Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-cf9d5c678-vbn2q Total loading time: 0.221 Render date: 2021-07-27T23:08:21.779Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Presidential Address: The 1890s Debate over the Democratic Control of Hospitals in Britain and New Zealand

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 January 2021

Abstract

Anna Clark's presidential plenary to the 2018 North American Conference on British Studies in Vancouver, British Columbia, compares scandals over the mistreatment of patients and nurses that led to demands for popular control of hospitals in both Britain and New Zealand in the 1890s. A high death rate at the Chelsea Hospital for Women in London, located near a Pasteur Institute for animal research on vaccination, incited fears of human vivisection. The high death rate of nurses at the London Hospital provoked newspaper exposés and parliamentary investigations and calls for the municipalization of voluntary hospitals. In Christchurch, New Zealand, a debate over the rudeness of doctors and nurses enraged citizens. The flames of these scandals were sparked by newspaper agitation but fanned by feminists, socialists, trade unionists, and animal-rights organizations. In response to fears around experimentation, Fabian socialists Havelock Ellis, Harry Roberts, and Honnor Morten proposed democratic control of hospitals. These demands, focusing on patients’ rights and nurses’ health, differed from the hospital reform movement that urged hospitals to become more economical by forcing patients to pay. They also diverged from Beatrice and Sidney Webb's admonitions that the state must oversee citizens’ health for the nation to function efficiently. Although the calls for the democratic control of hospitals did not succeed, they might be seen as germs of a patient-centered approach to hospital care.

Type
Original Manuscript
Copyright
Copyright © The North American Conference on British Studies, 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1 Gray recounted this at an 1896 meeting protesting a Chelsea Hospital death. The National Archive [hereafter TNA], HO 45/9879/B15780, newspaper clipping, 3 February 1896, “Chelsea Hospital for Women—Death of Kate Wellman in Chelsea Hospital for Women.”

2 Moscucci, Ornella, The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800–1929 (Cambridge, 1993), 97130Google Scholar; Brock, Claire, “Risk, Responsibility and Surgery in the 1890s and Early 1900s,” Medical History 57, no. 3 (2013): 317–37, at 325CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed; Willis, Martin, Vision, Science and Literature, 1870–1920: Ocular Horizons (Oxford, 2015), 30CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

3 TNA, HO 45/9879/B15780, newspaper clipping, 3 February 1896, “Chelsea Hospital for Women—Death of Kate Wellman in Chelsea Hospital for Women.” Gray was active in campaigning against the Boer War: Riedi, Eliza, “The Women Pro-Boers: Gender, Peace and the Critique of Empire in the South African War,” Historical Research 86, no. 231 (2013): 92–115, at 95CrossRefGoogle Scholar. For her local speeches, see “Battersea,” Justice (UK), 9 April 1898; “Unemployed in Trafalgar Square,” Lloyd's Weekly (London), 10 February 1895.

4 Giles, J., Report of Inquiry into the Management of the Christchurch Hospital, Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1874, H-18 (Wellington, 1874)Google Scholar.

5 Villafranca, Alexander et al. , “Disruptive Behaviour in the Perioperative Setting: A Contemporary Review,” Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie 64, no. 2 (2017): 128–40, at 135–40CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed. Khademi, Mojgan, Mohammadi, Eesa, and Vanaki, Zohreh, “On the Violation of Hospitalized Patients’ Rights: A Qualitative Study,” Nursing Ethics 26, no. 2 (2019): 576–86CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed; Cooper, William O. et al. , “Use of Unsolicited Patient Observations to Identify Surgeons with Increased Risk for Postoperative Complications,” JAMA Surgery 152, no. 6 (2017): 522–29CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

6 For the notion of marginal relevance, see Waddington, Keir, Charity and the London Hospitals, 1850–1898 (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2000), 195Google Scholar. For such tensions in London and nationally, see Pennybacker, Susan, A Vision for London 1889–1914: Labour, Everyday Life, and the L.C.C. Experiment (London, 1995), 241Google Scholar; Barrow, Logie and Bullock, Ian, Democratic Ideas and the British Labour Movement, 1880–1914 (Cambridge, 1996), 35CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

7 “Local Government: Public Services,” in A History of the County of Middlesex, vol. 12, Chelsea, ed. Patricia E. C. Croot (London, 2004), 217–33.

8 For examples of its investigations, see East London Hospital for Children and Dispensary for Women, 1880, Family Welfare Association/Charity Organisation Society, A/FWA/C/D50/1, London Metropolitan Archives [hereafter LMA]; Samaritan Hospital for Women, 1899, Family Welfare Association/Charity Organisation Society, A/FWA/C/D/45/001, LMA; Provident Medical Institution, 1899, Family Welfare Association/Charity Organisation Society, A/FWA/C/D/38/1, LMA.

9 Worboys, Michael, Spreading Germs: Disease Theories and Medical Practice in Britain, 1865–1900 (Cambridge, 2000), 2829Google Scholar.

10 There was no legal color bar against treatment of the Maori in hospitals, but usually a special case had to be made. Bassett, Michael, The State in New Zealand: Socialism without Doctrines? (Auckland, 1998), 75Google Scholar; Dow, Derek, “Springs of Charity? The Development of the New Zealand Hospital System, 1876–1910,” in A Healthy Country: Essays on the Social History of Medicine in New Zealand, ed. Bryder, Linda (Wellington, 1991), 4464Google Scholar.

11 Kerr, Matthew L. Newsom, Contagion, Isolation, and Biopolitics in Victorian London (London, 2018), 92CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

12 Sturdy, Steve and Cooter, Roger, “Science, Scientific Management, and the Transformation of Medicine in Britain C. 1870–1950,” History of Science 36, no. 4 (1998): 421–66, at 427CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

13 Worboys, Spreading Germs, 29.

14 Roberts, Harry, Public Control of Hospitals (London, 1895), 21Google Scholar.

15 Treves, Frederick, The Elephant Man and Other Reminiscences (London, 1923), 45Google Scholar.

16 Treves saw improvement in the 1890s. For improvement in outpatient wards at Croydon Hospital, see “No Complaints This Time,” Croydon Advertiser and East Surrey Reporter, 21 November 1891. For persistent complaints, see “Inquest,” Lloyd's Weekly (London), 1 January 1889; clipping, 17 January 1889, House Committee Minutes, 1889–1891, London Hospital, LH/A/5/44, Royal London Hospital Archives (hereafter RLHA).

