hara (Reference Cordes and O'Hara1979); (6) Hurst (Reference Hurst1980).

  • Remarks. Described as new species, C. gypsophocae and as P. hydrurgae in Johnston & Mawson (Reference Johnston and Mawson1941). Both synonymized by Johnston & Mawson (Reference Johnston and Mawson1945). Original host recorded as Gypsophoca tasmanica. Hosts recorded as Arctocephalus forsteri (5, 6). Johnston's (Reference Johnston1937) original description stated the host as A. forsteri, but this was corrected to N. cinerea in Johnston and Best (Reference Johnston and Best1942). Hurst (Reference Hurst1980) recorded 100% prevalence for this anisakid in the NZ fur seal. They found an infection range of 5–344 in the seals examined, and the presence of C. osculatum was associated with gastric ulcers.

Parasite name: Contracaecum radiatum (von Linstow, 1907) Baylis 1920

  • Synonyms. Ascaris falcigera Railliet & Henry, 1907; A. osculaia von Linstow, 1892; A. radiata von Linstow, 1907; Contracaecum falcigerum (Railliet & Henry, 1907) Baylis, 1920; Kathleena radiata Leiper & Atkinson, 1915 [WoRMS; Baylis Reference Baylis1937].

  • Hosts. Hydrurga leptonyx, Mirounga leonina.

  • Locality. Heard Island, Australia.

  • Infection site.

  • Stage.

  • References. Mawson (Reference Mawson1953).

  • Remarks.

Parasite name: Contracaecum sp.

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Cephalorhynchus hectori.

  • Locality. Canterbury coast, NZ.

  • Infection site. Stomach.

  • Stage.

  • References. McKenzie & Blair (Reference McKenzie and Blair1983).

  • Remarks. The material reported in this paper may have been two different species of Contracaecum from three dolphins. One was found as a single immature female in one dolphin, the second species was in all three dolphins, and 15 specimens were taken in total.

Parasite name: Phocascaris sp.

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Cephalorhynchus hectori.

  • Locality. Canterbury coast, NZ.

  • Infection site. Stomach.

  • Stage. Immature.

  • References. McKenzie & Blair (Reference McKenzie and Blair1983).

  • Remarks. A single, female, specimen in one of three dolphins.

Parasite name: Pseudoterranova decipiens (Krabbe, 1878) Gibson, 1983

  • Synonyms. Agamonema piscium Schneider, 1862; Ag. campbelli Chatin, 1885; Ascaris bulbosa Cobb, 1888; A. capsularia Stiles and Hasall, 1899, in part; A. capsularia Baylis, 1916, in part; A. decipiens Krabbe, 1878; A. rectangula Linstow, 1888; A. simplex von Linstow, 1888; Phocanema decipiens (Krabbe, 1878) Myers, 1959; Physaloptera guiarti Garin, 1913; Porrocaecum decipiens (Krabbe, 1878) Baylis, 1920; Por. piscium Johnston & Mawson, 1943; Por. capsularia Dogiel, 1932; Terranova decipiens (Krabbe, 1878) Mozgovoi, 1953; T. piscium (Rudolphi, 1809) Johnston and Mawson, 1943 [Johnston & Mawson, Reference Johnston and Mawson1945; Myers, Reference Myers1959].

  • Hosts. Arctophoca australis forsteri (3, 5), Hydrurga leptonyx (3, 4), Mirounga leonine (2, 3), Kogia breviceps (5), Phocarctos hookeri (1, 3, 5).

  • Locality. (1, 3) Campbell Island, NZ; (2, 4) Macquarie Island, TAS; (3, 5) Auckland Island, NZ; (5) Wellington Beach, NZ.

  • Infection site. Stomach.

  • Stage. Adult plus immatures.

  • References. (1) Johnston & Mawson (Reference Johnston and Mawson1943a); (2) Johnston & Mawson (Reference Johnston and Mawson1945); (3) Johnston & Mawson (Reference Johnston and Mawson1953); (4) Mawson (Reference Mawson1953); (5) Hurst (Reference Hurst1980).

  • Remarks. Mawson (Reference Mawson1953) reported a prevalence of seven out of nine leopard seals from Macquarie Island. Hurst reported a range of infection between one and 122 per host animal. Hurst's (Reference Hurst1980) data include both pinniped and cetacean hosts. Johnston & Mawson (Reference Johnston and Mawson1943a) referred to this species as Por. decipiens (Krabbe, 1878) Baylis, 1920 and (1945, 1953) T. piscium. Various fish are recorded as intermediate hosts; Thyrsites atun (5), notothenioid species (1, 3) and the flounder Rhombosolea sp. (3). Hosts variously called Arctocephalus hookeri (1), Otaria forsteri (3), O. hookeri (3). Mawson (Reference Mawson1953) also reported this species from the Royal penguin Eudyptes schlegeli Finsch, 1876.

Parasite name: Pseudoterranova kogiae (Johnston & Mawson, 1939) Mozgovoi, 1951

  • Family: Ascarididae Baird, 1853

Parasite name: Paradujardinia halicoris (Owen, 1833) Travassos, 1933

  • Order: Spirurida Chitwood, 1933

  • Family: Acuariidae Railliet, Henry & Sisoff, 1912

Parasite name: Acuaria sp.

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Cephalorhynchus hectori.

  • Locality. Canterbury coast, NZ.

  • Infection site. Stomach.

  • Stage. Larva.

  • References. McKenzie & Blair (Reference McKenzie and Blair1983).

  • Remarks. A single specimen was found in one of three dolphins.

  • Family: Filariidae Weinland, 1858

Parasite name: Filaria sensu lato sp.

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Mirounga leonina.

  • Locality. Heard Island, Australia.

  • Infection site. Blood vessels.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. Mawson (Reference Mawson1953).

  • Remarks.

  • Family: Gnathostomatidae Railliet, 1895

Parasite name: Echinocephalus overstreeti Deardorff & Ko, 1983

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Delphinus delphis.

  • Locality. St. Vincent Gulf, SA.

  • Infection site. Intestine.

  • Stage. Immature.

  • References. Johnston & Mawson (Reference Johnston and Mawson1941).

  • Remarks. This species is usually found as adults in elasmobranchs, with the larval stages in molluscs and teleosts. This finding of a larval stage in the intestine of a dolphin almost certainly represents an accidental infection from predation on a paratenic fish host. Johnston and Mawson (Reference Johnston and Mawson1941) listed this as Echinocephalus uncinatus Molin, 1858. However, Beveridge (Reference Beveridge1987) showed that all adult and larval specimens found in elasmobranchs in Australian waters belonged to E. overstreeti, and that earlier records of E. uncinatus can probably be attributed to E. overstreeti. Moravec and Justine (Reference Moravec and Justine2006), however, questioned this decision.

  • Family: Tetrameridae Travassos, 1914

Parasite name: Crassicauda boopis Baylis, 1920

  • Synonyms. Crassicauda pacifica Margolis & Pike, 1955 [WoRMS].

  • Hosts. Ziphius cavirostris.

  • Locality. Kiritehere Beach, Purakanui Bay, Mahia Peninsula, NZ.

  • Infection site. Kidneys.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. Duignan (Reference Duignan2003).

  • Remarks. Crassicauda boopis is recorded as pathogenic in this paper. The worms destroy functional renal elements and cause physical obstruction of the urinary ducts, likely causing renal failure in some cases.

Parasite name: Crassicauda grampicola Johnston & Mawson, 1941

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Grampus griseus.

  • Locality. Manley, NSW.

  • Infection site. Pterygoid sinus.

  • Stage. Adults and immatures.

  • References. Johnston & Mawson (Reference Johnston and Mawson1941).

  • Remarks.

