Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5c569c448b-hlvcg Total loading time: 0.536 Render date: 2022-07-06T05:22:55.723Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

“You Have Votes and Power”: Women's Political Engagement with the Irish Question in Britain, 1919–23

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 February 2013

Abstract

The Anglo-Irish War of 1919–21 spurred organized political activity among women in Britain, including former suffragists who campaigned against coercion in Ireland and members of the Irish minority in Britain who supported more radical republican efforts to achieve Irish independence. Their efforts are particularly significant because they occurred immediately after the granting of partial suffrage to women in 1918. This article argues that the advent of female suffrage changed the landscape of women's political mobilization in distinct ways that were made visible by advocacy on Ireland, including the regendering of the discourse of citizenship and the creation of new opportunities beyond the vote for women to exercise political power. At the same time, the use of women's auxiliary organizations and special meetings and the strategic blurring of the public and private spheres through the political use of domestic spaces all indicate the strength of continuities with nineteenth-century antecedents. The article further situates women's political advocacy on Ireland in an imperial and transnational context, arguing that it was part of the process of reconceptualizing Britain's postwar global role whether through outright anti-imperialism, in the case of Irish republicans, or through humanitarianism and the new internationalism, in the case of most former suffragists. Finally, the article examines the failure of these two groups of women to forge alliances with each other, underscoring the ways in which both class and nationality challenged a notional common interest based on sex.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The North American Conference on British Studies 2013

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1 S. Pašeta, “Markievicz, Constance Georgine, Countess Markievicz in the Polish nobility (1868–1927),” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online ed., January 2008, http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/37472 (accessed 3 June 2011).

2 Law, Cheryl, Suffrage and Power: The Women's Movement, 1914–1928 (London, 1997), 124Google Scholar.

3 Ibid., 120.

4 Liddington, Jill, The Long Road to Greenham: Feminism and Anti-Militarism in Britain Since 1820 (London, 1989), 134Google Scholar.

5 Epstein, James A., Radical Expression: Political Language, Ritual, and Symbol in England, 1790–1850 (New York and Oxford, 1994), 23Google Scholar.

6 Woolf goes on to suggest that any sentiment of national affection this woman may feel will serve to make her “give to England first what she desires of peace and freedom for the whole world.” Woolf, Virginia, Three Guineas (London, 1938), 109Google Scholar.

7 Susan Kent, Kingsley, Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860–1914 (Princeton, 1987), 212Google Scholar; suffrage was a “badge of civic personality” with enormous symbolic power, but women aimed to use it pragmatically as well.

8 Kent, Susan Kingsley, Making Peace: The Reconstruction of Gender in Interwar Britain (Princeton, 1993), 139Google Scholar; Vicinus, Martha, Independent Women: Work and Community for Single Women, 1850–1920 (Chicago, 1985), 287–88Google Scholar; Pedersen, Susan, Family, Dependence, and the Origins of the Welfare State: Britain and France, 1914–1945 (Cambridge, 1993), 138–39Google Scholar. See also Bolt, Christine, Sisterhood Questioned: Race, Class, and Internationalism in the American and British Women's Movements, c. 1880s–1970s (London, 2004), 5051Google Scholar. For an argument that gender roles remained relatively stable even during World War I, see Grayzel, Susan B., Women's Identities at War: Gender, Motherhood, and Politics in Britain and France during the First World War (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1999), 810Google Scholar.

9 Thane, Pat, “Women and Political Participation in England, 1918–1970,” in Women and Citizenship in Britain and Ireland in the Twentieth Century: What Difference Did the Vote Make? ed. Breitenbach, Esther and Thane, Pat (London, 2010), 1128Google Scholar; Molinari, Véronique, Citoyennes, et après?: le droit de vote des femmes et ses conséquences en Grande-Bretagne, 1918–1939 (Bern, 2009), 18, 247Google Scholar; Collette, Christine, The Newer Eve: Women, Feminists and the Labour Party (Basingstoke, 2009), 5758CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Alberti, Johanna, Beyond Suffrage: Feminists in War and Peace, 1914–1928 (Houndmills, 1989), 72CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Esther Breitenbach and Pat Thane, introduction to Breitenbach and Thane, Women and Citizenship in Britain and Ireland, 5.

10 Law, Suffrage and Power, 3, 225. Quotation at 94.

11 Foster, R. F., Modern Ireland, 1600–1972 (London, 1988), 489, 495Google Scholar.

12 Townshend, Charles, Political Violence in Ireland: Government and Resistance since 1848 (Oxford, 1983) 336, 350–51, 411–13Google Scholar.