17 TNA, HO 45/9879/B15780, newspaper clipping, 3 February 1896, “Chelsea Hospital for Women—Death of Kate Wellman in Chelsea Hospital for Women.”

18 Levine-Clark, Marjorie, Beyond the Reproductive Body: The Politics of Women's Health and Work in Early Victorian England (Columbus, 2004), 93Google Scholar.

19 House Committee Minutes, 1889–1891, London Hospital, 26 February 1889, 5 March 1889, 30 July 1889, 31 December 1889, 10 June 1890, 17 June 1890, 8 September 1891, 3 November 1891, 1 December 1891, LH/A/5/44, RLHA.

20 Nurses complained that he was rude. See House Committee Minutes, 1878–1880, London Hospital, 31 December 1878, LH/A/5/39, RLHA. For complaints about the treatment of women in delivery, see 3 November 1881, fol. 502; 22 November 1881, fol. 388; 10 August 1882, fol. 5; 17 August 1882, fol. 9; 12 July 1881, fol. 269, RLHA. The London Hospital Committee vindicated Fenton Jones; see House Committee Minutes, 1880–1882, London Hospital, LH/A/5/40, RLHA. He changed his name from William Hugh Fenton-Jones to William Hugh Fenton in 1888. “Notice,” Morning Post (London), 26 March 1888.

21 For examples, see House of Lords Select Committee on Metropolitan Hospitals, 2nd Report, Parliamentary Papers, 1891–92 (457), 13:41, 119, 617, 806. More generally on hospital complaints, see Reinarz, Jonathan and Wynter, Rebecca, “Introduction: Towards a History of Complaining about Medicine,” in Complaints, Controversies and Grievances in Medicine, ed. Reinarz, Jonathan and Wynter, Rebecca (New York, 2014), 1952CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

22 For resistance, see “Killed While Attempting to Escape from a Hospital,” Liverpool Daily Post, 15 June 1870; “City Hospital, Netherfield Road,” Liverpool Mercury, 2 March 1887. For scandals, see Wilson Pash, The Scandal at Stockwell Hospital (London, 1886), 22; “Hospital Scandal,” London Daily News, 4 April 1891; Newsom Kerr, Contagion, Isolation, 94. For improvement, see Newsom Kerr, Contagion, Isolation, chap. 5. See also “The ‘Indiscriminate’ System of the Infectious Hospitals,” Lancet 140, no. 3609 (1892): 1006–7.

23 Durbach, Nadja, Bodily Matters: The Anti-vaccination Movement in England, 1853–1907 (Durham, 2004), 125Google Scholar.

24 Scott, Anne L., “Physical Purity Feminism and State Medicine in Late Nineteenth-Century England,” Women's History Review 8, no. 4 (1999): 625–53, at 629CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed; Hume-Rothery, Mary, Women and Doctors: Or, Medical Despotism in England (London, 1871), 14Google Scholar; Cobbe, Frances Power, “The Morality of the Medical Profession,” Modern Review 2, no. 2 (1881): 296–326, at 309Google Scholar. In fact, doctors were performing painful syphilization experiments on patients in Lock Hospitals. Hanley, Anne, “Syphilization and Its Discontents: Experimental Inoculation against Syphilis at the London Lock Hospital,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 91, no. 1 (2017): 1–32CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed. Thanks to Matthew Newsom Kerr for alerting me to syphilization.

25 Roberts, M. J. D., “Feminism and the State in Later Victorian England,” Historical Journal 38, no. 1 (1995): 85–110, at 104Google Scholar. For vaccination, see Ninth Annual Report of the Vigilance Association for the Defence of Personal Rights (London, 1880), 5; “Vaccination and the Local Government Board,” Journal of the Vigilance Association for the Defence of Personal Rights, 15 August 1882; “Vaccination in Schools,” Journal of the Vigilance Association for the Defence of Personal Rights, 15 February 1883. For fever hospitals, “Legal Kidnapping in Fulham,” Personal Rights Journal, July 1892. For the plague, Pandita Ramabai, “The Plague at Poona,” Personal Rights: A Monthly Journal of Freedom and Justice, 15 August 1897; “The New Tyranny in India,” Personal Rights, 15 December 1896; Clark, Anna, “Humanitarianism, Human Rights and Biopolitics in the British Empire, 1890–1902,” Britain and the World 9, no. 1 (2016): 95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

26 Lansbury, Carol, The Old Brown Dog: Women, Workers and Vivisection (Madison, 1985), 58Google Scholar.

27 Editorial, Northern Echo (Darlington), 24 May 1875; “Fair Play,” letter to the editor, Rochdale Observer, 18 March 1876. The Gloucester Chronicle had to ask its readers on 8 November 1879 not to send any more letters on the subject of human vivisection.

28 Workman, “Royal Hospital,” letter to the editor, Northern Whig (Belfast), 25 November 1876; Richardson, Ruth, Death, Dissection and the Destitute (Chicago, 2000), 252Google Scholar.

29 Berdoe, Edward, St. Bernards: Or the Romance of a Medical Student (London, 1888)Google Scholar; Bedoe, Edward, Dying Scientifically: A Key to St. Bernard's (London, 1888)Google Scholar; Waddington, Keir, “Death at St Bernard's: Anti-Vivisection, Medicine and the Gothic,” Journal of Victorian Culture 18, no. 2 (2013): 246–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Servitje, Lorenzo, “Birthed from the Clinic: The Degenerate Medical Students of Edward Berdoe's St. Bernard's,” Critical Survey 27, no. 2 (2015): 21–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

30 Thornhill, Mark, Experiments on Hospital Patients (London, 1889)Google Scholar; Collinson, Joseph, “Hospitals and Vivisection,” Northern Echo (Darlington), 29 September 1892Google Scholar; Agruss, David, “Victorian Experimental Physiology and the Empire of Bodily Interiors: Vivisection, Sexuality, Imperialism,” Prose Studies 35, no. 3 (2013): 263–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

31 Lansbury, Old Brown Dog, 35–39; Hilda Kean, “The ‘Smooth Cool Men of Science’: The Feminist and Socialist Response to Vivisection,” History Workshop Journal, no. 40 (1995): 16–38.