Parasite name: Crassicauda magna Johnston & Mawson, 1939

Parasite name: Crassicauda sp.

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Lagenorhynchus obscurus (1, 2), Ziphius cavitostris (1), Pseudorca crassidens (3), Delphinus delphis (4, 5).

  • Locality. (1, 2, 4) NZ; (3) NSW; (5) Buckland's Beach, Howick, NZ.

  • Infection site. (1, 3) Pterygoid sinus; (1, 2) kidneys; (1, 2) urogenital system; (1, 2) cranial sinuses; (1, 5) fascia; (3) middle ear; (4) mammary ducts.

  • Stage.

  • References. Duignan ((1) Reference Duignan2000, (2) Reference Duignan2003); (3) J. Boulton in Ladds (Reference Ladds2009); (4) Stockin et al. (Reference Stockin, Duignan, Roe, Meynier, Alley and Fettermann2009); (5) Lehnert et al. (Reference Lehnert, Randhawa and Poulin2017).

  • Remarks. Undoubtedly, based upon infection site alone, these records refer to different species of Crassicauda. Most records agree that worms of this genus embed their cephalic end into the tissues of their favoured organ, with the body of the worm projecting freely into the lumen or sinus for the release of the eggs. The species occurring in kidneys of Z. cavirostris caused ‘…massive destruction of reniculi with fibrosis and necrosis…’ (Duignan, Reference Duignan2000 p. 452). Twenty specimens were present in this host animal (1).

  • Order: Strongylida Molin, 1861

  • Family: Ancylostomatidae Looss, 1905

Parasite name: Uncinaria hamiltoni Baylis, 1933

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Neophoca cinerea.

  • Locality. Kangaroo Island, SA.

  • Infection site.

  • Stage.

  • References. Beveridge (Reference Beveridge1980).

  • Remarks. Uncinaria hamiltoni sensu Beveridge (Reference Beveridge1980) should be treated as a synonym of U. sanguinis (Professor Ian Beveridge, pers. comm.).

Parasite name: Uncinaria sanguinis Marcus, Higgins, Slapeta & Gray, 2014

Parasite name: Uncinaria sp.

Parasite name: Uncinaria sp. NZSL of Nadler et al., 2013

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Phocarctos hookeri.

  • Locality. Sandy Bay Beach, Enderby Island, NZ.

  • Infection site.

  • Stage.

  • References. Nadler et al. (Reference Nadler, Lyons and Pagan2013).

  • Remarks. Molecular data available (ITS1&2, 28S, 12S). The phylogeny of Nadler et al. (Reference Nadler, Lyons and Pagan2013) included Uncinaria spp. from pinniped hosts worldwide and recovered seven independent evolutionary lineages or species, including the two described species (U. hamiltoni and U. lucasi) and five undescribed species, each from a different host. Uncinaria sp. NZSL was restricted to the NZ sea lion. Note, however, that Ramos et al. (Reference Ramos, Lynch, Hu, Arnould, Norman and Beveridge2013) concluded that the three species found in Australian hosts A. p. doriferus, A. forsteri and N. cinerea were not distinguishable.

Parasite name: Uncinaria sp. AFS of Nadler et al., 2013

Parasite name: Uncinaria sp. SES of Nadler et al., 2013

  • Family: Filaroididae Schultz, 1951

Parasite name: Parafilaroides decorus Dougherty & Herman, 1947

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Phocarctos hookeri.

  • Locality. NZ.

  • Infection site. Lungs.

  • Stage.

  • References. Duignan (Reference Duignan2000).

  • Remarks. Duignan reported mild sub-pleural lesions caused by P. decorus.

Parasite name: Parafilaroides hydrurgae Mawson, 1953

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Hydrurga leptonyx.

  • Locality. Heard Island, Australia.

  • Infection site. Lungs and bronchi.

  • Stage.

  • References. Mawson (Reference Mawson1953).

  • Remarks.

Parasite name: Parafilaroides normani Dailey, 2009

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (1, 2), Arctophoca australis forsteri (1).

  • Locality. (1) Dog Beach, Ocean Grove, VIC; (1) Foxton Beach, Palmerston North, NZ; (2) Phillip Island, VIC.

  • Infection site. Lungs.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. (1) Dailey (Reference Dailey2009); (2) Jabbar et al. (Reference Jabbar, Mohandas and Gasser2014).

  • Remarks. Molecular data available (mitochondrial genome) (2).

Parasite name: Parafilaroides sp.

  • Family: Pseudaliidae Railliet & Henry, 1909

Parasite name: Halocercus lagenorhynchi Baylis & Daubney, 1925

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Delphinus delphis (2), Tursiops aduncus (2), Tursiops truncatus (1).

  • Locality. (1) Encounter Bay, SA; (2) coast of SA.

  • Infection site. Lungs.

  • Stage.

  • References. (1) Johnston & Mawson (Reference Johnston and Mawson1941); (2) Tomo et al. (Reference Tomo, Kemper and Lavery2010).

  • Remarks. Tomo et al. (Reference Tomo, Kemper and Lavery2010) report ‘necrotic microabscesses, in serious acute to chronic infections, lung function would have been compromised’ in lungworm infections of dolphins, ‘moderate and heavy burdens may have contributed to animals’ deaths.’ Predominantly calves and juveniles were infected. During the 18-year study, the prevalence of lung nematode infections increased in 2005–2006 fourfold from 14% before the outbreak to 63% in short-beaked common dolphins; some cases were also recorded in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and common bottlenose dolphins.

Parasite name: Halocercus delphini Baylis & Daubney, 1925

Parasite name: Halocercus sp.

Parasite name: Pharurus alatus (Leuckart, 1848) Stiles & Hassall, 1905

  • Synonyms. Prosthecosacter alatus (Leuckart, 1848) Diesing, 1851; Pseudalius alatus (Leuckart, 1848) Diesing, 1851; Stenurus alatus (Leuckart, 1848) Yorke & Maplestone, 1926; Strongylus alatus Leuckart, 1848; Str. (Pharurus) alatus (Leuckart, 1848) Diesing, 1851; Torynurus alatus (Leuckart, 1848) Delyamure, 1952 [WoRMS; Baylis & Daubney, Reference Baylis and Daubney1925].

  • Hosts. Delphinus delphis.

  • Locality. Coast of SA.

  • Infection site. Lungs.

  • Stage.

  • References. Tomo et al. (Reference Tomo, Kemper and Lavery2010).

  • Remarks.

Parasite name: Skrjabinalius cryptocephalus Delyamure, 1942

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Tursiops truncatus.

  • Locality. Otago Harbour, NZ.

  • Infection site. Lungs.

  • Stage.

  • References. Bowie (Reference Bowie1984).

  • Remarks. The anterior end of this nematode was tightly knotted, embedded in the parenchyma of the lung and surrounded by purulent fluid in a fibrous or calcified capsule (Bowie, Reference Bowie1984).

Parasite name: Stenurus globicephalae Baylis & Daubney, 1925

Parasite name: Stenurus minor (Kuhn, 1829) Baylis & Daubney, 1925

  • Synonyms. Pharurus minor (Kuhn, 1929) Cobbold, 1879; Prosthecosacter minor (Kuhn, 1829) Diesing, 1851; Pseudalius minor (Kuhn, 1829) Schneider, 1866; Stenurus inflexus Dujardin, 1845; Stenurus phocoenae Dougherty, 1943; Stenurus vagans Dougherty, 1943; Strongylus minor Kuhn, 1829 [WoRMS; Baylis & Daubney, Reference Baylis and Daubney1925].

  • Hosts. Phocoena dioptrica.

  • Locality. Pipikaretu, Otago Peninsula, NZ.

  • Infection site. Sinuses and tympanic cavity.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. Lehnert et al. (Reference Lehnert, Randhawa and Poulin2017).