13 Hopkinson, Michael, The Irish War of Independence (Dublin, 2002), 79Google Scholar.

14 Leeson, D. M., The Black and Tans: British Police and Auxiliaries in the Irish War of Independence, 1920–1921 (Oxford, 2011), 159CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

15 Hopkinson, The Irish War of Independence, 92–93; Fitzpatrick, David, “Militarism in Ireland, 1900–1922,” in A Military History of Ireland, ed. Bartlett, Thomas and Jeffery, Keith (Cambridge, 1996), 403Google Scholar.

16 McMahon, Deirdre, “Ireland and the Empire-Commonwealth, 1900–1948,” in The Oxford History of the British Empire: The Twentieth Century, ed. Brown, Judith M. and Louis, William Roger (Oxford, 1999), 143–45Google Scholar; “Record of the Rebellion in Ireland in 1920–21, and the Part Played by the Army in Dealing with It,” vol. 1 (War Office, 1922), 31, Sir Hugh Jeudwine MS 72/82/2, Imperial War Musuem; “The Irish Rebellion in the 6th Divisional Area from after 1916 Rebellion to December 1921. Compiled by General Staff 6th Division,” 61, Sir Peter Strickland P. 363 Collection, Imperial War Museum.

17 Manela, Erez, The Wilsonian Moment: Self-Determination and the International Origins of Anticolonial Nationalism (Oxford, 2007)Google Scholar; Howe, Stephen, Anticolonialism in British Politics: The Left and the End of Empire, 1918–1964 (Oxford, 1993), 312–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Trentmann, Frank, “After the Nation-State: Citizenship, Empire and Global Coordination in the New Internationalism, 1914–1930,” in Beyond Sovereignty: Britain, Empire and Transnationalism, c. 1880–1950, ed. Grant, Kevin, Levine, Philippa, and Trentmann, Frank (Houndmills, 2007), 35Google Scholar.

18 See “Account of the Peace with Ireland Council,” (n.d.), George Berkeley Papers MS 7,881, National Library of Ireland (NLI); Edith Stopford, “Autobiographical Account,” (n.d.), Edith Stopford Papers MS 11,426, NLI; Boyce, D. G., Englishmen and Irish Troubles: British Public Opinion and the Making of Irish Policy, 1918–22 (Cambridge, MA, 1972), 6570Google Scholar; Peatling, G. K., British Opinion and Irish Self-Government, 1865–1925: From Unionism to Liberal Commonwealth (Dublin, 2001), 8992Google Scholar.

19 Report of the Labour Commission to Ireland (London, 1921)Google Scholar, Pamphlets Collection 320.471, Labour History Archive; Bell, Geoffrey, Troublesome Business: The Labour Party and the Irish Question (London, 1982), 5860Google Scholar.

20 Boyce, Englishmen and Irish Troubles, 80–81; Fitzpatrick, David, The Two Irelands, 1912–1939 (Oxford, 1998), 81Google Scholar; Peatling, British Opinion and Irish Self-Government, 175.

21 Vellacott, Jo, Pacifists, Patriots and the Vote: the Erosion of Democratic Suffragism in Britain during the First World War (Basingstoke, 2007), 1, 6472CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Gullace, Nicoletta F., “The Blood of our Sons”: Men, Women, and the Renegotiation of British Citizenship during the Great War (New York, 2002), 45, 195–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

22 Liddington, Long Road to Greenham, 105. Liddington has traced the origins of British women linking gender and peace work to the Olive Leaf groups of the 1840s, but she paints a generally bleak picture of women's place in nineteenth-century peace organizations, documenting their systematic exclusion from positions of leadership in the Peace Society (15–16).

23 Alberti, Beyond Suffrage, 55; Foster, Catherine, Women for All Seasons: The Story of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (Athens, 1989), 1Google Scholar.

24 Liddington, Long Road to Greenham, 134.

25 Hannam, June and Hunt, Karen, Socialist Women: Britain, 1880s to 1920s (London and New York, 2002), 181, 189–91Google Scholar; Alberti, Beyond Suffrage, 216; Liddington, Long Road to Greenham, 139–40, 144. Women worked in a larger context of organizations of British people interested in a more peaceful and rational postwar order, particularly the popular, respectable, and large League of Nations Union and the smaller, more socialist and pacifist No War Movement. See Liddington, Long Road to Greenham, 132–33.

26 K. E. Royds to Catherine Marshall, 9 November 1920, Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/4/82, Carlisle, Cumbria Records Office (CRO).

27 Draft of Women's International League Annual Report, October 1919–October 1920, 8, Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/4/82, CRO.