32 Letters to the editor on human vivisection, Daily Chronicle (London), 15 May 1894; see also Daily Chronicle, 13 May, 17 May, 18 May, 21 May, and 22 May 1894.

33 “Editorial Notes,” Woman's Signal, 24 May 1894; Mrs. Florence Fenwick-Miller, “The Ladies Column,” Illustrated London News, 8 September 1894.

34 Dingwall, Robert and Rozelle, Vienna, “The Ethical Governance of German Physicians, 1890–1939: Are There Lessons from History?,” Journal of Policy History 23, no. 1 (2011): 29–52, at 38CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Collinson, “Hospitals and Vivisection,” Northern Echo (Darlington), 29 September 1892; Risse, Guenter B., Mending Bodies, Saving Souls: A History of Hospitals (New York, 1999), 18Google Scholar; Maehle, Andreas-Holger, Doctors, Honour and the Law: Medical Ethics in Imperial Germany (Basingstoke, 2007), 82Google Scholar; John E. Lesch, “The Paris Academy of Medicine and Experimental Science, 1820–1848,” in The Investigative Enterprise: Experiments in Nineteenth-Century Medicine, ed. William Coleman and Frederick Lawrence Holmes (Berkeley, 1988), 100–39, at 128; Susan E. Lederer, Subjected to Science: Human Experimentation in America before the Second World War (Baltimore, 1997), 9–11.

35 Brock, “Risk, Responsibility and Surgery,” 325.

36 Sally Frampton, Belly-Rippers, Surgical Innovation and the Ovariotomy Controversy (London, 2018), 146.

37 Herbert R. Spencer, “The History of Ovariotomy,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 27, no. 11 (1934): 49–56, at 52. Richard Barnett, “Ovarian Cancer,” Lancet 387, no. 10025 (2016): 1265.

38 Moscucci, Science of Woman, 103.

39 TNA, HO 45/9879/B15780/6, Vestry of Parish of Chelsea, 1894; TNA, HO 45/9879/B15780/4, Letter to Asquith, Secretary of State, from Chelsea Vestry Clerk, 22 February 1894.

40 “The Chelsea Hospital for Women,” British Medical Journal 2, no. 1754 (1894): 321; “The Chelsea Hospital for Women,” editorial, Lancet 143, no. 3676 (1894): 365.

41 “Human Vivisection,” Daily Chronicle (London), 15 May 1894; see also Edward Berdoes, letter to the editor, Daily Chronicle (London), 17 May 1894; London District Medical Officer, letter to the editor, Daily Chronicle 17 May 1894; “Human Vivisection,” Daily Chronicle 31 May 1894.

42 They wrote letters to Parkes. TNA, HO 45/9879/B15780/4, Letter to Asquith, Secretary of State, from Chelsea Vestry Clerk, 22 February 1894.

43 Sally Wilde, “Truth, Trust, and Confidence in Surgery, 1890–1910: Patient Autonomy, Communication, and Consent,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 83, no. 2 (2009): 302–30, at 305. Stokes, a medical ethicist, was concerned with unnecessary abdominal operations, but he does not mention consent. William Stokes, “The Ethics of Surgery,” Dublin Journal of Medical Science, no. 98 (1893): 369–83, at 383.

44 TNA, HO 45/9879/B15780/4, Letter from Parkes, in Letter to Asquith, Secretary of State, from Chelsea Vestry Clerk, 22 February 1894. On 2 October and 9 October 1895, the Chelsea Hospital committee discussed the problem of patients’ consent not being entered into the record book and cases where no consent was given by friends. House Committee Minutes, 1894–5, Chelsea Hospital for Women, H27/CW/A/04, LMA.

45 “Hospital Surgeons and the Public,” Star (London), 7 October 1897. The same year, Nurse Beatty sued over an operation performed without her consent. “Beatty Versus Cullingworth,” Personal Rights, 15 December 1896; Brock, “Risk, Responsibility and Surgery,” 87; Frampton, Belly-Rippers, 147.

46 Reinarz and Wynter, “Introduction: Towards a History,” 8–9.

47 TNA, HO 45/9879/B15780/6, Vestry of Parish of Chelsea, 1894.

48 TNA, HO 45/9879/B15780/5, Chelsea Hospital Inquiry, 1894.

49 TNA, HO 45/9879/B15780/2, Letter from Lord Sandhurst to Asquith, 2 September 1894.

50 Reinarz and Wynter, “Introduction: Towards a History,” 7.

51 House Committee Minutes, 1888–1894, Chelsea Hospital for Women, H27/CW/A/03, LMA; House Committee Minutes, 1894–5, Chelsea Hospital for Women, H27/CW/A/04, LMA.

52 House Committee Minutes, Chelsea Hospital for Women, 26 June 1895, H27/CW/A/04, LMA.

53 Sturdy and Cooter, “Science, Scientific Management,” 405.

54 Sandra Stanley Holton, “Silk Dresses and Lavender Kid Gloves: The Wayward Career of Jessie Craigen, Working Suffragist,” Women's History Review 5, no. 1 (1996): 129–50.

55 “Chelsea Hospital for Women Scandal,” Reynolds's Newspaper, 19 August 1894.

56 TNA, HO 45/9879/B15780/8, newspaper clipping, Daily Chronicle (London), 20 August 1894; TNA, HO 45/9879/B15780/9, newspaper clipping (newspaper not identified), “Mass Meeting at Pimlico Pier,” 22 and 23 September 1894.

57 TNA, HO 45/9879/B15780/8, poster, “Men and Women of England.”

58 TNA, HO 45/9879/B15780, newspaper clipping, 3 February 1896, “Chelsea Hospital for Women—Death of Kate Wellman in Chelsea Hospital for Women.”

59 J. L. Clifford-Smith, ed., Hospital Management: Being the Authorised Report of a Conference on the Administration of Hospitals Held under the Auspices of the Social Science Conference (London, 1883), 34; “Working Men and Hospitals,” Reynolds's Newspaper (London), 26 May 1889; Michael Millman, “The Influence of the Social Science Association on Hospital Planning in Victorian England,” Medical History 18, no. 2 (1974): 122–37.