  • Remarks. Molecular data available (ITS2).

Parasite name: Stenurus ovatus (von Linstow, 1910) Baylis & Daubney, 1925

  • Synonyms. Pseudalius ovatus von Linstow, 1910 [WoRMS].

  • Hosts. Delphinus delphis (3), Lagenodelphis hosei (1), Tursiops aduncus (3), T. truncatus (2, 3).

  • Locality. (1) Corio Bay, VIC; (2) Otago Harbour, NZ; (3) coast of SA.

  • Infection site. Lungs.

  • Stage. Adults and larvae.

  • References. (1) McColl & Obendorf (Reference McColl and Obendorf1982); (2) Bowie (Reference Bowie1984); (3) Tomo et al. (Reference Tomo, Kemper and Lavery2010).

  • Remarks. McColl & Obendorf (Reference McColl and Obendorf1982) report the lungs of their host specimen were highly congested with worms, causing verminous pneumonia and greatly impairing respiratory function.

Parasite name: Stenurus sp.

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Cephalorhynchus hectori.

  • Locality. NZ.

  • Infection site. Lungs.

  • Stage.

  • References. Duignan (Reference Duignan2000).

  • Remarks.

  • Phylum: Platyhelminthes

  • Class: Cestoda

  • Order: Diphyllobothriidea Kuchta, Scholz, Brabec & Bray, 2008

  • Family: Diphyllobothriidae Lühe, 1910

Parasite name: Adenocephalus pacificus Nybelin, 1931

Parasite name: Diphyllobothrium sp.

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Arctophoca australis forsteri, Hydrurga leptonyx.

  • Locality. In captivity, NZ.

  • Infection site. Intestine.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. Cordes & O'Hara (Reference Cordes and O'Hara1979).

  • Remarks. Cordes & O'Hara (Reference Cordes and O'Hara1979) described these worms as occurring in huge masses, their scoleces embedded in a cyst in the colon wall and their strobilae free in the lumen. In the leopard seal, they described a 2–3 lb mass of worms blocking the intestine.

  • Order: Phyllobothriidea Caira, Jensen, Waeschenbach, Olson & Littlewood, 2014

  • Family: Phyllobothriidae Braun, 1900

Parasite name: Monorygma chamissonii (Linton, 1905) Meggitt, 1924

  • Synonyms. Cysticercus delphini Rudolphi, 1819; Phyllobothrium chamissonii (Linton, 1905) Southwell & Walker, 1936; Taenia chamissonii Linton, 1905.

  • Hosts. Peponocephala electra.

  • Locality. Moreton Island and Tugun Beach, QLD.

  • Infection site. Stomach wall and peritoneum.

  • Stage. Encysted larvae.

  • References. Cannon (Reference Cannon1977).

  • Remarks. Called Phyllobothrium chamissonii in this paper. Found in cysts 20–25 mm in diameter with thick fibrous walls. The inner blastocysts (metacestode) were almond-shaped, with fat droplets in the wall giving them an orange colour.

Parasite name: Monorygma grimaldii (Moniez, 1899) Meggitt, 1924

Parasite name: Phyllobothrium delphini (Bosc, 1802) Gervais, 1885

Parasite name: Phyllobothrium sp.

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Arctophoca australis forsteri (3), Balaenoptera acutorostrata (2), Cephalorhynchus hectori (3), Delphinus delphis (3), Lagenorhynchus obscurus (3), Phocartctos hookeri (3), Tursiops truncatus (1).

  • Locality. (1) Otago Harbour, NZ; (2) Pigeon Bay, Banks Peninsula, NZ; (3) NZ.

  • Infection site. Ventral blubber.

  • Stage. Merocercoid larva.

  • References. (1) Bowie (Reference Bowie1984); (2) Dawson & Slooten (Reference Dawson and Slooten1990); (3) Duignan (Reference Duignan2000).

  • Remarks. Duignan (Reference Duignan2000) found that prevalence was higher in dusky dolphins than in common or Hector's dolphins. In pinnipeds they found a higher prevalence in NZ fur seals than in NZ sea lions. They also reported granulomatous mastitis associated with the cysts that resulted in underfed pups. Dawson and Slooten (Reference Dawson and Slooten1990) reported several hundred cysts in the blubber of a dwarf minke whale.

Parasite name: Phyllobothriidae gen. sp.

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Arctophoca australis forsteri.

  • Locality. In captivity, NZ.

  • Infection site. Ventral blubber.

  • Stage. Merocercoid larva.

  • References. Cordes & O'Hara (Reference Cordes and O'Hara1979).

  • Remarks.

  • Order: Tetrabothriidea Baer, 1954

  • Family: Tetrabothriidae Linton, 1891

Parasite name: Tetrabothrius forsteri (Krefft, 1871) Fuhrmann, 1904

  • Synonyms. Prosthecotyle forsteri (Krefft, 1871) Monticelli, 1892; Taenia forsteri Krefft, 1871; Tetrabothrius dalli Yamaguti, 1952 [Linton, Reference Linton1923; WoRMS].

  • Hosts. Delphinus delphis (1), Mesoplodon hectori (2).

  • Locality. (1) Port Jackson, NZ; (2) Oneroa Bay, Waiheke Island, NZ.

  • Infection site. Stomach and intestine.

  • Stage.

  • References. (1) Krefft (Reference Krefft1871); (2) Baker et al. (Reference Baker, Duignan, Norman and Helden2001).

  • Remarks. Described in Krefft (Reference Krefft1871) as Taenia forsteri n. sp., and host recorded as D. forsteri.

Parasite name: Tetrabothrius sp.

  • Class: Trematoda Rudolphi, 1808

  • Order: Diplostomida Olson, Cribb, Tkach, Bray & Littlewood, 2003

  • Family: Brauninidae Wolf, 1903

Parasite name: Braunina cordiformis Wolf, 1903

  • Family: Cyathocotylidae Mühling, 1898

Parasite name: Mesostephanus neophocae Dubois & Angel, 1976

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Mirounga leonina, Neophoca cinerea.

  • Locality. In captivity and St. Vincent Gulf, SA.

  • Infection site. Intestine.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. Dubois & Angel (Reference Dubois and Angel1976).

  • Remarks. Dubois & Angel (Reference Dubois and Angel1976) put forward the suggestion that species of this genus are more usually parasites of phalacrocoracid birds, and that perhaps the sea lion had taken on the parasite after predating a bird.

  • Family: Spirorchiidae Stunkard, 1921

Parasite name: Spirorchiidae gen. sp.

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Dugong dugon.

  • Locality. Mornington Island and Townsville, QLD.

  • Infection site. Ovaries, myometrial blood vessels.

  • Stage. Eggs.

  • References. Marsh et al. (Reference Marsh, Heinsohn and Channells1984).

  • Remarks. Found in 18 of 46 dugongs. Lesions were found on ovaries, containing refractile eggs 25–30 µm in diameter. Pigmented eyespots of miracidia were visible. Marsh et al. (Reference Marsh, Heinsohn and Channells1984) postulate that these could be the eggs of a spirorchid trematode, members of which parasitize the circulatory system of aquatic reptiles in the same habitat as dugongs.

  • Order: Echinostomida La Rue, 1957

  • Family: Cladorchiidae Fischoeder, 1901

Parasite name: Solenorchis travassosi Hilmy, 1949

  • Synonyms. Indosolenorchis hirudinaceus Crusz, 1951; Solenorchis baeri Hilmy, 1949; S. gohari Hilmy, 1949; S. naguibmahfouzi Hilmy, 1949 [WoRMS].

  • Hosts. Dugong dugon (1, 2).

  • Locality. (1) Mornington Island and Townsville, QLD; (2) Lucinda, QLD.