28 Final Agenda of the Women's International League Council Meeting, 14–15 October 1920, Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/4/82, CRO.

29 [Catherine Marshall] to Lord Monteagle, 2 October [1920?], Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/5/3, CRO.

30 Women's International League Monthly News Sheet 6:2, November 1920, Mary and Erskine Childers Papers (hereafter Childers Papers) MS 7843/236, Trinity College Dublin.

31 Liddington, Long Road to Greenham, 138.

32 “Meeting on Ireland,” WIL Monthly News Sheet 6:3 (December 1920), 2, Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/4/82, CRO; Owens, Rosemary Cullen, “Women & Pacifism in Ireland, 1915–1932,” in Women and Irish History: Essay in Honour of Margaret MacCurtain, ed. Valiulis, Maryann Gialanella and O'Dowd, Mary (Dublin, 1997), 230Google Scholar; Liddington, Long Road to Greenham, 138.

33 Leaflet for Public Meeting at Kingsway Hall, 15 November [1920], Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/4/82, CRO. Biographical details on the suffrage careers of these women can be found in Margaret Mulvihill, “Despard, Charlotte (1844–1939),” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online ed., May 2010, http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/37356 (accessed 17 June 2011); Leah Leneman, “Robinson, Annot Erskine (1874–1925),” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online ed., http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/48529 (accessed 17 June 2011); Jose Harris, “Swanwick, Helena Maria Lucy (1864–1939),” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online ed., October 2006, http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/38040 (accessed 24 March 2009); Bourke, Angela et al., The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing: Women's Writing and Traditions, 5 vols. (New York, 2002), 5:566Google Scholar.

34 Hon. Secretary of the Irish Dominion League to Catherine Marshall, 25 October 1920, Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/5/3, CRO; H.M. Swanwick to George Berkeley, 15 November 1920, George Berkeley Papers MS 10,920(6), NLI.

35 “Women against Reprisals,” The Times, 9 March 1921, 14e.

36 S. A. Byles to George Berkeley, n.d., George Berkeley Papers MS 10,920(1), NLI.

37 Edith Stopford, “Autobiographical Account,” 21, MS 11,426, NLI.

38 “Meeting on Ireland,” WIL Monthly News Sheet 6:3 (Dec. 1920), 3, Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/4/82, CRO.

39 “The Strangling of Ireland: An Appeal to British Women by a British Woman” (London, n.d.), COLL MISC 0028, London School of Economics.

40 Photographs, September 1920–January 1921, Evelyn Sharp Papers MS. Eng. misc. d. 673/12–35, Bodleian Library (BL).

41 Nankivell, Joice M. and Loch, Sydney, Ireland in Travail (London, 1922)Google Scholar.

42 Account by Barbara Hammond, [1921?], MS Hammond 165/151–269, BL.

43 See Steinbach, Susie, Women in England, 1760–1914: A Social History (New York, 2004), 265Google Scholar.

44 Harrison, Brian, Separate Spheres: The Opposition to Women's Suffrage in Britain (New York, 1978), 7576Google Scholar.

45 Burton, Antoinette, Burdens of History: British Feminists, Indian Women, and Imperial Culture, 1865–1915 (Chapel Hill & London, 1994), 207Google Scholar. See also Ghose, Indira, Women Travellers in Colonial India: The Power of the Female Gaze (Delhi, 1998), 4Google Scholar; Steinbach, Women in England, 211–12.

46 Reynolds, K. D., Aristocratic Women and Political Society in Victorian Britain (Oxford, 1998), 121CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

47 Biagini, Eugenio F., British Democracy and Irish Nationalism, 1876–1906 (Cambridge, 2007), 89CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

48 Some women viewed relief work as “counterproductive to the fight for equality,” while others valued its affirmation of women's work caring for others and, in doing so, opposing war: Alberti, Beyond Suffrage, 193. See also Liddington, Long Road to Greenham, 134–35; Zeiger, Susan, “Finding a Cure for War: Women's Politics and the Peace Movement in the 1920s,” Journal of Social History 24, no. 1 (1999): 6986CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

49 Childers, Erskine, Military Rule in Ireland: A Series of Eight Articles Contributed to The Daily News March–May, 1920 (Dublin, 1920), 6Google Scholar.

50 Ryan, Louise, “‘Drunken Tans’: Representations of Sex and Violence in the Anglo-Irish War (1919–21),” Feminist Review 66 (Autumn 2000): 7394CrossRefGoogle Scholar. Kent also asserts that rape occurred. Kent, Susan Kingsley, Aftershocks: Politics and Trauma in Britain, 1918–1931 (Houndmills, 2009), 100101CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

51 Benton, Sarah, “Women Disarmed: The Militarisation of Politics in Ireland, 1913–1923,” Feminist Review 50 (Summer 1995): 148–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar, cited in Ryan, “Drunken Tans,” 76.