60 Emanuel Montefiore, The Need for a Central Hospital Board (London, 1895), 203.

61 Keir Waddington, “Unsuitable Cases: The Debate over Outpatient Admissions, the Medical Profession and Late-Victorian London Hospitals,” Medical History 42, no. 1 (1998): 26–46, at 32; Roger Cooter, “Medicine and Modernity,” in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Medicine, ed. Mark Jackson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 100–14; Henry C. Burdett, Hospitals and Asylums of the World, vol. 3, Hospitals: History and Administration (London, 1893), 56; “Hospital Reform Enquiry,” Birmingham Daily Post, 30 October 1890; “The Hospital Reform Committee: To the Editor of the Daily Post,” Birmingham Daily Post, 24 November 1890; “Hospital Reform Committee,” Birmingham Daily Post, 17 July 1890; “The Hospital Reform Inquiry,” Birmingham Daily Post, 24 July 1890; Committee on the Hospital Reform Enquiry, Hospital Reform, Birmingham (Birmingham, 1891); H. C. Tweedy, “Some Points in Connection with the Administration of Hospital Relief,” Dublin Journal of Medical Science 97, no. 6 (1894): 490–97, at 490.

62 Alfred Egmont Hake, Suffering London: Or, the Hygiene, Moral, Social, and Political Relations of Our Voluntary Hospitals to Society (London, 1892), 48; see also Waddington, Charity and the London Hospitals.

63 A. W. H. Bates, “Boycotted Hospital: The National Anti-Vivisection Hospital, London, 1903–1935,” Journal of Animal Ethics 6, no. 2 (2016): 177–87.

64 Claire Brock, British Women Surgeons and Their Patients, 1860–1918 (Cambridge, 2017), 48.

65 Honnor Morten, “Hospital Chaos,” National Review 34 (1899): 734–38, at 734.

66 Keir Waddington, “Subscribing to a Democracy? Management and the Voluntary Ideology of the London Hospitals, 1850–1900,” English Historical Review 118, no. 476 (2003): 357–79, at 357–60; Steven Cherry, “Accountability, Entitlement, and Control Issues and Voluntary Hospital Funding C. 1860–1939,” Social History of Medicine 9, no. 2 (1996): 217; G. S. Lewis, “Working Class Representation,” Worcestershire Chronicle, 8 April 1893; “Kidderminster Infirmary and Working-Class Representation,” Worcestershire Chronicle, 16 May 1896; “The Complaint against the West London Hospital,” West London Observer, 22 September 1888; “The Maintenance of Hospitals,” Justice (London), 16 June 1888. See also letter from H. Venman to Charles Loch, 20 December 1881, Provident Medical Institution, A/FWA/C/D/38/1, LMA. The Hospital Saturday Fund gave £383 to the London Hospital and in return claimed the right to nominate a life governor; House Committee Minutes, 1880–1882, London Hospital, 3 January 1882, LH/A/5/40, RLHA.

67 For general discussion, see House of Lords Select Committee on Metropolitan Hospitals, 2nd Report, 1891–2, 617. For a Dublin example, see 11 November 1898, Directors Minute Book of City of Dublin Hospital Baggot Street, 1897–1900, PRIV/1272/1/4, National Archives Ireland. For London Hospital example, see House Committee Minutes, 1880–1882, London Hospital, 3 January 1882, LH/A/5/40, RLHA.

68 “When the Hospital Saturday Fund [. . .],” Truth (London), 21 February 1895.

69 Samuel Augustus Barnett, Practicable Socialism: Essays on Social Reform (London, 1895), 250; Samuel Augustus Barnett, “A Friendly Criticism of the Charity Organisation Society,” Charity Organisation Review, no. 11 (1895): 338–44, at 338.

70 “The Maintenance of Hospitals,” Justice (London), 16 June 1888

71 “Hospital Politics,” The Speaker (London) 1891), 367; Sidney Webb, The Reform of the Poor Law (Manchester, 1891), 13–14; Havelock Ellis, The Nationalisation of Health (London, 1892), 52.

72 Barrow and Bullock, Democratic Ideas, 35.

73 H. J. Channon, “An Old Queenian—The Late Dr. Harry Roberts,” Taunton Courier and Western Advertiser, 7 December 1946. Roberts argued against the poor law's deterrent approach. See also Harry Roberts, “Consumption and the Poor Law,” British Journal of Tuberculosis 5, no. 1 (1911): 39–41. Harry Roberts also wrote a tract, “Population and Social Reform,” first given as a talk for the Fabians in 1891; see “News,” Fabian News 1, no. 5 (1891): 19. He edited a compilation of the writings of socialist poet Edward Carpenter, The Simplification of Life: From the Writings of Edward Carpenter, ed. Harry Roberts (London, 1905).

74 Hulda Friederichs, “The Story of ‘I Was in Prison’: The Story of Miss Honnor Morten,” Young Woman, no. 8 (1899–1900): 302–7, at 302; Ellis, The Nationalisation of Health; Roberts, Public Control of Hospitals. See also Morten, “Hospital Chaos,” 394–420; Honnor Morten, The Municipalisation of Hospitals, Reprinted from the Humane Review (London, 1902); Honnor Morten, “Questions for Women—the Prisons,” Queen (UK), 4 March 1899.

75 Ellis, The Nationalisation of Health; Roberts, Public Control of Hospitals; Morten, “Hospital Chaos,” 394–420; The Municipalisation of Hospitals, Reprinted from the Humane Review (London, 1902). Morten announced her lectures in 1896 and presented them in March 1897; “News,” Fabian News 5, no. 1 (March 1896): 40. “News,” Fabian News 7, no. 1 (1897): 313.

76 Ellis, Nationalisation of Health, 74.

77 Roberts, Public Control of Hospitals, 3; Morten, “Hospital Chaos,” 745.

78 Morten, The Municipalisation of Hospitals, 7.

79 Ellis, Nationalisation of Health, 75.

80 Roberts, Public Control of Hospitals, 25, 22.

81 Morten, “Hospital Chaos,” 741–46;.

82 Kean, “The ‘Smooth Cool Men of Science,’” 79; Leela Gandhi, Affective Communities; Anticolonial Thought, Fin-de-Siècle Radicalism, and the Politics of Friendship (Durham, 2006), 77.