  • Infection site. Caecum and large intestine.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. (1) Blair (Reference Blair1980); (2) Olson et al. (Reference Olson, Cribb, Tkach, Bray and Littlewood2003).

  • Remarks. Molecular data available (18S, 28S) (2). In his redescription of I. hirudinaceus, Blair (Reference Blair1980) is adamant that it is a separate species and genus. He states that Hilmy's (Reference Hilmy1949) specimens should be S. travassosi but still retains his specimens as distinct. He mentions that their size range is large and that the Australian specimens do not overlap the Indian ones in size. Sey (Reference Sey1980) synonymized I. hirudinaceus with S. travassossi, and now only one species, S. travassossi, is accepted from dugong.

  • Family: Labicolidae Blair, 1979

Parasite name: Labicola cf. elongata

Parasite name: Labicola elongata Blair, 1979

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Dugong dugon (1, 2).

  • Locality. (1) Mornington Island and Townsville, QLD; (2) unknown locality, Australia.

  • Infection site. Upper lip.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. (1) Blair (Reference Blair and Marsh1979); (2) Blanshard (Reference Blanshard, Martin and Vogelnest2001).

  • Remarks. Blair (Reference Blair and Marsh1979) found these trematodes in all 21 specimens he observed. They were so unusual that he erected the Family Labicolidae to contain the species. Several worms together formed pus-filled abscesses along the sides of the upper lip, with pores to the outside.

  • Family: Notocotylidae Lühe, 1909

Parasite name: Ogmogaster sp.

  • Family: Opisthotrematidae Poche, 1926

Parasite name: Folitrema jecoris Blair, 1981

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Dugong dugon.

  • Locality. Mornington Island, Thursday Island and Townsville, QLD.

  • Infection site. Gall bladder and bile ducts.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. Blair (Reference Blair1981).

  • Remarks.

Parasite name: Lankatrema macrocotyle Blair, 1981

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Dugong dugon.

  • Locality. Mornington Island, Thursday Island and Townsville, QLD.

  • Infection site. Intestine.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. Blair (Reference Blair1981).

  • Remarks. Lankatrema spp. are found encapsulated in the wall of the intestine. Different species may be found in the same capsule (Blair, Reference Blair1981).

Parasite name: Lankatrema mannarense Crusz & Fernand, 1954

Parasite name: Lankatrema microcotyle Blair, 1981

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Dugong dugon.

  • Locality. Mornington Island, Thursday Island and Townsville, QLD.

  • Infection site. Intestine.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. Blair (Reference Blair1981).

  • Remarks. Found encapsulated in wall of ileum, 2–7 in each capsule.

Parasite name: Lankatrema minutum Blair, 1981

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Dugong dugon.

  • Locality. Mornington Island and Townsville, QLD.

  • Infection site. Stomach.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. Blair (Reference Blair1981).

  • Remarks. Occurs in pairs in the wall of the stomach glands with their posterior ends towards the lumen of the gland. Their capsules are similar to those reported by Crusz & Fernand (Reference Crusz and Fernand1954) for L. mannarense. There appears to be no host response to their presence (Blair, Reference Blair1981).

Parasite name: Lankatrematoides gardneri Blair, 1981

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Dugong dugon.

  • Locality. Mornington Island, Thursday Island and Townsville, QLD.

  • Infection site. Pancreatic ducts.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. Blair (Reference Blair1981).

  • Remarks.

Parasite name: Opisthotrema australe Blair, 1981

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Dugong dugon.

  • Locality. Mornington Island, Thursday Island and Townsville, QLD.

  • Infection site. Eustachian tubes and middle ear.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. Blair (Reference Blair1981).

  • Remarks.

Parasite name: Opisthotrema dujonis (Leuckart, 1874) Price, 1932

Parasite name: Pulmonicola pulmonalis (von Linstow, 1904) Poche, 1926

Parasite name: Faredifex clavata Blair, 1981

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Dugong dugon.

  • Locality. Mornington Island, Thursday Island and Townsville, QLD.

  • Infection site. Small intestine.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. Blair (Reference Blair1981).

  • Remarks. Found in abscesses in wall of ileum.

Parasite name: Rhabdiopoeus taylori Johnston, 1913

Parasite name: Haerator caperatus Blair, 1981

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Dugong dugon.

  • Locality. Mornington Island, Thursday Island and Townsville, QLD.

  • Infection site. Intestine and caecum.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. Blair (Reference Blair1981).

  • Remarks.

Parasite name: Taprobanella bicaudata Crusz & Fernand, 1954

  • Order: Plagiorchiida La Rue, 1957

  • Family: Brachycladiidae Odhner, 1905

Parasite name: Brachycladium delphini (Poirier, 1886) Looss, 1899

  • Synonyms. Campula delphini (Poirrier, 1886) Bittner & Sprehn, 1928; Cladocoelium delphini (Poirier, 1886) Stossich, 1892; Distomum delphini Poirier, 1886; Lecithodesmus delphini (Poirier, 1886) Yamaguti, 1958 [WoRMS; Felix, Reference Felix2013].

  • Hosts. Delphinus delphis.

  • Locality. Bethell's Beach, Auckland, NZ.

  • Infection site. Liver.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. Lehnert et al. (Reference Lehnert, Randhawa and Poulin2017).

  • Remarks.

Parasite name: Brachycladium palliatum (Looss, 1885) Looss, 1899

  • Synonyms. Campula palliata (Looss, 1885) Looss, 1899; Cladocoelium palliatum (Looss, 1885) Stossich, 1892; Distomum palliatum Looss, 1885; Lecithodesmus palliatus (Looss, 1885) Yamaguti, 1958 [WoRMS; Felix, Reference Felix2013].

  • Hosts. Delphinus delphis (1, 2).

  • Locality. (1) In captivity NZ; (2) Battey's Beach, Warkworth, NZ; (2) Shakespeare Peak and Waiake Beach, Auckland, NZ.

  • Infection site. Liver and bile ducts.

  • Stage. Adult.

  • References. (1) Cordes & O'Hara (Reference Cordes and O'Hara1979); (2) Lehnert et al. (Reference Lehnert, Randhawa and Poulin2017).

  • Remarks. Cordes and O'Hara (Reference Cordes and O'Hara1979) found over 100 of this species in one dolphin. The worms were associated with parasitic hepatitis in four dolphins with lesions, but no worms were found in the livers of two more. Worms and lesions blocked bile ducts, and were either contributory to, or the cause of, death.

Parasite name: Campula sp.

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Cephalorhynchus hectori (2, 3), Lagenodelphis hosei (1).

  • Locality. (1) Corio Bay VIC; (2) New Brighton Beach, Christchurch and Gillespies Point, NZ; (3) NZ.

  • Infection site. (1) Pancreatic ducts; (2, 3) mesenteric lymph nodes.

  • Stage. Adult and eggs.

  • References. (1) McColl & Obendorf (Reference McColl and Obendorf1982); (2) Hutton et al. (Reference Hutton, Blair, Slooten and Dawson1987); (3) Duignan (Reference Duignan2000).

  • Remarks. Both Duignan (Reference Duignan2000) and Hutton et al. (Reference Hutton, Blair, Slooten and Dawson1987) found these worms encapsulated within the mesenteric lymph nodes of the host. The lymph node had granulomatous lesions with inflammatory response associated with eggs/was enlarged with a tumour-like mass which contained purulent necrotic debris and a single parasitic worm. A secondary bacterial infection, Eikenella corrodens, was cultured from the lesion (2).

Parasite name: Nasitrema sp.

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Lagenodelphis hosei.

  • Locality. Corio Bay, VIC.

  • Infection site. Blowhole.

  • Stage. Eggs.

  • References. McColl & Obendorf (Reference McColl and Obendorf1982).

  • Remarks.