52 David Leeson, “The Black and Tans: British Police in the First Irish War, 1920–21” (PhD diss., McMaster University, 2003), 187–88; Leeson, The Black and Tans, 181–82.

53 Childers, Military Rule in Ireland, 9–10.

54 E. P. L. to Hanna Sheehy-Skeffington, 28 July 1921, Sheehy-Skeffington Papers MS 24,088(2), NLI.

55 “Women against Reprisals,” The Times, 9 March 1921, 14e.

56 “The Strangling of Ireland: An Appeal to British Women by a British Woman” (London, n.d.), COLL MISC 0028, London School of Economics.

57 Vellacott, Pacifists, Patriots and the Vote, 131, 180; Liddington, Long Road to Greenham, 109.

58 [Catherine Marshall] to Lord Monteagle, 2 October [1920?], Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/5/3, CRO.

59 Swanwick was chairman of the WIL from 1915 to 1922. See Harris, “Swanwick, Helena Maria Lucy (1864–1939).”

60 H. M. S., “Needs Must When the Devil Drives,” WIL Monthly News Sheet 6:3 (December 1920), 2, Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/4/82, CRO.

61 Vellacott denies that the democratic suffragists involved in the WIL based their efforts on a “claim of female moral superiority,” arguing that what they claimed instead was the need “to bring the full spectrum of human resources to bear on the problems of living in the world.” Vellacott, Pacifists, Patriots and the Vote, 173.

62 Catherine Marshall to Lord Monteagle, 2 October [1920?], Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/5/3, CRO. See also Lord Monteagle to Catherine Marshall, 30 September 1920, Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/5/3, CRO. On Marshall, see Banks, Olive, The Biographical Dictionary of British Feminists, 2 vols. (New York, 1990), 2:141–44Google Scholar, and Vellacott, Jo, From Liberal to Labour with Women's Suffrage: The Story of Catherine Marshall (Montreal, 1993)Google Scholar.

63 Trentmann, “After the Nation-State,” 35.

64 Gorman, Daniel, “Empire, Internationalism, and the Campaign against the Traffic in Women and Children in the 1920s,” Twentieth Century British History 19, no. 2 (2008): 186216CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

65 Helena Swanwick to Molly Childers, 16 November 1920, Childers Papers MS 7843/235, Trinity College Dublin.

66 Jane Addams to Emily Balch, 9 November 1920, Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/4/82, CRO.

67 Liddington, Long Road to Greenham, 138.

68 K. E. Royds to Catherine Marshall, 9 November 1920, Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/4/82, CRO.

69 [Catherine Marshall] to Helena Swanwick, 25 November 1920, and [Catherine Marshall] to Lord Monteagle, 2 October [1920?], Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/5/3, CRO.

70 However, the distinction between those interested in international peace and those interested in “women's issues” should not be too sharply stated: the second Congress of the International Committee of Women for Permanent Peace in Zurich in 1919 drew up a Woman's Charter. Alberti, Beyond Suffrage, 87.

71 Ibid., 193.

72 Belchem, John, Popular Radicalism in Nineteenth-Century Britain (Houndmills, 1996), 177CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

73 Law, Suffrage and Power, 127; Steinbach, Women in England, 242–44.

74 Biagini, British Democracy and Irish Nationalism, 90, 9495Google Scholar. Similarly, Law has argued that electioneering work in the 1880s in general helped to politicize women, who gained skills that they soon turned to their own causes. Law, Suffrage and Power, 127. Conservative women also practiced political skills through an Irish campaign, the Help the Ulster Women campaign of 1914, which proved to be a prototype for later relief work in World War I. Thackeray, David, “Home and Politics: Women and Conservative Activism in Early Twentieth-Century Britain,” Journal of British Studies 49, no. 4 (October 2010): 826–48CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

75 Law, Suffrage and Power, 127–28; Molinari, Citoyennes, et après, 44.

76 Thane, “Women and Political Participation in England,” 13–15. On the Labour Party, see Collette, Newer Eve, 68, 161. For a comparison between the Conservative and Liberal parties, see Thackeray, “Home and Politics: Women and Conservative Activism in Early Twentieth-Century Britain,” 848.

77 C. R. Cooke-Taylor to George Berkeley, 23 November [1920], George Berkeley Papers MS 10,920(1), NLI.

78 [Catherine Marshall] to Lord Monteagle, 2 October [1920?], Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/5/3, CRO. See also Lord Monteagle to Catherine Marshall, 30 September 1920, Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/5/3, CRO.

79 See Circular from Catherine E. Marshall, Secretary pro-tem, Divisional Labour Party, 13 August 1920, Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/5/3, CRO.

80 Lord Monteagle to Catherine Marshall, 2 July 1920, Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/5/3, CRO.

81 “Mid-Cumberland Divisional Labour Party. (Cockermouth & Penrith Parliamentary Division),” 30 August 1920, Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/5/3, CRO.

82 “The Labour Party Report of the Twenty-First Annual Conference” (London, [1921]), 24, Labour History Archive.

83 Report of the Labour Commission to Ireland, 118.

84 Alberti, Beyond Suffrage, 198–200.

85 Broin, León Ó, Protestant Nationalists in Revolutionary Ireland: The Stopford Connection (Dublin, 1985), 164Google Scholar.

86 Edith Stopford, “Autobiographical Account,” 28, MS 11,426, NLI; Peatling, G.K., “New Liberalism, J.L. Hammond and the Irish Problem, 1897–1949,” Historical Research 73, no. 180 (February 2000): 60CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

87 Lord Monteagle to Catherine Marshall, 6 July 1920, Catherine Marshall Papers D/MAR/5/3, CRO.

88 Leneman, “Robinson, Annot Erskine (1874–1925).”

89 Midgley, Clare, Women against Slavery: The British Campaigns, 1780–1870 (London, 1992), 3Google Scholar.

90 Ibid., 5.

91 Ibid., 60.

92 Ibid., 93.

93 Ibid., 202.

94 Lord Monteagle to George Berkeley, 18 February [1921?], George Berkeley Papers MS 10,920(3), NLI.

95 Lady Sarah Anne Byles to Erskine and Molly Childers, n.d., Childers Papers MS 7847–51/153, Trinity College Dublin.

96 S. A. Byles to George Berkeley, 5 March [1921?], George Berkeley Papers MS 10,920(1), NLI; Erskine Childers, Diary, 9 Sept 1920, Childers Papers MS 7811, Trinity College Dublin.

97 Mary Ffrench to George Berkeley, May 3 [1920?], George Berkeley Papers MS 10,920(2), NLI.

98 Reynolds, Aristocratic Women and Political Society, 155.

99 Boyle, Andrew, The Riddle of Erskine Childers (London, 1977), 187Google Scholar.

100 Rachael Barton, “My Memories of Aunt Molly Childers” (n.d.), 8, Childers Collection MS03–08 1/8, Boston College, Burns Library.

101 See Erskine Childers to Molly Childers, 1 October 1919, Childers Papers MS 7852–5/1142, Trinity College Dublin; Erskine Childers to Molly Childers, 27 March 1919, Childers Papers MS 7852–5/1069, Trinity College Dublin; Molly Childers to Erskine Childers, 27 March 1919, Childers Papers MS 7860/973, Trinity College Dublin; Erskine Childers to Molly Childers, 15 March 1919, Childers Papers MS 7852–5/1061, Trinity College Dublin; Memo from [Art O'Brien], 10 June 1919, DFA/Prov. Govt./IFS Reps/LONDON, 1919–1921, National Archives of Ireland (NAI); Boyle, The Riddle of Erskine Childers, 210, 245.

102 Ring, Jim, Erskine Childers (London, 1996), 220–21Google Scholar; Boyle, The Riddle of Erskine Childers, 259; Hopkinson, The Irish War of Independence, 45.

103 Landreth, Helen, The Mind and Heart of Mary Childers, As Shown in Selections from a Personal Correspondence with Helen Landreth (Chestnut Hill, MA, 1965), 1718Google Scholar, Helen Landreth Collection MS 01-44 2/23, Boston College, Burns Library; M. A. Childers to George Berkeley, 2 October 1920, George Berkeley Papers MS 10,920(1), NLI.

104 Account by Barbara Hammond, [1921?], MS Hammond 165/187, BL; Henry Nevinson, Diary, 9 December 1920, Henry Nevinson Papers MS Eng. Misc. e. 621/5, BL; A.D. Lindsay to J.L. Hammond, 26 May 1921, MS Hammond 18, BL.

105 Nankivell and Loch, Ireland in Travail, 248–49.

106 On her injury, see Ring, Erskine Childers, 19.

107 Rachael Barton, “My Memories of Aunt Molly Childers” (n.d.), 8, Childers Collection MS03-08 1/8, Boston College, Burns Library; Ring, Erskine Childers, 225.