83 Annual Report of the Humanitarian League (London, 1895): 1; J. C. Kenworthy, “The Rights of Man and the Rights of Animal,” Humanity, no. 9 (1895): 66–68.

84 Honner Morton, “Eating the Apple,” in Slum Travelers: Ladies and London Poverty, ed. Ellen Ross (Berkeley, 2007), 161–71, at 170. Ellen Ross's introduction to this piece is an excellent account of Morten's life (161–65).

85 Eva Luckes, Hospital Sisters and Their Duties (London, 1893), 55. See also Eva Luckes, Lectures on General Nursing, Delivered to the Probationers at London Hospital (London, 1884), 1.

86 Charles Rosenberg argues that Nightingale did not believe in the germ theory, but, according to Lynn Macdonald, she had been convinced by 1885. Charles E. Rosenberg, “Florence Nightingale on Contagion: The Hospital as a Moral Universe,” in Explaining Epidemics and Other Studies in the History of Medicine, ed. Charles Rosenberg (New York, 1979), 115–36; Lynn Macdonald, Florence Nightingale at First Hand: Vision, Power, Legacy (London, 2010), 102.

87 Carol Helmstadter, “Building a New Nursing Service: Respectability and Efficiency in Victorian England,” Albion 35, no. 4 (2004): 590–621, at 619; Carol Helmstadter and Judith Godden, Nursing before Nightingale, 1815–1899 (2016), 42; Rosenberg, “Florence Nightingale on Contagion,” 115–36; Alison Bashford, “Female Bodies at Work: Gender and the Re-forming of Colonial Hospitals,” Australian Cultural History, no. 13 (1995): 65–81.

88 Sue Hawkins, Nursing and Women's Labour in the Nineteenth Century: The Quest for Independence (London, 2012).

89 For examples, see London House Committee notes, 18 March 1879, fol. 144, House Committee Minutes; 12 October 1880, fol. 44, 20 October 1880, fol. 53; 7 December 1880, fol. 90, House Committee Minutes, 1880–1882, London Hospital, LH/A/5/39, RLHA.

90 For the class of nurses, see Henry C. Burdett, “Hospital Nursing,” Fraser's Magazine, no. 607 (1880): 112–25, at 124.

91 S. Messenger Bradley, “Miss Lonsdale on the Present Crisis at Guy's Hospital,” British Medical Journal, 17, no. 1007 (1880): 605–6; Margaret Lonsdale, “The Present Crisis at Guy's Hospital,” Nineteenth Century, no. 7 (April 1880): 677–84, at 687. See also Keir Waddington, “The Nursing Dispute at Guy's Hospital, 1879–1880,” Social History of Medicine 8, no. 2 (1995): 211–30.

92 “Charge against Hospital Nurse,” Reynolds's Newspaper (London), 1 August 1880.

93 “St. Saviour's Guardians,” South London Press, 18 September 1880.

94 “St. Saviour's Guardians,” South London Press, 11 September 1880; “Guy's Hospital,” South London Press, 16 October 1880.

95 Bill Blades, “Words from the Workshop,” Reynolds's Newspaper (London), 1 August 1880; “Guy's Hospital Scandal,” South London Press, 36 June 1880.

96 Anna Clark, “Domestic Servants and the Labour Movement, 1870s–1914,” in Labour United and Divided from the 1830s to the Present, ed. Emmanuelle Avril and Yann Béliard (Manchester, 2018), 83–98, at 90–93.

97 Ellen Ross, “Morten, (Violet) Honnor (1861–1913), Nurse and Journalist,” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/62035.

98 For registration, see Eva Luckes, What the British Nurses’ Association Is, and What It Seeks to Do for Nurses (London, 1889), 2–3; D. P. Griffon, “‘Crowning the Edifice’: Ethel Fenwick and State Registration,” Nursing History Review, no. 3 (1995): 201–12. For nurses’ health, see Sturdy and Cooter, “Science, Scientific Management,” 405; Debbie Palmer, Who Cared for the Carers? A History of the Occupational Health of Nurses, 1880–1948 (2015).

99 “Does London Hospital Sweat Its Nurses—An Interview with Mrs. Robert Hunter,” Pall Mall Gazette, 5 September 1890; “The Truth about the London Hospital—I,” Pall Mall Gazette, 18 July 1893; “The Truth about the London Hospital—III,” Pall Mall Gazette, 22 July 1893; “The Truth about the London Hospital—IV,” Pall Mall Gazette, 26 July 1893; “At a London Hospital,” Pall Mall Gazette, 10 January 1892; “Hospital Management,” Pall Mall Gazette, 12 January 1892.

100 “The Nurses’ Bitter Cry,” Morning Leader (London), 28 July–6 August 1892, in London Hospital Press Clippings, 1891–1894, London Hospital, LH/A/26/6 RLHA (hereafter Clippings, LH/A/26/6, RHLA); Andrew Mearns, The Bitter Cry of Outcast London (London, 1883).

101 Report from the Select Committee of the House of Lords on Metropolitan Hospitals, Parliamentary Papers, 1890 (392) 16:297–437.

102 “White Slavery in Hospitals,” Pall Mall Gazette, 3 April 1889.

103 Morning Leader (London), 4 August 1892, Clippings, LH/A/26/6, RHLA.

104 “Nurses’ Bitter Cry,” Morning Leader (London), 12 August 1892; Newsom Kerr, Contagion, Isolation, 67.

105 “Nurses,” Pall Mall Gazette, 5 March 1891.

106 Report from the Select Committee of the House of Lords on Metropolitan Hospitals, Parliamentary Papers, 1890 (392), 16:297, 332.

107 “Nurses’ Bitter Cry,” Morning Leader (London), 4, 5, 12 August 1892, Clippings, LH/A/26/6, RHLA.

