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Surface wave effects on energy transfer in overlying turbulent flow

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 April 2020

Li-Hao Wang
Applied Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084, China
Wu-Yang Zhang
Applied Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084, China
Xuanting Hao
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Wei-Xi Huang*
Applied Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084, China
Lian Shen
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Chun-Xiao Xu
Applied Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084, China
Zhaoshun Zhang
Applied Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084, China
Email address for correspondence:


Phase-resolved wave simulation and direct numerical simulation of turbulence are performed to investigate the surface wave effects on the energy transfer in overlying turbulent flow. The JONSWAP spectrum is used to initialize a broadband wave field. The nonlinear wave field is simulated using a high-order spectral method, and the resultant wave surface provides the bottom boundary conditions for direct numerical simulation of the overlying turbulent flow. Two wave ages of $c_{p}/u_{\ast }=2$ and 25 are considered, corresponding to slow and fast wave fields, respectively, where $c_{p}$ denotes the celerity of the peak wave and $u_{\ast }$ denotes the friction velocity. The energy transfer of turbulent motions in the presence of surface waves is investigated through the spectral analysis of the two-point correlation transport equation. It is found that the production term has an extra peak at the dominant wavelength scale in the vicinity of the surface, and the energy transported to the surface via viscous and spatial turbulent transport is enhanced in the region of $y^{+}<10$. The presence of surface waves results in an inverse turbulent energy cascade in the near-surface region, where small-scale wave-related motions transfer energy back to the dominant wavelength scale. Pressure-related terms reflecting the spatial and inter-component energy transfer are strongly dependent on the wave age. Furthermore, triadic interaction analysis reveals that the energy influx at the dominant wavelength scale is due to the contribution of the neighbouring streamwise turbulent motions, and those at the harmonic wavelength scales contribute the most.

JFM Papers
© The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press

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