Parasite name: Synthesium tursionis (Marchi, 1873) Stunkard & Alvey, 1930

Parasite name: Synthesium sp.

  • Family: Heterophyidae Leiper, 1909

Parasite name: Galactosomum angelae Pearson, 1973

Parasite name: Heterophyidae ‘Gen.’ sp.

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Delphinus delphis.

  • Locality. In captivity, NZ.

  • Infection site. Adipose tissue of omasum.

  • Stage.

  • References. Cordes & O'Hara (Reference Cordes and O'Hara1979).

  • Remarks.

Parasite name: Stictodora diplacantha Johnston, 1942

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Neophoca cinerea.

  • Locality. St. Vincent Gulf, SA.

  • Infection site. Intestine.

  • Stage.

  • References. Dubois & Angel (Reference Dubois and Angel1976).

  • Remarks. This species was originally described from the pied cormorant.

In addition to the above records, ‘gastrointestinal parasites’ were reported in Arctophoca australis forsteri from Ohau Point, NZ (Boren, Reference Boren2005); ‘lung worms’ in Delphinus delphis from Mooloolaba Beach, QLD (Greenland & Limpus, Reference Greenland and Limpus2008); ‘cestodes’ in Tursiops truncatus from Otago Harbour, NZ (Bowie, Reference Bowie1984) and Globicephala melas from McIntyres Beach, TAS (McManus et al., Reference McManus, Wapstra, Guiler, Munday and Obendorf1984); and ‘trematodes’ in A. a. forsteri from Ohau Point, NZ (Boren, Reference Boren2005), Lagenodelphis hosei from Corio Bay, VIC (McColl & Obendorf, Reference McColl and Obendorf1982) and Dugong dugon from Wallum Creek, QLD (Dexler & Freund, Reference Dexler and Freund1906).

  • Phylum: Arthropoda

  • Class: Arachnida Lamarck, 1801

  • Subclass: Acari Leach, 1817

  • Order: Parasitiformes

  • Family: Halarachnidae Oudemans, 1906

Parasite name: Halarachne miroungae Ferris, 1925

  • Synonyms. Halarachne erratica Fain & Mortelmans, 1959; H. taita Eichler, 1958 [Domrow, Reference Domrow1962].

  • Hosts. Mirounga leonine.

  • Locality. Macquarie Island, TAS.

  • Infection site. Respiratory tract.

  • Stage. Adult, larvae.

  • References. Domrow (Reference Domrow1979).

  • Remarks.

Parasite name: Orthohalarachne attenuata (Banks, 1910) Newell, 1947

  • Synonyms. Halarachne attenuata Banks, 1910; H. magellanica Finnegan, 1934; H. reflexa Tubb, 1937; H. rosmari Oudemans, 1916; H. zalophi Oudemans, 1916; Orthohalarachne reflexa (Tubb, 1937) Strandtmann and Wharton, 1958 [Newell, 1947; Domrow, Reference Domrow1974].

  • Hosts. Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (1–4), Neophoca cinerea (4–6).

  • Locality. (1) Lady Julia Percy Island, VIC; (2) Portarlington, VIC; (3) Newcastle, NSW; (4–6) Dangerous Reef, SA; (4) Seal Rocks and Geelong, VIC; (6) Kangaroo Island, SA.

  • Infection site. Nasopharynx, anterior and ethmoid nasal turbinates, distal third of the trachea and in the proximal 10 cm of both bronchi.

  • Stage. Adults, larva.

  • References. (1) Tubb (Reference Tubb1937); (2) Domrow (Reference Domrow1963); (3) Seawright (Reference Seawright1964); (4) Domrow (Reference Domrow1974); (5) Marlow (Reference Marlow1975); (6) Nicholson & Fanning (Reference Nicholson and Fanning1981).

  • Remarks. Tubb (Reference Tubb1937) reports heavy infestations, cephalothorax and legs embedded in the mucous membrane, abdomen protruding, the locus of infection was inflamed and swollen, impossible to dislodge the mites without causing extensive damage to the mucous membrane. The host in Tubb's (Reference Tubb1937) report is named A. tasmanicus. Seawright (Reference Seawright1964) cites the host name as Gypsophoca tasmanica.

Parasite name: Orthohalarachne diminuata (Doetschman, 1944) Newell, 1947

  • Synonyms. Halarachne diminuata Doetschman, 1944; Orthohalarachne chabaudi Gretillat, 1960; O. letalis Popp, 1961 [Newell, 1947; Domrow, Reference Domrow1974].

  • Hosts. Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (1), Neophoca cinerea (2).

  • Locality. (1) Seal Rocks and Geelong, VIC; (2) Dangerous Reef and Kangaroo Island, SA.

  • Infection site. Nasopharynx, nasal turbinates, lungs.

  • Stage. Adult, larvae.

  • References. (1) Domrow (Reference Domrow1974); (2) Nicholson & Fanning (Reference Nicholson and Fanning1981).

  • Remarks. Domrow (Reference Domrow1974) reports mixed infections with O. attenuata.

  • Order: Trombidiformes Reuter, 1909

  • Family: Demodecidae Nicolet, 1855

Parasite name: Demodex zalophi Dailey & Nutting, 1980

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Zalophus californianus.

  • Locality. Australia.

  • Infection site. Skin, hair follicles.

  • Stage. Adult, larvae.

  • References. Dailey & Nutting (Reference Dailey and Nutting1980).

  • Remarks. In Californian sea lion in captivity in Australia. First record of a demodecid in marine mammals.

  • Class: Insecta Linnaeus, 1758

  • Order: Phthiraptera Haeckel, 1896

  • Family: Echinophthiriidae Enderlein, 1904

Parasite name: Antarctophthirus microchir (Trouessart & Neumann, 1888) Enderlein, 1906

Parasite name: Antarctophthirus ogmorhini Enderlein, 1906

Parasite name: Lepidophthirus macrorhini Enderlein, 1904

  • Subphylum: Crustacea

  • Class: Hexanauplia Oakley, Wolfe, Lindgren & Zaharof, 2013

  • Order: Sessilia Lamarck, 1818

  • Family: Platylepadidae Newman & Ross, 1976

Parasite name: Platylepas hexastylos (Fabricius, 1798) Pilsbry, 1916

  • Synonyms. Coronula bissexlobata Blainville, 1824; C. californiensis Chenu, 1825; Lepas hexastylos Fabricius, 1798; Platylepas bissexlobata (Blainville, 1824) Darwin, 1854; P. pulchra Gray, 1825 [Pilsbry, Reference Pilsbry1916].

  • Hosts. Dugong dugon (1, 2).

  • Locality. (1) Sydney Harbour, Australia; (2) Magnetic Island, QLD.

  • Infection site. Skin, ventral surface.

  • Stage.

  • References. (1) Marlow (Reference Marlow1962); (2) Zann & Harker (Reference Zann and Harker1978).

  • Remarks.

  • Order: Lepadiformes Buckeridge & Newman, 2006

  • Family: Lepadidae Darwin, 1852

Parasite name: Lepas australis Darwin, 1851

  • Family: Balanidae Leach, 1817

Parasite name: Balanus sp.

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Dugong dugon.

  • Locality. Wallum Creek, North Stradbroke Island, QLD.

  • Infection site. Skin of back.

  • Stage.

  • References. Dexler & Freund (Reference Dexler and Freund1906).

  • Remarks. The authors state, ‘The dugong is the host of great numbers of parasites, both external and internal. On its back, as with whales, numerous barnacles establish themselves; a few Balanus but mostly Chelonobia [sic].’

  • Family: Chelonibiidae Pilsbry, 1916

Parasite name: Chelonibia sp.

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Dugong dugon.

  • Locality. Wallum Creek, North Stradbroke Island, QLD.