108 Star (London), 9 January 1892, Clippings, LH/A/26/6, RHLA.

109 Morning Leader (London), 4 August 1892, Clippings, LH/A/26/6, RHLA.

110 Editorial (newspaper not identified), 10 December 1891, Clippings, LH/A/26/6, RHLA.

111 Eva Luckes and Sydney Holland, Correspondence, 1896, London Hospital, LH/A/17/64, RLHA.

112 “Nurses’ Bitter Cry,” Morning Leader (London), 3 August 1892, 9 August 1892, Clippings, LH/A/26/6, RHLA.

113 “Nurses’ Bitter Cry,” Morning Leader (London), 6 August 1892, Clippings, LH/A/26/6, RHLA.

114 “A Well-Known Philanthropist,” Morning Leader (London), 12 August 1892, Clippings, LH/A/26/6, RHLA.

115 “A Municipal Socialist, Letter to the Editor,” Evening News and Post (London), 22 September 1892, Clippings, LH/A/26/6, RHLA.

116 Morten, “Hospital Chaos,” 745.

117 The Maori could vote in the general electorate if they had individual property and lived according to white standards, but local officials usually prevented their voting. Neill Atkinson, Adventures in Democracy: A History of the Vote in New Zealand, Turnbull (2003), 50–59.

118 W. H. Oliver, “Social Welfare: Social Justice or Social Efficiency?,” New Zealand Journal of History 13, no. 1 (1979): 25–33; D. A. Hamer, The New Zealand Liberals (Auckland, 1988), 40; Bassett, The State in New Zealand: Socialism without Doctrines?, 100; David Thomson, A World without Welfare: New Zealand's Colonial Experiment (Auckland, 1998), 120; Michael Belgrave, “Needs and the State. Evolving Social Policy in New Zealand History,” in Past Judgment: Social Policy in New Zealand History, ed. Bronwyn Dalley (Dunedin, 2004), 28; John Cooper, The British Welfare Revolution, 1906–14 (London, 2017), 142.

119 Erik Olssen, Building the New World: Work, Politics and Society in Caversham, 1880s–1920s (Auckland, 1995), 348.

120 Tom Brooking, “‘Busting up’ the Greatest Estate of All: Liberal Maori Land Policy, 1891–1911,” New Zealand Journal of History 26, no. 1 (1992): 78–98, at 90; Margaret Tennant, “Mixed Economy or Moving Priorities?,” in Dalley and Tennant, Past Judgment, 39–55, at 41.

121 Ngati Pikiao, Letter to the Governor of New Zealand, 30 January 1850, 1850, Grey New Zealand Maori Letters—Ngā reta Māori, GNZMA 687, Auckland Libraries Heritage Collections, https://kura.aucklandlibraries.govt.nz/digital/collection/manuscripts/id/4060/rec/2.

122 Derek Dow, “‘Specially Suitable Men?’ Subsidized Medical Services for Maori, 1840–1940 (New Zealand),” New Zealand Journal of History 32, no. 2 (1998): 163–88, at 185; Buddy Mikaere, Te Maiharoa and the Promised Land (Wellington, 1997), 22; Vincent O'Malley and David Anderson Armstrong, The Beating Heart: A Political and Socio-Economic History of Te Arawa (Wellington, 2008), 261; H. K. Taiaroa, “ Statement by H. K. Taiaroa, M.H.R., on the Report by Judge Fenton on the Petition of the Ngaitahu Tribe,” 1875 Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, G-07b (Wellington, 1876); “Report re the Land Comprised in the Deeds of Messrs Wakefield Kemp and Mantell,” 1870, Native Department, MA67/7, Archives New Zealand Wellington; C. Hunter Brown, “Respecting Middle Island Matters,” 1865, MA67/7, Archives New Zealand Wellington; Dr. John Johnson, “Re: Advantages to Be Derived from a Native Hospital,” 1842, Colonial Department, 1842/864, Archives New Zealand Wellington; Memoranda from Notes of Sir George Grey's Speeches to Natives at Korerareka, Kerikeri, Waimate, Hokianga, 1861, 1861/150, Archives New Zealand Wellington.

123 Raeburn Lange, May the People Live: A History of Maori Health Development, 1900–1920 Auckland, (1999), 36; Katrina Ford, “Race, Disease and Public Health: Perceptions of Māori Health,” in The Routledge History of Disease, ed. Mark Jackson (London, 2016), 239–56, at 239.

124 New Zealand Department of Health, A Health Service for New Zealand (Wellington, 1974), 12.

125 John H. Angus, A History of the Otago Hospital Board and Its Predecessors (Dunedin, 1984), 100; Margaret Tennant, The Fabric of Welfare: Voluntary Organisations, Government and Welfare in New Zealand, 1840–2005 (Wellington, 2007), 32.

126 Mr. Hutchinson, “Hospital and Charitable Institutions Bill,” New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, 1880, 35:84; F. O. Bennett, “The Shadow of My Neighbour,” n.d., Bennett, MS Papers 10753-1, Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington.

127 Hester Mclean, Nursing in New Zealand (Wellington, 1932), 47.

128 “Hospital Inquiry,” Star (Christchurch), 15 January 1885; “Christchurch Hospital Libel Case,” Press (Christchurch), 25 March 1886.

129 For a similar scandal in Dunedin about inadequate nursing and facilities, see “Report and Papers Relating to the Dunedin Hospital Inquiry,” 1891, MS-2317, Hocken Library, Dunedin; Katrina Ford, “The Tyranny of the Microbe: Microbial Mentalities in New Zealand, C.1880–1915” (PhD, University of Auckland, 2013), 79.

130 “Hospital Inquiry,” Star (Christchurch), 29 March 1895.

131 In 1892, a nurse wrote to Detective Broham alerting him that doctors were “getting nurses in the family way” and aborting them. The nurse did not seem to have been hostile to abortion per se, for she referred to “poor Dr. Russell,” an African-American doctor in Christchurch who was repeatedly prosecuted for performing abortions. But she was concerned that a doctor tried to perform an abortion on a nurse who became severely ill afterwards. See Record of Proceeding in Criminal Cases in Christchurch Resident Magistrates’ Court, 1887, CAHX, CH 132 20318, Box 1, Archives New Zealand Canterbury; Detective Benjamin's Report Regarding Alleged Malpractices at Christchurch Hospital, 1892–1895, Police Department, 1895/884, Archives New Zealand Wellington; Charles James Russell, Charge of Illegal Abortion, 1898, R24469998–P1 1898/275, Archives New Zealand Wellington.

