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Size distribution of a drop undergoing breakup at moderate Weber numbers

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 March 2023

Someshwar Sanjay Ade
Center for Interdisciplinary Program, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Kandi, 502 284 Sangareddy, Telangana, India
Lakshmana Dora Chandrala*
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Kandi, 502 284 Sangareddy, Telangana, India
Kirti Chandra Sahu*
Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Kandi, 502 284 Sangareddy, Telangana, India
Email addresses for correspondence:,
Email addresses for correspondence:,


The size distribution of child droplets resulting from a dual-bag fragmentation of a water drop is investigated using shadowgraphy and digital in-line holography techniques. It is observed that parent drop fragmentation contributes to the atomisation of tiny child droplets, whereas core drop disintegration predominantly results in larger fragments. Despite the complexity associated with dual-bag fragmentation, we demonstrate that it exhibits a bi-modal size distribution. In contrast, the single-bag breakup undergoes a tri-modal size distribution. We employ the analytical model developed by Jackiw & Ashgriz (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 940, 2022, A17) for dual-bag fragmentation that convincingly predicts the experimentally observed droplet volume probability density. We also estimate the temporal evolution of child droplet production in order to quantitatively illustrate the decomposition into initial and core breakups. Furthermore, we confirm that the analytical model adequately predicts the droplet size distribution for a range of Weber numbers.

JFM Papers
© Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, India, 2023. Published by Cambridge University Press

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Ade et al. Supplementary Movie 1

Transitional breakup of a water droplet at We = 11.4.

Download Ade et al. Supplementary Movie 1(Video)
Video 1.7 MB

Ade et al. Supplementary Movie 2

Single-bag breakup of a water droplet at We = 12.6.

Download Ade et al. Supplementary Movie 2(Video)
Video 1.4 MB

Ade et al. Supplementary Movie 3

Dual-bag breakup of a water droplet at We = 34.8.

Download Ade et al. Supplementary Movie 3(Video)
Video 1.1 MB

Ade et al. Supplementary Movie 4

Time-series focused holograms at We = 12.6.

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Video 3.1 MB

Ade et al. Supplementary Movie 5

Time-series focused holograms at We = 34.8.

Download Ade et al. Supplementary Movie 5(Video)
Video 3.1 MB