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The Rise of Free Trade in Western Europe, 1820–1875

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 May 2010

C. P. Kindleberger
Massachusetts Institute of Technology


The textbook theory of tariffs, and their converse, the movement to freer trade, has more elements than we need for the nineteenth century, but also lacks some. In the usual comparative statics, a tariff may be said to have ten effects: on price, trade, production (the protective effect), consumption, revenue, terms of trade, internal income distribution, monopoly, employment and the balance of payments.

Papers Presented at the Thirty-fourth Annual Meeting of the Economic History Association
Copyright © The Economic History Association 1975

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83 Arthur L. Durham, The Anglo-French Treaty of Commerce, p. 333.

84 Apart from consumers of imported materials and machinery. But see the view of Lhomme that the State adopted free trade because it loved the grande bourgeoisie and knew their interests better than they did; that the grande bourgeoisie recognized this fact and agreed with the tariff reductions except for a few intransigent protectionists like Pouyer-Quartier. See Lhomme, Jean, La Grande Bourgeoisie au Pouvoir, 183–1880 (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1960), p. 179Google Scholar. It is, however, impossible to accept this rationalization.

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