Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-ndmmz Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-23T16:06:33.563Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Influence of gum tragacanth on the physicochemical and rheological properties of kashk

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 January 2012

Setareh Ghorban Shiroodi
Affiliation:
Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
Mohammad Amin Mohammadifar*
Affiliation:
Department of Food Science and Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 19395-4741, Tehran, Iran
Elham Ghorbani Gorji
Affiliation:
Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
Hamid Ezzatpanah
Affiliation:
Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
Nilofar Zohouri
Affiliation:
School of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, UK
*
*For correspondence; e-mail: mohamdif@ut.ac.ir

Abstract

In this study, the physicochemical properties of a low-fat dried yogurt paste (kashk) were determined, and the effects of different concentrations (0, 0·1, 0·3 and 0·5% w/w) of gum tragacanth exudates from Astragalus gossypinus on the stability and texture of the samples were investigated by measuring amount of syneresis, turbidity, particle size distribution (PSD), flow behaviour and viscoelastic properties. The flow behaviour index was not very sensitive to the concentration of gum, while a remarkable concentration dependency of the power-law consistency coefficient and Herschel–Bulkley yield stress was observed. The initial increase in the gum concentration at 0·1 and 0·3% levels led to a higher degree of syneresis, which was related to the depletion flocculation mechanism. However, the reduced amount of syneresis in samples containing 0·5% gum tragacanth was attributed to the significant increase in viscosity of the continuous phase, which is also accompanied by trapping of the aggregated casein particles. The presence of 3% salt in the samples may have led to the neutralization of charges on the surface of gum tragacanth; consequently, the non-adsorbing behaviour of high-ionic-strength polysaccharides inhibited the formation of electrostatic protein–polysaccharide complexes. Furthermore, maximum values of polydispersity, syneresis and tan δ at high frequencies were found in samples containing 0·1% gum tragacanth.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Proprietors of Journal of Dairy Research 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abu-Jdayil, B & Mohameed, H 2002 Experimental and modelling studies of the flow properties of concentrated yogurt as affected by the storage time. Journal of Food Engineering 52 359365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abu-Jdayil, B, Shaker, R & Jumah, R 2000 Rheological behavior of concentrated yogurt (Labneh). International Journal of Food Properties 3 207216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, DMW & Bridgeman, MME 1985 The composition of the proteinaceous polysaccharides exuded by astragalus microcephalus, A. Gummifer and A. Kurdicus—The sources of turkish gum tragacanth. Phytochemistry 24 23012304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aspinall, G & Baillie, J 1963 Gum tragacanth. Part I. Fractionation of the gum and the structure of tragacanthic acid. Journal of Chemical Society 318 17021714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Azarikia, F & Abbasi, S 2010 On the stabilization mechanism of Doogh (Iranian yoghurt drink) by gum tragacanth. Food Hydrocolloids 24 358363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balaghi, S, Mohammadifar, M & Zargaraan, A 2010 Physicochemical and rheological characterization of gum tragacanth exudates from six species of Iranian Astragalus. Food Biophysics 5 5971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Everett, DW & Mcleod, RE 2005 Interactions of polysaccharide stabilisers with casein aggregates in stirred skim-milk yoghurt. International Dairy Journal 15 11751183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ghorbani Gorji, E, Mohammadifar, MA & Ezzatpanah, H 2010 Influence of gum tragacanth, Astragalus gossypinus, addition on stability of nonfat Doogh, an Iranian fermented milk drink. International Journal of Dairy Technology 64 262268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glahn, PE & Rolin, C 1996 Properties and food uses of pectin fractions. In Gums and Stabilisers for the Food Industry, 393402 (Eds Phillips, GO, Wedlock, DJ & Williams, PA). Oxford, UK: Pergamon PressGoogle Scholar
Istitute of Standars and Industrial Research of Iran Iranian National Standard, specification for liquid kashkGoogle Scholar
Janhøj, T, Bom Frøst, M & Ipsen, R 2008 Sensory and rheological characterization of acidified milk drinks. Food Hydrocolloids 22 798806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jensen, S, Rolin, C & Ipsen, R 2010 Stabilisation of acidified skimmed milk with HM pectin. Food Hydrocolloids 24 291299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keogh, M & O'kennedy, B 1998 Rheology of stirred yogurt as affected by added milk fat, protein and hydrocolloids. Journal of Food Science 63 108112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koksoy, A & Kilic, M 2004 Use of hydrocolloids in textural stabilization of a yoghurt drink, ayran. Food Hydrocolloids 18 593600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kurmann, JA, Rasic, JL & Kroger, M 1992 Encyclopedia of Fermented Fresh Milk Products. New York: Van Nostrand ReinholdGoogle Scholar
Lucey, JA, Van Vliet, T, Grolle, K, Geurts, T & Walstra, P 1997 Properties of acid casein gels made by acidification with glucono-δ-lactone. 1. Rheological properties. International Dairy Journal 7 381388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maroziene, A & De Kruif, C 2000 Interaction of pectin and casein micelles. Food Hydrocolloids 14 391394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mcclements, D 2005 Food Emulsions: Principles, Practices, and Techniques. Boca Raton, Fl, USA: CRC PressGoogle Scholar
Mezger, T 2006 The Rheology Handbook: for Users of Rotational and Oscillatory Rheometers. Hannover: Vincentz Network GmbH & Co KGGoogle Scholar
Mohammadifar, MA, Musavi, SM, Kiumarsi, A & Williams, PA 2006 Solution properties of targacanthin (water-soluble part of gum tragacanth exudate from Astragalus gossypinus). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 38 3139CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mohammadifar, MA, Musavi, SM & Williams, PA 2007 Study of complex coacervation between β-lactoglobulin and tragacanthin (soluble part of gum tragacanth). Milchwissenschaft 62 389392Google Scholar
Picone, C & Da Cunha, R 2010 Interactions between milk proteins and gellan gum in acidified gels. Food Hydrocolloids 24 502511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raghavan, SR & Khan, SA 1997 Shear-thickening response of fumed silica suspensions under steady and oscillatory shear. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 185 5767CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramirez-Figueroa, E, Salgado-Cervantes, M, Rodriguez, G & Garcia, H 2002 Addition of hydrocolloids to improve the functionality of spray dried yoghurt. Milchwissenschaft 57 8789Google Scholar
Ramirez-Santiago, C, Ramos-Solis, L, Lobato-Calleros, C, Peña-Valdivia, C, Vernon-Carter, E & Alvarez-Ramírez, J 2010 Enrichment of stirred yogurt with soluble dietary fiber from Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban: effect on syneresis, microstructure and rheological properties. Journal of Food Engineering 101 229235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roesch, R, Juneja, M, Monagle, C & Corredig, M 2004 Aggregation of soy/milk mixes during acidification. Food Research International 37 209215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Romero, A, Cordobés, F & Guerrero, A 2009 Influence of pH on linear viscoelasticity and droplet size distribution of highly concentrated O/W crayfish flour-based emulsions. Food Hydrocolloids 23 244252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, C, Sanchez, C, Despond, S & Hardy, J 1998 Structure and technofunctional properties of protein–polysaccharide complexes: a review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 38 689753CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schmitt, C, Sanchez, C, Thomas, F & Hardy, J 1999 Complex coacervation between β-lactoglobulin and acacia gum in aqueous medium. Food Hydrocolloids 13 483496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spagnuolo, P, Dalgleish, D, Goff, H & Morris, E 2005 Kappa-carrageenan interactions in systems containing casein micelles and polysaccharide stabilizers. Food Hydrocolloids 19 371377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tadros, T 2010 Rheology of Dispersions: Principles and Applications. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taleban, H & Renner, E 1972 Studies on kashk, an Iranian dairy product. Milchwissenschaft 27 753756Google Scholar
Tamime, A, Muir, D, Khaskheli, M & Barclay, M 2000 Effect of processing conditions and raw materials on the properties of Kishk 1. Compositional and microbiological qualities. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie 33 444451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tamime, A & Robinson, R 1999 Yoghurt: Science and Technology. Abingdon, England: Woodhead PublishingGoogle Scholar
Thaiudom, S & Goff, H 2003 Effect of [kappa]-carrageenan on milk protein polysaccharide mixtures. International Dairy Journal 13 763771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toufeili, I, Melki, C, Shadarevian, S & Robinson, R 1998 Some nutritional and sensory properties of bulgur and whole wheatmeal kishk (a fermented milkwheat mixture). Food Quality and Preference 10 915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tromp, RH, De Kruif, CG, Van Eijk, M & Rolin, C 2004 On the mechanism of stabilisation of acidified milk drinks by pectin. Food Hydrocolloids 18 565572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weinbreck, F 2004 Whey Protein/Polysaccharide Coacervates: Structure and Dynamics. PhD Thesis, The Netherlands: Utrecht UniversityGoogle Scholar