108 For another recent view of the relationship between public and private spaces in this era, see Long, Vicky, “Industrial Homes, Domestic Factories: The Convergence of Public and Private Space in Interwar Britain,” Journal of British Studies 50, no. 2 (April 2011): 434–64CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

109 Vellacott, Pacifists, Patriots and the Vote, 95, 98, 112–13.

110 Liddington, Long Road to Greenham, 109, 129.

111 Ibid., 131.

112 Ward, Margaret, “Conflicting Interests: The British and Irish Suffrage Movements,” Feminist Review 50 (Summer 1995): 145CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

113 Grant, Kevin, “British Suffragettes and the Russian Method of Hunger Strike,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 53, no. 1 (January 2011): 141CrossRefGoogle Scholar. On the transfer of the hunger strike from British to Irish suffragettes, see also Grant, Kevin, “The Transcolonial World of Hunger Strikes and Political Fasts, c. 1909–1935,” in Decentering Empire: Britain, India, and the Transcolonial World, ed. Ghosh, Durba and Kennedy, Dane (Hyderabad, 2006), 252–53Google Scholar.

114 See Beaumont, Caitriona, “After the Vote: Women, Citizenship and the Campaign for Gender Equality in the Irish Free State (1922–1943),” in Irish Women and the Vote: Becoming Citizens, ed. Ryan, Louise and Ward, Margaret (Dublin, 2007), 231Google Scholar.

115 Owens, “Women and Pacifism in Ireland,” 226–27.

116 Ibid., 229.

117 “Souvenir Programme of Demonstration. Free Trade Hall, Manchester, Sunday, Nov. 30, 1919” (Dublin, 1919), Irish Pamphlets GT, Salford, Working Class Movement Library; Report of Proceedings at the Fifty-Second Annual Trades Union Congress (London, 1920), 355–56; Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 773 Gilbert F. Barrington (December 1952), 10, NAI. The Conservative Help the Ulster Women campaign also distinguished the roles available for speakers based upon their class. Thackeray, “Home and Politics: Women and Conservative Activism in Early Twentieth-Century Britain,” 834.

118 Edith Stopford, “Autobiographical Account,” 22, MS 11,426, NLI. Kathleen ni Houlihan was one of the female embodiments of Ireland, made famous by W. B. Yeats's play of the same name.

119 Edith Stopford, “Autobiographical Account,” 20, MS 11,426, NLI.

120 Sybil Oldfield, “Skeffington, Johanna Mary Sheehy- (1877–1946),” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online ed., http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/38533 (accessed 24 March 2009).

121 B. Murphy to Sheehy-Skeffington, 1 March 1921, MS 24,088(1); T. Moody (Independent Labour Party, Birmingham Federation) to Sheehy-Skeffington, 30 June 1920, MS 22,691(3); I.S.D.L. (Widnes) to Sheehy-Skeffington, 19 April 1920, MS 22,691(1); Philip Kelly to Sheehy-Skeffington, [May 1920], MS 22,691(2); Mary McKee (Bradford I.S.D.L.) to Sheehy-Skeffington, 9 June 1920, MS 22,691(3); F. Heeran (Rochdale I.S.D.L.) to Sheehy-Skeffington, 21 March 1921 MS 24,088(1): all Sheehy-Skeffington Papers, NLI.

122 Maíre Nic Éoghain to Sheehy-Skeffington, 28 June 1920, Sheehy-Skeffington Papers MS 22,691(3), NLI.

123 [Raphael Knowles?] to George Berkeley, 11 January 1921, George Berkeley Papers MS 10,921(2), NLI; “Mr. Asquith Heckled,” The Times, 6 December 1920, 17c.

124 Hart, Peter, The I. R. A. at War, 1916–1923 (Oxford, 2003), viii–ix, 127–28, 193Google Scholar.

125 See Morrison, Eve, “The Bureau of Military History and Female Republican Activism, 1913–23,” in Gender and Power in Irish History, ed. Valiulis, Maryann Gialanella (Dublin, 2009), 5983Google Scholar; McGarry, Fearghal, Rebels: Voices from the Easter Rising (Dublin, 2011), xiiGoogle Scholar; Gkotzaridis, Evi, “Revisionist Historians and the Modern Irish State: The Conflict between the Advisory Committee and the Bureau of Military History, 1947–66,” Irish Historical Studies 35, no. 137 (May 2006): 99116CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

126 See Ward, Margaret, Unmanageable Revolutionaries: Women and Irish Nationalism (1989; London, 1995), 119–55Google Scholar, and Pašeta, “Markievicz, Constance Georgine.”

127 Ward, Unmanageable Revolutionaries, 248; Knirck, Jason, Women of the Dáil: Gender, Republicanism and the Anglo-Irish Treaty (Dublin, 2006)Google Scholar. The IIL foundered in the Free State and broke up in the 1930s. Owens, “Women and Pacifism in Ireland,” 238.

128 Clark, Anna, The Struggle for the Breeches: Gender and the Making of the British Working Class (Berkeley, 1995), 41Google Scholar.

129 Ibid., 207.

130 Ibid., 228 (first quotation), 236–37 (second quotation). See also Prothero, Iowerth, Radical Artisans in England and France, 1830–1870 (Cambridge, 1997), 28CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

131 Clark, The Struggle for the Breeches, 2.

132 Glynn, Sean, “Irish Immigration to Britain, 1916–1951: Patterns and Policy,” Irish Economic and Social History 8 (1981): 56CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

133 Roisin ni Cillen [sic] to Art O'Brien, 12 July 1920 and Art O'Brien to Roisin Ni Chillin, 10 February 1921, Art O Briain Papers MS 8433, NLI.

134 Art O'Brien to T.W. Smartt, 12 September 1919, Art O Briain Papers MS 8433, NLI.

135 Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 945 Sorcha Nic Diarmada (May 1954), 5, NAI.

136 Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 945 Sorcha Nic Diarmada (May 1954), 1, NAI.

137 Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 945 Sorcha Nic Diarmada (May 1954), 4, NAI.

138 “Bombs in a Flat,” The Times, 22 July 1922, 7c.

139 Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 847 Patrick O'Donoghue (May 1953), 7, and Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 924 Mrs. Michael Cremen (“Cis Sheehan”) (February 1954), 5, NAI.

140 “Statement by Mr. James W. Cunningham: Contractor, Carrick, Co. Donegal,” n.d., 5, Reminiscence Collection, London Metropolitan University, Archive of the Irish in Britain.

141 Mary Duffy to Joseph Fowler, 26 July 1923, Joseph Fowler Papers MS 27,097(6), NLI.

142 “Mrs. M. Egan, Ban Oglach, An Cean Brigaide Corcaigh” (1990), H. P. O'Brien Collection, Reminiscence Collection, London Metropolitan University, Archive of the Irish in Britain. In the same collection see “Tara Hall” (1983), 2, listing Egan among a group of women who provided temporary lodging for young Irish people newly arrived in London.

143 “The Irish Deportees,” The Times, 18 October 1923, 9f.

144 “Mrs. M. Egan, Ban Oglach, An Cean Brigaide Corcaigh” (1990), H. P. O'Brien Collection, Reminiscence Collection, London Metropolitan University, Archive of the Irish in Britain.

145 Notebooks, Paddy Daly, n.d., Ernie O'Malley Papers P17/136, 8, University College Dublin Archives.

146 Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 814 Comd't. Patrick G. Daly, M.D. (March 1953), 22, NAI. Belchem reports that Cathal Brugha also convalesced there after the Easter Rising: Belchem, John, Irish, Catholic and Scouse: The History of the Liverpool-Irish, 1800–1939 (Liverpool, 2007), 265Google Scholar.

147 In September 1920, for example, the local Liverpool “safe” addresses were shifted to Mrs. O'Hanlon and Mrs. Healys, both of Bootle: Memo, 23 September 1920, Richard Mulcahy Papers P7/A3, University College Dublin Archives. In London, Lady Claire Annesley provided her address as well. Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 814 Comd't. Patrick G. Daly, M. D. (March 1953), 16, NAI.

148 Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 924 Mrs. Michael Cremen (“Cis Sheehan”) (February 1954), 7, and Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 945 Sorcha Nic Diarmada (May 1954), 5, NAI.

149 The Irish Exile (April 1921), Joseph Fowler Papers MS 27,097(1), 4, NLI.

150 Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 945 Sorcha Nic Diarmada (May 1954), 5–6, NAI.

151 “Bombs in a Flat,” The Times, 22 July 1922, 7c.

152 Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 945 Sorcha Nic Diarmada (May 1954), 6–7 (quotation, 6), and Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 924 Mrs. Michael Cremen (“Cis Sheehan”) (February 1954), 10, NAI. Markievicz addressed the Dáil in her Cumann na mBan uniform. Pašeta, “Markievicz, Constance Georgine.”

153 Memo, 3 February 1921, Richard Mulcahy Papers P7/A4, University College Dublin Archives: “The £50 I mentioned was given to us by the C. na mBán for no specific purpose per Mrs Lanigan. We used it for the same purpose as the ordinary fund.” See Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 945 Sorcha Nic Diarmada (May 1954), 5, NAI.

154 “Mrs. M. Egan, Ban Oglach, An Cean Brigaide Corcaigh” (1990), H. P. O'Brien Collection, Reminiscence Collection, London Metropolitan University, Archive of the Irish in Britain.

155 Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 924 Mrs. Michael Cremen (“Cis Sheehan”) (February 1954), 5–6, NAI.

156 Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 814 Comd't. Patrick G. Daly, M.D. (March 1953), 19, NAI. See Belchem, Irish, Catholic and Scouse, 263.

157 Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 773 Gilbert F. Barrington (December 1952), 9, NAI.

158 Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 924 Mrs. Michael Cremen (“Cis Sheehan”) (February 1954), 6–7, NAI.

159 Nelly [Mallor?] to Sheehy-Skeffington, 7 May [1920], Sheehy-Skeffington Papers MS 22,691(2), NLI.

160 Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 945 Sorcha Nic Diarmada (May 1954), 7, NAI.

161 Memo, 28 August 1920, Richard Mulcahy Papers P7/A10, University College Dublin Archives.

162 Brady, Edward M., Ireland's Secret Service in England (Dublin, [1928?]), 76Google Scholar.

163 Dorothy Williams to Molly and Erskine Childers, 6 December 1921, Childers Papers MS 7847–51/1305, Trinity College Dublin; Mary Spring Rice to Molly Childers, 8 December 1921, Childers Papers MS 7847–51/1220, Trinity College Dublin; Frances Melland to Molly Childers, 6 December 1921, Childers Papers MS 7847–51/803, Trinity College Dublin; Lady Sarah Anne Byles to Molly Childers, [December 1921], Childers Papers MS 7847–51/152, Trinity College Dublin.

164 Margaret Buckmaster to Molly Childers, 7 December [1921], Childers Papers MS 7847–51/132, Trinity College Dublin.

165 On Childers, see Petitions, [1922], MS 1881 Supp. Box VI, Boston Public Library; note dated 4 May 1927 by George Berkeley on telegrams from November 1922, George Berkeley Papers MS 7,879, NLI; Mary Spring Rice to Molly Childers, 25 November 1922, Childers Papers MS 7848–51/1221, Trinity College Dublin. Molly Childers remained in Dublin, where she raised their two sons—one of whom, Erskine Childers Jr., became a prominent politician, serving as the president of Ireland in the mid-1970s. On Stopford, Edith Stopford, “Autobiographical Account,” MS 11,426, 28, NLI.

166 Pašeta, “Markievicz, Constance Georgine.”

167 Mary Duffy to Joseph Fowler, 26 July 1923, Joseph Fowler Papers MS 27,097(6), NLI.

168 Canning, Paul, British Policy Towards Ireland, 1921–1941 (Oxford, 1985), 80Google Scholar; McMahon, Paul, British Spies and Irish Rebels: British Intelligence and Ireland, 1916–1945 (Woodbridge, Sussex, 2008), 107Google Scholar.

169 See, however, the claim that the police missed the most important people: Notebooks, Dennis Brennan, n.d., Ernie O'Malley Papers P17/100, 89, University College Dublin Archives.

170 Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 924 Mrs. Michael Cremen (“Cis Sheehan”) (February 1954), 10, NAI. See “The Week-end Arrests,” The Times, 14 March 1923, 12e.

171 Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 945 Sorcha Nic Diarmada (May 1954), 10, NAI.

172 Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 945 Sorcha Nic Diarmada (May 1954), 11, NAI.

173 Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 945 Sorcha Nic Diarmada (May 1954), 11–12, NAI.

174 Canning, British Policy Towards Ireland, 1921–1941, 80.

175 McMahon, British Spies and Irish Rebels, 108.

176 Bureau of Military History Witness Statement 945 Sorcha Nic Diarmada (May 1954), 12, NAI.

177 “The Irish Deportees,” The Times, 18 October 1923, 9f, and “Treatment of Women Deportees,” Manchester Guardian, 18 October 1923, 4.

178 See “The Irish Deportees,” The Times, 18 October 1923, 9f, and “Treatment of Women Deportees,” Manchester Guardian, 18 October 1923, 4.

179 See “Irish Deportee's Claim,” Manchester Guardian, 24 October 1923, 4.

180 “Later Dancing in Hotels,” The Times, 6 February 1925, 12d.

1
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

“You Have Votes and Power”: Women's Political Engagement with the Irish Question in Britain, 1919–23
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

“You Have Votes and Power”: Women's Political Engagement with the Irish Question in Britain, 1919–23
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

“You Have Votes and Power”: Women's Political Engagement with the Irish Question in Britain, 1919–23
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *