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Temporal and spatial development of intestinal smooth muscle layers of human embryos and fetuses

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 August 2022

Xuelai Liu
Affiliation:
Department of Surgery, Capital Institute of Pediatrics affiliated Children Hospital, Beijing, China
Vincent Chi Hang Lui
Affiliation:
Department of Surgery, School of Clinical Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Huan Wang
Affiliation:
Department of Pathology, Harbin Children Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China
Mao Ye
Affiliation:
Department of Surgery, Capital Institute of Pediatrics affiliated Children Hospital, Beijing, China
Rentao Fan
Affiliation:
Department of Anatomy, Wuxi School of Medicine, Jiangnan University, WuXi, Jiangsu, China
Xianghui Xie
Affiliation:
Department of Surgery, Capital Institute of Pediatrics affiliated Children Hospital, Beijing, China
Long Li*
Affiliation:
Department of Surgery, Capital Institute of Pediatrics affiliated Children Hospital, Beijing, China
Zhe-Wu Jin
Affiliation:
Department of Anatomy, Wuxi School of Medicine, Jiangnan University, WuXi, Jiangsu, China
*
Address for correspondence: Long Li, Department of Surgery, Capital Institute of Pediatrics affiliated Children Hospital, No.2, Yabao Rd, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100020, China. Email: lilong23@126.com

Abstract

The sequential occurrence of three layers of smooth muscle layers (SML) in human embryos and fetus is not known. Here, we investigated the process of gut SML development in human embryos and fetuses and compared the morphology of SML in fetuses and neonates. The H&E, Masson trichrome staining, and Immunohistochemistry were conducted on 6–12 gestation week human embryos and fetuses and on normal neonatal intestine. We showed that no lumen was seen in 6–7th gestation week embryonic gut, neither gut wall nor SML was developed in this period. In 8–9th gestation week embryonic and fetal gut, primitive inner circular SML (IC-SML) was identified in a narrow and discontinuous gut lumen with some vacuoles. In 10th gestation week fetal gut, the outer longitudinal SML (OL-SML) in gut wall was clearly identifiable, both the inner and outer SML expressed α-SMA. In 11–12th gestation week fetal gut, in addition to the IC-SML and OL-SML, the muscularis mucosae started to develop as revealed by α-SMA immune-reactivity beneath the developing mucosal epithelial layer. Comparing with the gut of fetuses of 11–12th week of gestation, the muscularis mucosae, IC-SML, and OL-SML of neonatal intestine displayed different morphology, including branching into glands of lamina propria in mucosa and increased thickness. In conclusions, in the human developing gut between week-8 to week-12 of gestation, the IC-SML develops and forms at week-8, followed by the formation of OL-SML at week-10, and the muscularis mucosae develops and forms last at week-12.

Type
Original Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press in association with International Society for Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

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