132 He ended his career at Eketahuna. For a resume of his career, see the entry “Murray-Aynsley, J. H.,” under “Government Offices,” The Cyclopedia of New Zealand online, 2016, http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-Cyc01Cycl-t1-body-d4-d94-d3.html#Cyc01Cycl-fig-Cyc01Cycl0998a. He was a great-great-grandson of the Duke of Atholl. See entries at The Peerage for his father, Hugh Murray-Aynsley, http://www.thepeerage.com/p2268.htm#i22673; his grandfather, John Murray-Aynsley, http://www.thepeerage.com/p2246.htm#i22456; and his great-grandfather, the Very Rev. Lord Charles Murray-Aynsley, http://www.thepeerage.com/p2223.htm#i22226 (all entries last updated 9 November 2020).

133 Dr. J. H. Murray-Aynsley, “Death under Chloroform,” New Zealand Journal of Medicine, no. 8 (1895): 259, reprinted in Medical News 68, no. 1 (1896): 18.

134 “The Hospital Inquiry,” Press (Christchurch), 11 June 1895.

135 Editorial, Press (Christchurch), 23 April 1896, 3; editorial, Lyttelton Times, 24 April 1896, quoted in Patricia A. Sargison, “A History of Nursing in New Zealand” (PhD diss., University of Otago, 2001), 68.

136 Tongariro, “The Hospital—Letter to the Editor,” Star (Christchurch), 22 January 1895.

137 “Christchurch Hospital Miscellaneous Registers—North Canterbury Hospital Board Minutes,” 1895, CATV, CH293, Box 224, Archives New Zealand Christchurch.

138 F. O. Bennett, Hospital on the Avon (Christchurch, 1962), 106.

139 Margaret Tennant, “Mrs. Grace Neill in the Department of Asylums, Hospitals and Charitable Institutions,” New Zealand Journal of History 12, no. 1 (1978): 3–16; Grace Neill, “Women and State Relief in New Zealand: International Congress of Women 1899,” in Women in Politics, ed. E. S. Lidgett (London, 1900), 84–87, at 85.

140 “The Hospital Inquiry,” Press (Christchurch), 28 March 1895. See also “Christchurch Hospital,” Star (Christchurch), 7 June 1895; Board Meeting, 27 March 1895, 3 April 1895, Christchurch Hospital Miscellaneous Registers—North Canterbury Hospital Board Minutes, 1895, CATV, CH293, Box 224, Archives New Zealand Christchurch.

141 “The Hospital Question,” Star (Christchurch) 8 April 1895; see also “The Hospital Inquiry,” Lyttelton Times, 28 March 1895; “Christchurch Hospital,” Press (Christchurch), 8 April 1895.

142 Knights of Labour Rawhiti Assembly Minute Book, 1890, MS 747A, Hocken Collection, University of Otago Library; A. E. Newton, The Better Way: An Appeal to All in Behalf of Human Culture (Christchurch, 1894); Rules of the Collinsville Co-operative Society Ltd., 1894, Collinsville Papers, MS-Papers-5357, Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington; “Progressive Liberal Association,” Press (Christchurch), 13 April 1895; J[ane] Hume Clapperton, Letter to Kate Sheppard, 6 Dec. 1894, Kate Sheppard Papers, 176/53, fol. 254, Canterbury Museum, K. Walker and J. R. Wilkinson, Notes on Dress Reform, and What It Implies (Christchurch, 1893); “Rev. J. O'Bryen Hoare at Tuam Street Hall,” Press (Christchurch), 25 October 1893; “Christchurch Notes: The Van Breda Letter, Dismissal of Prof. Aldis, the Hon. Mr. Reeves on Labour Contracts,” Auckland Star, 20 June 1893; William Pember Reeves, Communism and Socialism: Their Dreams, Their Experiments, Their Aims, Their Influence, by Pharos (Christchurch, 1890); Lucy Sargisson and Lyman Tower Sargent, Living in Utopia: Intentional Communities in New Zealand (Aldershot, 2004), 24.

143 Halina Ogonowska-Coates, “The Labour Movement in Canterbury, 1880–1893 (MA thesis, University of Canterbury, 2005), 75.

144 “The Christchurch Hospital,” Press, 8 April 1895.

145 Katie Pickles, “Workers and Workplaces—Industry and Modernity,” in Southern Capital: Christchurch: Towards a City Biography, 1850–2000, ed. Graeme Dunstall and J. E. Cookson (Christchurch, 2000), 138–61, at 144.

146 “Christchurch Hospital,” Star (Christchurch), 29 March 1895.

147 “Christchurch Hospital,” Star (Christchurch), 1 April 1895.

148 “Christchurch Hospital,” Star (Christchurch), 30 March 1895. For a similar scandal in South Australia at the Adelaide Hospital, where a conservative medical establishment fired nurses only to run afoul of the radical Liberal government, see “A State-Supported Hospital,” British Medical Journal 2, no. 857 (1896): 862–63; “A Ministerial Crisis,” South Australia Register, 15 February 1896; Donald Simpson, “Adelaide Hospital Row,” SA History Hub, History Trust Australia, http://sahhistoryhub.com.au/subjects/adelaide -hospital-row.

149 Dougherty, Molly C. and Tripp-Reimer, Toni, “The Interface of Nursing and Anthropology,” Annual Review of Anthropology 14, no. 1 (1985): 219–41, at 222CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

150 Bennett, Hospital on the Avon, 112–17.

151 Giles, Report of Inquiry, 7.

152 “Christchurch Hospital,” Lyttelton Herald, 11 June 1895.

153 Giles, Report of Inquiry, 12.

154 “Christchurch Hospital,” Lyttelton Times, 11 June 1895.

155 “The Hospital Inquiry,” Star (Christchurch), 7 June 1895 (quoting Mr. Joynt, who was speaking on behalf of reforming organizations).

156 “Christchurch Hospital,” Star (Christchurch), 8 April 1895.

157 “Christchurch Hospital,” Colonist (Nelson), 8 April 1895.

