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Affinities between Asian non-human Schistosoma species, the S. indicum group, and the African human schistosomes

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 February 2007

T. Agatsuma*
Affiliation:
Department of Environmental Health Science, Kochi Medical School, Oko, Nankoku 783-8505, Japan
M. Iwagami
Affiliation:
Department of Environmental Health Science, Kochi Medical School, Oko, Nankoku 783-8505, Japan
C.X. Liu
Affiliation:
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kochi Medical School, Oko, Nankoku 783-8505, Japan
R.P.V.J. Rajapakse
Affiliation:
Department of Veterinary Para-clinical Studies, University of Peradenyia, Peradenyia, Sri Lanka
M.M.H. Mondal
Affiliation:
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Bangladesh Agriculture University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh
V. Kitikoon
Affiliation:
Department of Social and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
S. Ambu
Affiliation:
Division of Medical Ecology, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Y. Agatsuma
Affiliation:
Laboratory of Clinical Technology, Kochi Gakuen College, Asahi-Tenjin, Kochi 780-0955, Japan
D. Blair
Affiliation:
Department of Zoology and Tropical Ecology, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia
T. Higuchi*
Affiliation:
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kochi Medical School, Oko, Nankoku 783-8505, Japan
*Corresponding
*Fax: +81 88 880 2535 Email: agatsuma@med.kochi-ms.ac.jp
Present address: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukui Medical University, Matsuoka, Fukui 910-1193, Japan

Abstract

Schistosoma species have traditionally been arranged in groups based on egg morphology, geographical origins, and the genus or family of snail intermediate host. One of these groups is the ‘S. indicum group’ comprising species from Asia that use pulmonate snails as intermediate hosts. DNA sequences were obtained from the four members of this group (S. indicum, S. spindale, S. nasale and S. incognitum) to provide information concerning their phylogenetic relationships with other Asian and African species and species groups. The sequences came from the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the ribosomal gene repeat, part of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene (28S), and part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene. Tree analyses using both distance and parsimony methods showed the S. indicum group not to be monophyletic. Schistosoma indicum, S. spindale and S. nasale were clustered among African schistosomes, while S. incognitum was placed as sister to the African species (using ITS2 and 28S nucleotide sequences and CO1 amino acid sequences), or as sister to all other species of Schistosoma (CO1 nucleotide sequences). Based on the present molecular data, a scenario for the evolution of the S. indicum group is discussed.

Type
Review Article
Copyright
Cambridge University Press 2002

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References

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