  • Infection site. Skin of back.

  • Stage.

  • References. Dexler & Freund (Reference Dexler and Freund1906).

  • Remarks. The authors report, ‘The dugong is the host of great numbers of parasites, both external and internal. On its back, as with whales, numerous barnacles establish themselves; a few Balanus but mostly Chelonobia [sic].’

  • Class: Malacostraca Latreille, 1802

  • Order: Amphipoda Latreille, 1816

  • Family: Cyamidae Rafinesque, 1815

Parasite name: Cyamus boopis Lütken, 1870

  • Synonyms. Cyamus ceti Chilton, 1883; C. elongatus Hiro, 1938; C. pacificus Lütken, 1873; C. suffuses Dall, 1872 [WoRMS].

  • Hosts. Megaptera novaeangliae (1), unidentified South Australian whale (2), unidentified NZ whale (2).

  • Locality. (1) Picton, NZ; (1) Carnarvon, WA; (2) unknown locality, SA, and unknown locality, NZ.

  • Infection site. Skin.

  • Stage. Adults, juveniles.

  • References. (1) Leung (Reference Leung1965); (2) Sedlak-Weinstein (Reference Sedlak-Weinstein1991).

  • Remarks. This species has been found to be highly specific in its choice of host, the humpback whale, M. novaeangliae (Carvalho et al., Reference Carvalho, Bevilaqua and Iñiguez2010), so it seems probable that the unidentified whales belonged to this species.

Parasite name: Cyamus catadontis Margolis, 1954

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Physeter macrocephalus.

  • Locality. Albany, WA.

  • Infection site.

  • Stage.

  • References. Leung (Reference Leung1965).

  • Remarks. In his paper, Leung (Reference Leung1965) lists a large number of cyamid specimens from all over the world, collected for a study of ectocommensal protozoans. No details are given other than the locality, date and collector. Leung names the sperm whale host as P. catodon.

Parasite name: Isocyamus delphinii (Guérin-Méneville, 1836) Gervais & Beneden, 1859

  • Synonyms. Cyamus delphinii Guérin-Méneville, 1836; C. globicipitis Lütken, 1873; Isocyamus globicipitis, Hiro, 1938 [Leung, Reference Leung1967].

  • Hosts. Globicephala melas (1), Phocoena phocoena (2), Pseudorca crassidens (3).

  • Locality. (1) Jarvis Bay, NSW; (2) Australia; (3) Little Manly and Crowdy Heads, NSW.

  • Infection site. Skin.

  • Stage. Adults, juveniles.

  • References. (1) Leung (Reference Leung1965); (2) Berzin & Vlasova (Reference Berzin and Vlasova1982); (3) Sedlak-Weinstein (Reference Sedlak-Weinstein1991).

  • Remarks. Leung (Reference Leung1965) names the host G. malaena. Berzin and Vlasova (Reference Berzin and Vlasova1982) list this species as occurring in Phocoena phocoena, which is probably a host identification error, as this porpoise does not inhabit the Australasian region. It seems probable that this host was Phocoena dioptrica.

Parasite name: Isocyamus deltobranchium Sedlak-Weinstein, 1992

Parasite name: Isocyamus kogiae Sedlak-Weinstein, 1992

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Kogia breviceps.

  • Locality. Moreton Island, QLD.

  • Infection site. Skin.

  • Stage. Adults.

  • References. Sedlak-Weinstein (Reference Sedlak-Weinstein1992a).

  • Remarks.

Parasite name: Platycyamus thompsoni (Gosse, 1855) Lütken, 1870

  • Synonyms. Cyamus thompsoni Gosse, 1855 [WoRMS].

  • Hosts. Mesoplodon grayi.

  • Locality. Younghusband Peninsula, SA.

  • Infection site. Skin.

  • Stage. Adults.

  • References. Sedlak-Weinstein (Reference Sedlak-Weinstein1991).

  • Remarks. New location and new host record.

Parasite name: Scutocyamus antipodensis Lincoln & Hurley, 1980

Parasite name: Syncyamus aequus Lincoln & Hurley, 1981

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Tursiops truncatus, Stenella longirostris.

  • Locality. Arafura Sea, north-west Australia.

  • Infection site. Skin.

  • Stage. Adults, juveniles.

  • References. Sedlak-Weinstein (Reference Sedlak-Weinstein1991).

  • Remarks. New host location in Arafura Sea for this species.

Parasite name: Syncyamus pseudorcae Bowman, 1955

  • Synonyms.

  • Hosts. Pseudorca crassidens.

  • Locality. Crowdy Heads, NSW.

  • Infection site. Skin.

  • Stage. Adults, juveniles.

  • References. Sedlak-Weinstein (Reference Sedlak-Weinstein1991).

  • Remarks.

  • Subphylum: Apicomplexa

  • Class: Conoidasida Levine, 1988

  • Order: Eucoccidiorida Léger & Duboscq, 1910

  • Family: Sarcocystidae Poche, 1913

Parasite name: Cryptosporidium hominis Morgan-Ryan, Fall, Ward, Hijawi, Sulaiman, Fayer, Thompson, Olson, Lal & Xiao, 2002

Parasite name: Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle & Manceaux, 1908

  • Family: Hexamitidae Kent, 1880

Parasite name: Giardia duodenalis (Lambl, 1859) Kofoid & Christiansen, 1915

  • Synonyms. Cercomonas intestinalis Lambl, 1859; Giardia agilis Kunstler, 1882; G. lamblia Stiles, 1914; Hexamita duodenalis Davaine, 1875; Lamblia intestinalis Blanchard, 1888.

  • Hosts. Neophoca cinerea.

  • Locality. WA, SA, in captivity QLD and NSW.

  • Infection site. Intestine.

  • Stage.

  • References. Delport et al. (Reference Delport, Asher, Beaumont, Webster, Harcourt and Power2014).

  • Remarks. Analysed from faecal samples, molecular data (18S).

Host–parasite list

Host taxon: Pinnipedia

  • Family: Otariidae

Host name: Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Australian fur seal)

  • Acanthocephala

    • Corynosoma australe

    • Corynosoma cetaceum

  • Nematoda

  • Cestoda

    • Adenocephalus pacificus

  • Arachnida

    • Orthohalarachne attenuata

    • Orthohalarachne diminuata

Host name: Arctocephalus tropicalis (subantarctic fur seal)

  • Crustacea

    • Lepas australis

Host name: Arctophoca australis forsteri (NZ fur seal)

  • Gastrointestinal parasites

  • Acanthocephala

    • Corynosoma australe

    • Corynosoma sp.

  • Nematoda

    • Anisakis simplex s.l.

    • Anisakis sp.

    • Contracaecum osculatum

    • Parafilaroides normani

    • Parafilaroides sp.

    • Pseudoterranova decipiens

    • Uncinaria sp.

  • Cestoda

    • Diphyllobothrium sp.

    • Phyllobothrium sp.

  • Trematoda gen. sp.

  • Insecta

    • Antarctophthirus microchir

  • Protozoa

    • Toxoplasma gondii

Host name: Neophoca cinerea (Australian sea lion)

  • Acanthocephala

    • Corynosoma australe

    • Corynosoma sp.

  • Nematoda

    • Contracaecum osculatum

    • Parafilaroides sp.

    • Uncinaria hamiltoni

    • Uncinaria sanguinis

    • Uncinaria sp.

  • Cestoda

    • Adenocephalus pacificus

  • Trematoda

    • Galactosomum angelae

    • Mesostephanus neophocae

    • Stictodora diplacantha

    • Synthesium sp.

  • Arachnida

    • Orthohalarachne attenuata

    • Orthohalarachne diminuata

  • Insecta

    • Antarctophthirus microchir

  • Protozoa

    • Giardia duodenalis

Host name: Phocarctos hookeri (NZ sea lion)

  • Acanthocephala

    • Corynosoma australe

    • Corynosoma semerme

  • Nematoda

  • Cestoda

    • Phyllobothrium sp.

  • Insecta

    • Antarctophthirus michrochir

  • Protozoa

    • Toxoplasma gondii

Host name: Zalophus californianus (Californian sea lion) captive animal

  • Arachnida

    • Demodex zalophi

  • Family: Phocidae

Host name: Hydrurga leptonyx (Leopard seal)

  • Acanthocephala

    • Corynosoma australe

    • Corynosoma bullosum

    • Corynosoma sp.

  • Nematoda

    • Anisakis simplex s.l.

    • Contracaecum mirounga

    • Contracaecum ogmorhini

    • Contracaecum osculatum

    • Contracaecum radiatum

    • Parafilaroides hydrurgae

    • Parafilaroides sp.

    • Pseudoterranova decipiens

  • Cestoda

    • Diphyllobothrium sp.

  • Insecta

    • Antarctophthirus ogmorhini

Host name: Mirounga leonina (Southern elephant seal)

  • Acanthocephala

    • Corynosoma bullosum

  • Nematoda

    • Anisakis simplex s.l.

    • Contracaecum mirounga

    • Contracaecum osculatum

    • Contracaecum radiatum

    • Filaria s.l. sp.

    • Pseudoterranova decipiens

    • Uncinaria sp. 3 of Nadler et al. (Reference Nadler, Lyons and Pagan2013)

  • Cestoda

    • Phyllobothrium delphini

  • Trematoda

    • Mesostephanus neophocae

  • Arachnida

    • Halarachne miroungae

  • Insecta

    • Lepidophthirus macrorhini

Host taxon: Cetacea

  • Family: Balaenopteridae

Host name: Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke whale)

  • Nematoda

    • Anisakis sp.

  • Cestoda

    • Phyllobothrium sp.

Host name: Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback whale)

  • Acanthocephala

    • Bolbosoma balaenae

  • Crustacea

    • Cyamus boopis

  • Family: Neobalaenidae

Host name: Caperea marginata (pygmy right whale)

  • Trematoda

    • Ogmogaster sp.

  • Family: Delphinidae

Host name: Cephalorhynchus hectori (Hector's dolphin)

  • Acanthocephala

    • Corynosoma sp.

  • Nematoda

    • Acuaria sp.

    • Contracaecum sp.

    • Halocercus sp.

    • Phocascaris sp.

    • Stenurus sp.

  • Cestoda

    • Phyllobothrium delphini

    • Phyllobothrium sp.

  • Trematoda

    • Braunina cordiformis

    • Campula sp.

  • Crustacea

    • Scutocyamus antipodensis

Host name: Delphinus delphis (short-beaked common dolphin)

  • Acanthocephala

    • Corynosoma cetaceum

    • Corynosoma sp.

  • Nematoda

    • lung worms

    • Anisakis pegreffii

    • Anisakis simplex s.l.

    • Crassicauda sp.

    • Echinocephalus overstreeti

    • Halocercus lagenorhynchi

    • Halocercus sp.

    • Parafilaroides sp.

    • Pharurus alatus

    • Stenurus ovatus

  • Cestoda

    • Monorygma grimaldii

    • Phyllobothrium delphini

    • Phyllobothrium sp.

    • Tetrabothrius forsteri

    • Tetrabothrius sp.

  • Trematoda

    • Brachycladium delphini

    • Brachycladium palliatum

    • Heterophyidae gen. sp.

Host name: Globicephala melas (long-finned pilot whale)

  • Acanthocephala

    • Bolbosoma capitatum

  • Nematoda

    • Anisakis oceanica

    • Anisakis simplex s.l.

    • Anisakis sp.

    • Stenurus globicephalae

  • Crustacea

    • Isocyamus delphinii

    • Isocyamus deltobranchium

Host name: Globicephala sp.

  • Nematoda

    • Stenurus globicephalae

Host name: Grampus griseus (Risso's dolphin)

  • Nematoda

    • Crassicauda grampicola

    • Stenurus globicephalae

Host name: Lagenodelphis hosei (Fraser's dolphin)

  • Nematoda

    • Anisakis simplex s.l.

    • Stenurus ovatus

  • Cestoda

    • Monorygma grimaldii

    • Tetrabothrius sp.

  • Trematoda

    • Campula sp.

    • Nasitrema sp.

Host name: Lagenorhynchus obscurus (dusky dolphin)

  • Nematoda

    • Anisakis simplex s.l.

    • Crassicauda sp.

  • Cestoda

    • Phyllobothrium delphini

    • Phyllobothrium sp.

Host name: Peponocephala electra (melon-headed whale)

  • Nematoda

    • Anisakis simplex s.l.

    • Anisakis typica

    • Stenurus globicephalae

  • Cestoda

    • Monorygma chamissonii

Host name: Pseudorca crassidens (false killer whale)

  • Acanthocephala

    • Bolbosoma capitatum

  • Nematoda

    • Crassicauda sp.

  • Crustacea

    • Isocyamus delphinii

    • Syncyamus pseudorcae

Host name: Sousa chinensis (Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin)

  • Protozoa

    • Toxoplasma gondii

Host name: Stenella coeruleoalba (striped dolphin)

  • Nematoda

    • Halocercus sp.

    • Halocercus delphinii

  • Cestoda

    • Monorygma grimaldii

    • Phyllobothrium delphini

Host name: Stenella longirostris (spinner dolphin)

  • Crustacea

    • Syncyamus aequus

Host name: Tursiops aduncus (Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin)

  • Nematoda

    • Halocercus lagenorhynchi

    • Stenurus ovatus

  • Protozoa

    • Toxoplasma gondii

Host name: Tursiops truncatus (common bottlenose dolphin)

  • Acanthocephala

    • Bolbosoma sp.

    • Corynosoma cetaceum

  • Nematoda

    • Anisakis pegreffii

    • Anisakis simplex s.l.

    • Halocercus lagenorhynchi

    • Skrjabinalius cryptocephalus

    • Stenurus ovatus

  • Cestoda

    • Phyllobothrium sp.

  • Trematoda

    • Synthesium tursionis

  • Crustacea

    • Syncyamus aequus

  • Family: Kogiidae

Host name: Kogia breviceps (pygmy sperm whale)

  • Nematoda

    • Anisakis physeteris

    • Anisakis simplex s.l.

    • Anisakis sp.

    • Crassicauda magna

    • Pseudoterranova decipiens

    • Pseudoterranova kogiae

  • Cestoda

    • Phyllobothrium delphini

  • Crustacea

    • Isocyamus kogiae

Host name: Kogia sima (dwarf sperm whale)

  • Nematoda

    • Anisakis berlandi

    • Anisakis brevispiculata

  • Family: Phocoenidae

Host name: Phocoena dioptrica (spectacled porpoise)

  • Nematoda

    • Anisakis sp.

    • Stenurus minor

  • Cestoda

    • Phyllobothrium delphini

  • Crustacea

    • Scutocyamus antipodensis

Host name: Phocoena (harbour porpoise)

  • Crustacea

    • Isocyamus delphinii

  • Family: Physeteridae

Host name: Physeter macrocephalus (sperm whale)

  • Crustacea

    • Cyamus catadontis

  • Family: Ziphiidae

Host name: Mesoplodon bowdoini (Andrew's beaked whale)

  • Nematoda

    • Anisakis nascetti

    • Anisakis ziphidarum

Host name: Mesoplodon grayi (Gray's beaked whale)

  • Nematoda

    • Anisakis nascetti

    • Anisakis sp.

  • Crustacea

    • Platycyamus thompsoni

Host name: Mesoplodon hectori (Hector's beaked whale)

  • Nematoda

    • Anisakis sp.

  • Cestoda

    • Tetrabothrius forsteri

Host name: Mesoplodon layardii (strap-toothed whale)

  • Nematoda

    • Anisakis nascetti

Host name: Ziphius cavirostris (Cuvier's beaked whale)

  • Nematoda

    • Crassicauda boopis

    • Crassicauda sp.

Host taxon: Sirenia

  • Family: Sirenidae

Host name: Dugong dugon (dugong)

  • Nematoda

    • Paradujardinia halicoris

  • Trematoda

    • Faredifex clavata

    • Folitrema jecoris

    • Haerator caperatus

    • Labicola cf. elongata

    • Labicola elongata

    • Lankatrema macrocotyle

    • Lankatrema mannarense

    • Lankatrema microcotyle

    • Lankatrema minutum

    • Lankatrematoides gardneri

    • Opisthotrema australe

    • Opisthotrema dujonis

    • Pulmonicola pulmonalis

    • Rhabdiopoeus taylori

    • Solenorchis travassosi

    • Spirorchidae gen. sp.

    • Taprobanella bicaudata

  • Crustacea

    • Platylepas hexastylos

    • Balanus sp.

    • Chelonibia sp.

  • Protozoa

    • Cryptosporidium hominis

    • Toxplasma gondii

Discussion

In this first host–parasite checklist, information about metazoan and protozoan parasites of marine mammals in NZ and Australian waters was collated. From 51 species of cetacean known from Australian and NZ waters, only 27 species have recorded parasites. From 11 species of pinnipeds known from Australian and NZ waters, eight have recorded parasites. The absence of records certainly does not signify that the remaining hosts are parasite free. There is still a lot left to learn. However, checklists such as this one remain valuable tools to ecologists and can help to further our understanding of parasite diversity and be a practical resource for scientists.

Nematodes were the most diverse group reported, with 30 different species determined, and many more records where identification was restricted to the genus or family level. Anisakid stomach nematodes (14 species) represented the family most often found in a wide range of host species, reflecting their generalist nature, followed by pseudaliid lungworms (seven species), specific to the respiratory tract of odontocetes. Trematodes (22 species), mostly from the gastro-intestinal tract, were found in sirenians (15 species), cetaceans (six species) and pinnipeds (six species). Six species of acanthocephalans were identified from pinniped (n = 6) and cetacean (n = 3) hosts. Adult cestodes (five species) were recorded in the intestinal tract of three cetacean and two pinniped species. Cestode larvae within the subcutaneous blubber and the peritoneum were recorded from multiple cetacean (n = 9) and pinniped (n = 3) species. Thirteen different ectoparasitic crustacean species were found on cetaceans and sirenians. Other arthropod ecto- (Insecta, three species) and endoparasites (Arachnida, four species) were recorded from pinniped species. Three protozoan species were encountered in several marine mammal species including sirenians, pinnipeds and cetaceans within studies dating from 1997 to 2017. This may reflect, on the one hand, the relatively recent occurrence of some of these pathogens in the marine environment due to human activities and, on the other hand, new survey and diagnostic techniques (Lasek-Nesselquist et al., Reference Lasek-Nesselquist, Welch and Sogin2010), as well as growing awareness of these emerging zoonotic agents in the research community.

Thirty-four parasite records were from dugongs and 25 species were found in common dolphins, while leopard seals with 17 parasite species were the pinnipeds most often infected. This reflects the opportunistic nature of sampling these animals. The findings indicate that, for example, sperm whales with one crustacean ectoparasite record or elusive beaked whales with 2–3 species records are seldom encountered hosts.

Many old records have complicated histories with multiple synonyms, which need updating. Also, the advent of molecular tools has identified several species complexes (Mattiucci et al., Reference Mattiucci, Cipriani, Webb, Paoletti, Marcer, Bellisario, Gibson and Nascetti2014; Klotz et al., Reference Klotz, Hirzmann, Bauer, Schöne, Iseringhausen, Wohlsein, Baumgärtner and Herder2018), for which retrospective analyses would be useful. New techniques will likely also continue to improve the identification of parasite fragments and minute larvae (Jabbar et al., Reference Jabbar, Beveridge and Bryant2015), as well as provide insights on the phylogeny of parasite species (Hernández-Orts et al., Reference Hernández-Orts, Smales, Pinacho-Pinacho, García-Varela and Presswell2017).

The protozoans Toxoplasma, Giardia and Cryptosporidium are emerging parasites in marine mammals. In the future, the combination of prevalence surveys with molecular techniques will probably identify further protozoans and provide knowledge on host specificity and transmission pathways (Fayer et al., Reference Fayer, Dubey and Lindsay2004; Applebee et al., Reference Applebee, Thompson and Olson2005; Grilo et al., Reference Grilo, Gomes, Wohlsein, de Carvalho, Siebert and Lehnert2018).

Foodborne parasites like cestodes (Diphyllobothrium sp.) and anisakids (Anisakis sp., Pseudoterranova sp.) are abundant in marine mammals in Australasia and pathogenic for humans when infective larvae are accidentally consumed with undercooked fish (Yamasaki & Kuramochi, Reference Yamasaki and Kuramochi2009; Shamsi & Butcher, Reference Shamsi and Butcher2011). Human health concerns as well as implications for fisheries and seafood control underline the importance of better understanding the epidemiology of relevant species (Cipriani et al., Reference Cipriani, Acerra, Bellisario, Sbaraglia, Cheleschi, Nascetti and Mattiucci2016).

Opportunistic parasite surveys of dead or live stranded cetaceans, in cooperation with established stranding networks (e.g. that of NZ's Department of Conservation) and systematic, minimally invasive studies to monitor live and free ranging pinnipeds (e.g. analysing faeces from pinniped colonies; Presswell & Lagrue, Reference Presswell and Lagrue2016), would enable a better overview of prevalence, intensity of infections and emerging parasite species. The importance of well-maintained and curated museum collections cannot be underestimated in their contribution towards our ongoing knowledge of parasite biodiversity (Lehnert et al., Reference Lehnert, Randhawa and Poulin2017). It remains unclear how contaminant exposure causing immune suppression or cumulative effects of human-induced pressures (shipping, fisheries, global change) make marine mammals more susceptible to infectious disease in Australasian waters (Van Bressem et al., Reference Van Bressem, Raga and Di Guardo2009). Studies combining ecotoxicological analyses with systematic monitoring of parasite prevalence and impact (Lehnert et al., Reference Lehnert, Desforges, Das, Siebert, Fossi and Panti2018) would help to elucidate these relationships in the future.

Parasites should be an integral part of biodiversity and conservation research in their marine mammal hosts (Aznar et al., Reference Aznar, Fernández, Balbuena and Murray2010; Poulin et al., Reference Poulin, Blasco-Costa and Randhawa2016). Ultimately, this research can inform managers and may guide species, habitat and population assessment and conservation, as well as encourage further investigations into the biodiversity and ecology of marine mammal parasites.

Author ORCIDs

K. Lehnert, 0000-0001-8938-3340

Acknowledgements

Our grateful thanks to Ian Beveridge and one anonymous reviewer who took great trouble to read this work carefully and give detailed and helpful comments. We would like to thank the University of Otago Library for helping to find many of the more obscure references. We also made much use of the Biodiversity Heritage Library (www.biodiversitylibrary.org) whom we thank for their continued commitment to making older texts available.

Financial support

Kristina Lehnert was partly funded by the Volkswagen Foundation under the ‘Research in Museums’ (AZ 89911) programme. Bronwen Presswell was indirectly funded by a grant from the Marsden Fund (Royal Society of New Zealand) to Robert Poulin. Grant No: UOO1718.

Conflict of interest

None.

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