158 Henry Ell, Diary—Newspaper Clippings, 1890, Henry Ell Papers, Arch 202/3/1, Box 3, Christchurch City Library Archives. See also Ell, Henry, The Will of the People through the Initiative and Referendum (Christchurch, 1902), 2Google Scholar.

159 “Minutes of the Socialist Church,” 1901, Herbert Roth Papers, 94-107-07/03, Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington; “National Council of Women,” Wanganui Chronicle, 18 May 1901.

160 “The Hospital Board,” editorial, Gisborne Times, 5 March 1910.

161 Gustafson, Barry, Labour's Path to Political Independence: Origins and Establishment of the New Zealand Labour Party, 1900–19 (Auckland, 2013), 110Google Scholar.

162 “Considerations of the Hospital Bill,” New Zealand Times, 21 May 1908; “Our Hospitals,” Poverty Bay Herald, 3 November 1909.

163 General Conference (Report of the) Held under the Provisions of “the Maori Councils Act, 1900.”Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1903 Session I, G-01 (Wellington, 1903).

164 In Christchurch, Elizabeth McCombs, a Fabian Socialist and temperance advocate, was elected to the hospital board in 1915, and a Mrs. Christie was elected in 1917. “Mayoralty,” Maoriland Worker (NZ), 5 May 1915, 16 May 1917.

165 “Waimate,” Timaru Herald, 8 April 1909; “The Hospitals Bill: Action of City Council,” Lyttelton Times, 16 November 1909; “Charitable Institutions,” Southland Times, 25 November 1909; “Election of Hospital Boards,” Otago Daily Times, 10 April 1909.

166 New Zealand Department of Health, Health Service for New Zealand, 41.

167 Pat Thane, “Labour and Local Politics: Radicalism, Democracy and Social Reform, 1880–1914,” in Currents of Radicalism: Popular Radicalism, Organised Labour and Party Politics in Britain, 1850–1914, ed. Eugenio F. Biagini and Alastair J. Reid (Cambridge, 1991), 244–70, at 251.

168 Price, Kim, Medical Negligence in Victorian Britain: The Crisis of Care under the English Poor Law, C.1834–1900 (London, 2015), 34Google Scholar; “Nursing in Workhouse Infirmaries,” British Medical Journal 2, no. 1865 (1896): 857–862, at 857.

169 Abel-Smith, Brian, The Hospitals, 1800–1948: A Study in Social Administration in England and Wales (Cambridge, 1964), 6365Google Scholar.

170 “Nursing Echoes,” Nursing Record 15, no. 392 (1895): 231–33, at 232.

171 Bermondsey Board of Guardians Minute Books, 1895, p. 921, BBG/066, LMA; Ritch, Alistair, Sickness in the Workhouse: Poor Law Medical Care in Provincial England, 1834–1914 (London, 2019), 189Google Scholar.

172 29 August 1895, Letter from Matron, Bermondsey Board of Guardians Minute Books, BBG/066, LMA; “Guardians and Matron,” South London Press, 28 September 1895.

173 2 March 1895, Bermondsey Board of Guardians Minute Books, BBG/066, LMA; “Hospital Experiments,” Star (London), 1 November 1894; “A Word to Hospital Doctors,” Star (London), 13 March 1895; “Anti-toxin, from a Patient's Point of View,” Echo (London), 1 February 1896; Clippings on Vivisection, 1894–99, Lister Institute, SA/LIS/E.8, Wellcome Library, London.

174 Newsom Kerr, Contagion, Isolation, 310.

175 “Spies in Meliora, Popular Blindness–VI,” Echo (London), 25 June 1895; “Clippings on Vivisection.”

176 Letter to the Editor, Star (London), 4 January1895.

177 Weindling, Paul, “From Isolation to Therapy: Children's Hospitals and Diphtheria in Fin de Siècle Paris, London and Berlin,” in In the Name of the Child: Health and Welfare, ed. Cooter, Roger (London, 2013), 124–45, at 140Google Scholar.

178 Evening News Post (London), 10 October 1892, Clippings, LH/A/26/6, RLHA.

179 “Belfast Royal Hospital,” Brotherhood (Belfast), 31 May 1890. As Newsom Kerr points out (personal communication), this was a long-running theme. See Sigsworth, Michael and Worboys, Michael, “The Public's View of Public Health in Mid-Victorian Britain,” Urban History 21, no. 2 (1994): 237–50, at 249CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

180 “Birmingham Trades Council,” Birmingham Post, 8 December 1890.

181 “Municipal Hospitals,” Fabian Tracts, vol. 95 (London, 1900), 1–3.

182 Foster, B. Walter, “Address in Medicine:The Public Aspects of Medicine,” British Medical Journal 2, no. 1544 (1890): 263–67, at 267CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Durbach, Bodily Matters, 167.

183 F. W. Jowett, “Notes on the Conference at Hull,” Clarion (UK), 24 January 1908.

184 Sidney Webb, The State and the Doctor, ed. Beatrice Webb (London, 1910), 207.

185 Moore, Benjamin, The Dawn of the Health Age (London, 1911), 33Google Scholar; Stewart, John, The Battle for Health: A Political History of the Socialist Medical Association, 1930–51 (London, 2018), 910CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

186 Marwick, Arthur, “The Labour Party and the Welfare State in Britain, 1900–1948,” American Historical Review 73, no. 2 (1967): 380–403, at 387CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

187 7 November 1911, Minute Book of the Central London Branch of the Women's Labour League, 1911, Women's Labour League, WLL/169-170, Labour History Archives, People's History Museum, Manchester.

188 Gorsky, Martin, Mohan, John, and Willis, Tim, Mutualism and Health Care Hospital Contributory Schemes in Twentieth-Century Britain (Manchester, 2006), 110CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

189 Stewart, Battle for Health, 56, 172.

190 Newsom Kerr, Contagion, Isolation, 295.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Presidential Address: The 1890s Debate over the Democratic Control of Hospitals in Britain and New Zealand
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Presidential Address: The 1890s Debate over the Democratic Control of Hospitals in Britain and New Zealand
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Presidential Address: The 1890s Debate over the Democratic Control of Hospitals in Britain and New Zealand
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *