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“Glimpses of the Great Conflict”: English Congregationalists and the European Crisis of Faith, circa 1840–1875

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 December 2012


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1 See Graves, Charles L., Life and Letters of Alexander Macmillan (London, 1910), 122Google Scholar, for Alexander Macmillan's difficulties with the manuscript; Maison, M. M., Search Your Soul, Eustace: A Survey of the Religious Novel in the Victorian Age (London, 1961)Google Scholar, and Wolff, Robert Lee, Gains and Losses: Novels of Faith and Doubt in Victorian England (London, 1977), for the genreGoogle Scholar.

2 Reynolds, Henry Robert, Yes and No; or, Glimpses of the Great Conflict, 3 vols. (London, 1860), 1:111, 3:287Google Scholar.

3 His brother John Russell Reynolds was a coauthor, but the novel's guiding theme and its excursions into religious philosophy so closely echo Henry Robert's journalism and diary entries that they can be safely ascribed to him (Vaizey, Harriet and Reynolds, Sarah Fletcher, Henry Robert Reynolds, D.D., His Life and Letters [London, 1898], 153)Google Scholar.

4 For their apologetic, see Altholz, Josef L., “The Mind of Anglican Orthodoxy: Anglican Responses to ‘Essays and Reviews,’ 1860–1864,” in Religion in Victorian Britain, vol. 4, Interpretations, ed. Parsons, Gerald (Manchester, 1988), 2841Google Scholar.

5 Eisen, Sydney, “Introduction,” in Victorian Faith in Crisis: Essays in Continuity and Change in Nineteenth-Century Religious Belief, ed. Lightman, Richard Helmstadter and Bernard (Basingstoke, 1990), 16Google Scholar.

6 Larsen, Timothy, Friends of Religious Equality: Nonconformist Politics in Mid-Victorian England (Woodbridge, 1999)Google Scholar, and “Free Church Politics and the Gathered Church: The Evangelical Case for Religious Pluralism,” in his Contesting Christianity: The Political and Social Contexts of Victorian Theology (Waco, 2004), 145–67Google Scholar. See also Turner, Frank M., “The Religious and the Secular in Victorian Britain,” in his Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life (Cambridge, 1993), 2324, 32–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

7 McLeod, Hugh, Religion and the People of Western Europe, 1789–1989 (1981; Oxford, 1997), 171–72Google Scholar, comments on the importance of these attitudes and the difficulty in ascertaining them.

8 Helmstadter and Lightman, Victorian Faith in Crisis, is a seminal essay collection that concentrates on Anglican evangelicalism—and its malcontents—scientists, and Unitarians, to the detriment of evangelical Nonconformists.

9 Richard J. Helmstadter, “The Nonconformist Conscience,” in Parsons, Interpretations, 66–69. This interpretative framework is largely shared by Johnson, Mark D., The Dissolution of Dissent, 1850–1918 (London, 1987)Google Scholar, but is stimulatingly challenged in Johnson, Dale A., The Changing Shape of English Nonconformity, 1825–1925 (Oxford, 1999)Google Scholar.

10 For the overlooked importance of Congregationalism in forming middle-class consciousness, see Thorne, Susan, Congregational Missions and the Making of an Imperial Culture in Nineteenth-Century England (Stanford, CA, 1999), 13, 3940, 70Google Scholar.

11 “Rev. Thomas Binney's Opening Address,” Congregational Yearbook for 1848, 9–11.

12 Vaizey and Reynolds, Reynolds, 45–46, 58, 143.

13 Ibid., 226, 295.

14 Gunn, Simon, “The Ministry, the Middle Class, and the ‘Civilizing Mission in Manchester, 1850–80,’Social History 21, no. 1 (January 1996): 2236CrossRefGoogle Scholar, and The Public Culture of the Victorian Middle Class: Ritual and Authority in the English Industrial City, 1830–1914 (Manchester, 2000)Google Scholar; Gray, Robert, “The Platform and the Pulpit: Cultural Networks and Civic Ideals in Industrial Towns, c. 1850–1870,” in The Making of the British Middle Classes? Studies of Regional and Cultural Diversity since the Eighteenth Century, ed. Kidd, Alan and Nicholls, David (Stroud, 1998), 139–45Google Scholar.

15 On what made one an evangelical, see Bebbington, David W., The Dominance of Evangelicalism: The Age of Spurgeon and Moody (Leicester, 2005), 1921Google Scholar.

16 See Binfield, Clyde, So Down to Prayers: Studies in Victorian Nonconformity (London, 1977), 120Google Scholar; and Watts, Michael, The Dissenters, vol. 2, The Expansion of Evangelical Nonconformity (Oxford, 1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar, for the sustained period of Nonconformist growth and the particular upturn Congregationalists experienced after about 1850.

17 Frank M. Turner, “The Victorian Crisis of Faith and the Faith That Was Lost,” in Helmstadter and Lightman, Victorian Faith in Crisis, 10–15; Frank M. Turner and Jeffrey Von Arx, “Victorian Ethics of Belief: A Reconsideration,” in Parsons, Interpretations, 201–4.

18 McLeod, Hugh, “Introduction,” in European Religion in the Age of Great Cities, ed. McLeod, Hugh (London, 1995), 139Google Scholar; Chadwick, Owen, The Secularization of the European Mind in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, 1975), chap. 4Google Scholar. For optimism about the churches’ ability to overcome this problem, at least till the later nineteenth century, see Callum G. Brown, “The Mechanism of Religious Growth in Urban Societies: British Cities since the Eighteenth Century,” in McLeod, European Religion, 239–62.

19 [Smith, John Pye], “German Neologism,” Eclectic Review 46 (1827): 133Google Scholar, German Neologism,” Eclectic Review 47 (1828): 523–26Google Scholar, and German Neologism,” Eclectic Review 48 (1828): 5075Google Scholar. Smith's importance as an interpreter of German biblical criticism is noted in Helmstadter, Richard, “Condescending Harmony: John Pye Smith's Mosaic Geology,” in Science and Dissent in England, 1688–1945, ed. Wood, Paul (Aldershot, 2004), 167–95Google Scholar.

20 Smith, John Pye, The Scripture Testimony to the Messiah: An Inquiry with a View to a Satisfactory Determination of the Doctrine Taught in the Holy Scriptures Concerning the Person of Christ, 2 vols. (London, 1818)Google Scholar.

21 [Smith, John Pye], “Schleiermacher on the Gospel of St. Luke,” Eclectic Review 49 (1829): 413–31Google Scholar.

22 Ellicott, Charles John, “Explanatory Paper,” in his Modern Skepticism: A Course of Lectures Delivered at the Request of the Christian Evidence Society, 3rd ed. (London, 1871), 503–28Google Scholar, and John Brown Paton, “The Twofold Alternative—Materialism, or Religion,” Congregationalist, February 1875, 84, reflect awareness that “materialism” is coming to surpass “pantheism” and “positivism” as a threat.

23 Wright, T. R., The Religion of Humanity: The Impact of Comtean Positivism on Victorian Britain (Cambridge, 1986), chap. 1Google Scholar.

24 On continuities in plebeian infidelity, see Timothy Larsen, “Biblical Criticism and Anti-Christian Rhetoric: Joseph Barker and the Case against the Bible,” in his Contesting Christianity, 79–95.

25 For exasperation at this, see Rogers, Henry, The Eclipse of Faith; or, A Visit to a Religious Skeptic (1852; London, 1854), 8, 39, 158Google Scholar; [Reynolds, Henry Robert], “Christianity—or What Next?British Quarterly Review 20 (1854): 191–96Google Scholar.

26 On this theme, see Wright, Religion of Humanity; James R. Moore, “Theodicy and Society: The Crisis of the Intelligentsia,” in Helmstadter and Lightman, Victorian Faith in Crisis, 153–86; Hölscher, Lucian, “Bürgerliche Religiosität im protestantischen Deutschland des 19. Jahrhunderts,” in Religion und Gesellschaft im 19. Jahrhundert, ed. Schieder, Wolfgang (Stuttgart, 1993), 209–11Google Scholar; Charlton, D. G., Secular Religions in France, 1815–1870 (London, 1963)Google Scholar.

27 On German thought, see Hinchliff, Peter, God and History: Aspects of British Theology, 1875–1914 (Oxford, 1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar, and Parsons, Gerald, “Biblical Criticism in Victorian Britain: From Controversy to Acceptance?” in Religion in Victorian Britain, vol. 2, Controversies, ed. Parsons, Gerald (Manchester, 1988), 238–57Google Scholar; on Positivism, see Cashdollar, Charles D., The Transformation of Theology: Positivism and Protestant Thought in Britain and America (Princeton, NJ, 1989)Google Scholar, and Thompson, David, “The Emergence of the Nonconformist Social Gospel in England,” in Protestant Evangelicalism: Britain, Ireland, Germany, and America, ed. Robbins, Keith (Oxford, 1990), 255–80Google Scholar.

28 On the loss of religious commitment in nineteenth-century Germany, see Hölscher, Lucian, “Säkularisierungsprozesse im deutschen Protestantismus des 19. Jahrhunderts: Ein Vergleich zwischen Bürgertum und Arbeiterschaft,” in Bürger in der Gesellschaft der Neuzeit: Wirtschaft, Politik, Kultur, ed. Puhle, Hans-Jürgen (Göttingen, 1991), 237–58Google Scholar.

29 Hölscher, “Bürgerliche Religiosität,” 200–203; Motzkin, Gabriel, “Säkularisierung, Bürgertum und Intellektuelle in Frankreich und Deutschland während des 19. Jahrhunderts,” in Bürgertum im 19. Jahrhundert: Deutschland im europäischen Vergleich, 3 vols., ed. Kocka, Jürgen and Frevert, Ute (Munich, 1988), 3:141–74Google Scholar; Clark, Christopher, “The New Catholicism and the European Culture Wars,” in Culture Wars: Secular-Catholic Conflict in Nineteenth-Century Europe, ed. Kaiser, Wolfram and Clark, Christopher (Cambridge, 2003), 1146CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

30 Fyfe, Aileen, Science and Salvation: Evangelical Popular Science Publishing in Victorian Britain (Chicago, 2004), chap. 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

31 Frank M. Turner, “The Victorian Conflict between Science and Religion: A Professional Dimension,” in Parsons, Interpretations, 170–97.

32 For a bilious view, see Vaughan, Robert, “Theological Liberalism,” British Quarterly Review 33 (1861): 485509Google Scholar. Aspects of this emerging milieu are well sketched in Corsi, Pietro, Science and Religion: Baden Powell and the Anglican Debate, 1800–1860 (Cambridge, 1988), 200220CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Moore, “Theodicy,” 170–71, and “The Crisis of Faith: Reformation versus Revolution,” in Parsons, Controversies, 220–37; and Secord, James A., Victorian Sensation: The Extraordinary Publication, Reception, and Secret Authorship of Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation (Chicago, 2000), chap. 14Google Scholar.

33 Moore, “Reformation versus Revolution,” 220–34.

34 Super, R. H., ed., Matthew Arnold: Dissent and Dogma (Ann Arbor, MI, 1968), 113Google Scholar. Turner, “Religious and the Secular,” 29–30, notes the lasting impact of Arnold's sneers on estimates of Nonconformist intellectual life.

35 As the Saturday Review blandly remarked in 1864, “To the large majority of educated men Nonconformity is an unknown quantity” (“Life of Andrew Reed, D.D.,” Saturday Review, 12 March 1864, 473).

36 Thus Idle College was refounded as Airedale College at Bradford in 1833; New College, London, was created in 1850 by amalgamating some existing colleges; Spring Hill, Birmingham, was founded in 1838; and Lancashire Independent College in 1843 (Brown, Kenneth D., A Social History of the Nonconformist Ministry in England and Wales, 1800–1930 [Oxford, 1988], 6367Google Scholar; Johnson, Changing Shape, 16–68; Thompson, Joseph, Lancashire Independent College, 1843–1893 [Manchester, 1893]Google Scholar; Mercer, M. J., “New College, London: Its Origins and Opening,” Journal of the United Reformed Church History Society 6, no. 5 [November 1999]: 327–36)Google Scholar.

37 The Leeds minister Richard Hamilton, at the foundation ceremony of Airedale College, quoted in Kaye, Elaine, For the Work of the Ministry: Northern College and Its Predecessors (Edinburgh, 1999), 39Google Scholar.

38 For synoptic surveys of “the age,” see Vaughan, Robert, The Age of Great Cities; or, Modern Society Viewed in Its Relation to Intelligence, Morals, and Religion (London, 1843)Google Scholar, and The Age and Christianity (London, 1849)Google Scholar; Brown, James Baldwin, First Principles of Ecclesiastical Truth: Essays on the Church and Society (London, 1871)Google Scholar; James Guinness Rogers, “The Ministry and the Age,” Congregationalist, July 1873, 421–27.

39 See, e.g., Vaughan, Robert, Protestant Nonconformity in Its Relation to Learning and Piety: An Inaugural Discourse, Delivered at the Opening of the Lancashire Independent College (London, 1843)Google Scholar; Lectures Delivered at the Opening of New College (London, 1851)Google Scholar; Two Addresses Delivered at Cheshunt College … by the Rev. T. Binney, and the Rev. H. R. Reynolds (London, 1860)Google Scholar.

40 Eclectic Review 105 (1857): 286–87.

41 [Porter, S.T.], “On the Alleged Illiteracy of Dissenters,” Eclectic Review 87 (1848): 257Google Scholar; John Brown Paton, “The Press in Relation to Our Denomination,” Congregational Yearbook for 1867, 105, 112.

42 Altholz, Josef L., The Religious Press in Britain, 1760–1900 (New York, 1989), 5760Google Scholar; Hiller, Mary Ruth, “The Eclectic Review, 1805–1868,” Victorian Periodicals Review 27, no. 3 (Fall 1994): 179278Google Scholar.

43 Ward, W. R., The Protestant Evangelical Awakening (Cambridge, 1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Stunt, Timothy C. F., From Awakening to Secession: Radical Evangelicals in Switzerland and Britain, 1815–35 (Edinburgh, 2000)Google Scholar; Hope, Nicholas, German and Scandinavian Protestantism, 1700–1918 (Oxford, 1995), 364–93Google Scholar; Wemyss, Alice, Histoire du Réveil, 1790–1849 (Paris, 1977), pt. 5Google Scholar.

44 See Vaizey and Reynolds, Reynolds, 38–39, for Geneva; Stoughton, John, Recollections of a Long Life (London, 1894), 132Google Scholar, and Homes and Haunts of the Great Reformer (London, 1876), for “Lutherland.”Google Scholar

45 On the Alliance in this period, see Railton, Nicholas M., No North Sea: The Anglo-German Evangelical Network in the Middle of the Nineteenth Century (Leiden, 1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar, and Wolffe, John, “The Evangelical Alliance in the 1840s: An Attempt to Institutionalize Christian Unity,” in Voluntary Religion, ed. Sheils, William J. and Wood, Diana (London, 1986), 333–46Google Scholar; on the Evangelical Continental Society, see Railton, No North Sea, 32; on colportage, see Howsam, Leslie, Cheap Bibles: Nineteenth-Century Publishing and the British and Foreign Bible Society (Cambridge, 1991), 158–61Google Scholar.

46 Powicke, Frederick J., David Worthington Simon, M.A., Ph.D., D.D., Late Principal of the United College, Bradford (London, 1912), 6669Google Scholar.

47 For a typical report, see Evan Davies, “On Protestantism in France,” Congregational Yearbook for 1856, 56–61.

48 Thus most of the Anglo-American delegates at the 1857 Alliance meeting in Berlin could not even understand the German speeches, with the illnesses that many suffered being put down to summer heat and “perhaps, the difficulties of foreign languages” (“The Evangelical Alliance at Berlin,” Nonconformist, 23 September 1857, 741).

49 Maurice, Frederick Denison, Three Letters to the Rev. W. Palmer on the Name “Protestant,” on the Seemingly Ambiguous Character of the English Church, and on the Bishopric at Jerusalem, 2nd ed. (London, 1842), 62, 263–64Google Scholar.

50 There are good accounts of this mentality in Paz, D. G., Popular Anti-Catholicism in Mid-Victorian England (Stanford, CA, 1992)Google Scholar; Wolffe, John, The Protestant Crusade in Great Britain, 1829–1860 (Oxford, 1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar, and “Whose Jerusalem? Evangelicalism and Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century England,” in Christianity and National Consciousness, ed. Wolffe, John (Leicester, 1987), 3940Google Scholar. See also Altholz, Josef L., “Bunsen's Death; or, How to Make a Controversy,” Victorian Periodicals Review 30, no. 3 (Fall 1997): 189200Google Scholar, for evangelicals’ mistrust of one eminent foreign Protestant.

51 Allon made particular play of an incident in 1862 when eminent foreign Protestants had been asked by their Anglican hosts to preach in schoolrooms ([Henry Allon], “Mr. Hughes on the Establishment,” British Quarterly Review 68 [1878]: 447, and “Some National Aspects of Our Established Churches,” British Quarterly Review 73 [1881]: 146–47).

52 For a careful evaluation of the spiritual risks and opportunities involved in urbanization, see Vaughan, The Age of Great Cities.

53 Vaughan, The Age and Christianity, 30.

54 Henry Robert Reynolds, “Scepticism and Its Counteraction,” Congregational Yearbook for 1851, 107.

55 “Rev. Thomas Binney's Opening Address,” 11.

56 See Park, Edwards A., “Park's Sketch of the Life and Character of Dr. Tholuck,” Biblical Cabinet; or, Hermeneutical, Exegetical and Philological Library 28 (1840)Google Scholar; “Dr. Tholuck's Jubilee,” English Independent, 26 January 1871, 78–79; Bigler, Robert M., The Politics of German Protestantism: The Rise of the Protestant Church Elite in Prussia, 1815–1848 (London, 1972), 100106, 117–20Google Scholar; Witte, Leopold, Das Leben Dr. Friedrich August Gottreu Tholuck, 2 vols. (Bielefeld, 1884–86)Google Scholar.

57 Tholuck, Friedrich August Gottreu, Guido and Julius: The Doctrine of Sin and the Propitiator; or, The True Consecration of the Doubter, Exhibited in the Correspondence of Two Friends, trans. Ryland, Jonathan Edwards (London, 1836)Google Scholar; [Watts, Francis], “Tholuck's Guido and Julius,” Eclectic Review 65 (1837): 229–50Google Scholar, and Tholuck on Sin and the Propitiator,” Eclectic Review 65 (1837): 625–27Google Scholar.

58 For Smith's admiration, see John Pye Smith, “Introduction,” in Tholuck, Guido and Julius, i–xxxi.

59 These included Robert Vaughan's son Robert Alfred (1823–57), David Worthington Simon, and John Brown Paton (1830–1911); Tholuck, Friedrich August Gottreu, “The Influence of German Philosophy and Theology on England,” Biblical Review, and Congregational Magazine 3 (1847): 9697Google Scholar, noted Halle's appeal to English “Independents.”

60 [Tulloch, John], “Neander,” British Quarterly Review 12 (1850): 297337Google Scholar; Powicke, Simon, 34–46, 66–72; Selbie, W. B., The Life of Andrew Martin Fairbairn, D.D., D.Litt, LL.D, F.B.A., etc. … (London, 1914), 3839Google Scholar; Dorner, Isaak A., History and Development of the Doctrine of the Person of Christ, 5 vols., trans. Alexander, W. Lindsay, Simon, David Worthington, and Fairbairn, Patrick (Edinburgh, 1861)Google Scholar.

61 Vaughan, Robert, Essays and Remains of the Rev. Robert Alfred Vaughan and with a Memoir, 2 vols. (London, 1858), 1:xxxvixxxviiiGoogle Scholar.

62 Useful introductions to these figures are Frei, Hans, “David Friedrich Strauss,” in Nineteenth-Century Religious Thought in the West, 3 vols., ed. Smart, Ninian, Clayton, John, Katz, Steven, and Sherry, Patrick (Cambridge, 1985), 1:215–60Google Scholar; Harris, Horton, David Friedrich Strauss and His Theology (Cambridge, 1973)Google Scholar, and The Tübingen School (Oxford, 1975)Google Scholar; Robert Morgan, “Ferdinand Christian Baur,” in Smart et al., Nineteenth-Century Religious Thought, 1:261–89; Rogerson, John, Old Testament Criticism in the Nineteenth Century: England and Germany (London, 1984), chap. 4Google Scholar.

63 See, e.g., the review of Marian Evans's translation of Strauss in [Alexander, William Lindsay], “Strauss's Life of Jesus,” British Quarterly Review 5 (1847): 263Google Scholar; for early reception of Strauss in general, see Timothy Larsen, “Biblical Criticism and the Crisis of Belief: D. F. Strauss's Leben Jesu in Britain,” in his Contesting Christianity, 43–58.

64 [Alexander, William Lindsay], “The Life of Christ—Ebrard and Lange,” British Quarterly Review 40 (1864): 226–60Google Scholar, and Christology—the Person of Christ,” Eclectic Review 119 (1864): 157Google Scholar.

65 Good examples of these retrospectives are [Vaughan, Robert Alfred], “Schleiermacher,” British Quarterly Review 9 (1849): 303–54Google Scholar; [Simon, David Worthington], “Dr. Ferdinand Christian von Baur,” British Quarterly Review 45 (1867): 297335Google Scholar, Dr. August Neander,” British Quarterly Review 48 (1868): 305–50Google Scholar, “Memoir of Baron Bunsen,” British Quarterly Review 48 (1868): 465503Google Scholar, and G. H. Augustus von Ewald,” British Quarterly Review 57 (1873): 151–78Google Scholar.

66 [Simon], “Ewald,” 176.

67 Pals, Daniel L., The Victorian “Lives” of Jesus (San Antonio, 1982), 61Google Scholar; Dempster, John A., The T. and T. Clark Story: A Victorian Publisher and the New Theology (Edinburgh, 1992), 4, 7781Google Scholar.

68 The periodicals included the Biblical Review (1846–50), the Biblical Educator, the Journal of Sacred Literature (1848–68), and the British and Foreign Evangelical Review. Book projects included Kitto, John, ed., Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1845)Google Scholar, which went into many subsequent editions, and Smith, William, ed., Dictionary of the Bible: Comprising Its Antiquities, Biography, Geography, and Natural History (London, 1863)Google Scholar.

69 Johnson, Changing Shape, 103 and chap. 6.

70 Sell, Alan P. F., “Henry Rogers and the Eclipse of Faith,” in his Dissenting Thought and the Life of the Churches: Studies in an English Tradition (San Francisco, 1990), 494–95Google Scholar, and “Locke and Descartes through Victorian Eyes,” in ibid., 506–19.

71 See Smith, John Pye, First Lines of Christian Theology, in the Form of a Syllabus, Prepared for the Students of the Old College, Homerton, ed. Farrer, William (London, 1854), 117–18Google Scholar; [Vaughan, Robert], “German Philosophy and Christian Theology,” British Quarterly Review 2 (1845): 297336Google Scholar; [Reynolds, Henry Robert], “Our New Religions,” British Quarterly Review 21 (1855): 408–41Google Scholar.

72 Miall, Edward, Bases of Belief: An Examination of Christianity as a Divine Revelation by the Light of Recognized Facts and Principles (1853; London, 1861), viiGoogle Scholar.

73 [Vaughan], “Schleiermacher”; Farrer, William, ed. and trans., Brief Outline of the Study of Theology, Drawn up to Serve as the Basis of Introductory Lectures by the Late Dr. Friedrich Schleiermacher, to which are Prefixed Reminiscences of Schleiermacher by Dr. Friedrich Lücke (Edinburgh, 1850)Google Scholar; Smith, First Lines, 42. For a survey of nineteenth-century Britain's equivocal attitudes to Schleiermacher, see Ellis, Ieuan, “Schleiermacher in Britain,” Scottish Journal of Theology 33, no. 5 (1980): 417–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

74 Alliott, Richard, “Morell's Philosophy of Religion,” Biblical Review 6 (1849–50): 341–50Google Scholar, and “The New Theology,” Congregational Yearbook for 1859, 6–17; Miall, Bases of Belief, 60–61; [Vaughan, Robert], “Philosophy and Religion,” British Quarterly Review 10 (1849): 139–57Google Scholar; [Reynolds], “Christianity.”

75 Rogers, Eclipse of Faith, 12. [Vaughan, Robert], “Newman's Phases of Faith,” British Quarterly Review 12 (1850): 48Google Scholar, and Phases of Faith and the Eclipse,” British Quarterly Review 19 (1854): 538–41, makes similar criticismsGoogle Scholar.

76 Rogers, Eclipse of Faith, 267; [Rogers, Henry], “Right of Private Judgment,” Edinburgh Review 76 (1843): 382419Google Scholar, Puseyism, or the Oxford Tractarian School,” Edinburgh Review 77 (1843): 501–62Google Scholar, and Reason and Faith: Their Claims and Conflicts,” Edinburgh Review 90 (1849): 293356Google Scholar.

77 Rogers, Eclipse of Faith, 342–57; Sell, “Henry Rogers,” 500–502. Rogers's influences are also clearly on display in his earlier article, “Reason and Faith.” The Noetics were a group of trained clerics who believed that subjecting Scripture to the scrutiny of common sense was the best way of vindicating Trinitarian Christianity.

78 [Hutton, Richard Holt], “The Hard Church Novel,” National Review 3 (1856): 127–46Google Scholar.

79 On Anglican appreciation of Rogers, see [Conybeare, W. J.], “The Eclipse of Faith,” Quarterly Review 95 (1854): 448–77Google Scholar; Whately, Elizabeth Jane, Life and Correspondence of Richard Whately, D.D., Late Archbishop of Dublin, 2 vols. (London, 1866), 2:153–56Google Scholar. For Anglican vindication of the Bible against “spiritualism” along similar lines to Rogers, see [Price, Bonamy and Whately, Richard], “The Old Testament: Newman and Greg,” North British Review 16 (1851): 119–48Google Scholar.

80 [Reynolds], “Our New Religions,” 417, and Auguste Comte—His Religion and Philosophy,” British Quarterly Review 14 (1854): 297376Google Scholar; France—Ideal and Religious,” Eclectic Review 117 (1863): 305Google Scholar.

81 Altholz, Religious Press, 68–69. See Peel, Albert, These Hundred Years: A History of the Congregational Union of England and Wales, 1831–1931 (London, 1931), 134–38Google Scholar, for Campbell's open contempt for “Quarterlies”; and Johnson, Changing Shape, 31, for his disdain for colleges.

82 [Campbell, John], “Nonconformist Theology: Serious Considerations for Churches, Pastors, and Preachers [VII],” British Banner, 9 May 1856, 150, cols. a–cGoogle Scholar.

83 [John Campbell], “Nonconformist Theology [III],” British Banner, 10 April 1856, 118, col. b; Ferguson, Robert and Brown, Andrew Morton, Life and Labours of John Campbell, D.D. (London, 1868), 366–74Google Scholar; Peel, These Hundred Years, 221–23.

84 Davidson, Samuel, An Introduction to the New Testament: Containing an Examination of the Most Important Questions Relating to the Authority, Interpretation, and Integrity of the Canonical Books, with Reference to the Latest Enquiries, 3 vols. (London, 1848–51), 1:viGoogle Scholar.

85 On Davidson's dismissal, see Rogerson, Old Testament Criticism, chap. 14; Tomes, Roger, “‘We Are Hardly Prepared for This Style of Teaching Yet’: Samuel Davidson and the Lancashire Independent College,” Journal of the United Reformed Church History Society 5, no. 7 (October 1995): 398414Google Scholar.

86 Nicholas, Thomas, Dr. Davidson's Removal from the Professorship of Biblical Literature in the Lancashire Independent College, Manchester, on Account of Alleged Error of Doctrine: A Statement of Facts, with Documents (London, 1860), 134Google Scholar. Compare the observations of “Mark Rutherford” that at college “the word ‘German’ was a term of reproach signifying something very awful, although nobody knew exactly what it was” and that the Bible was regarded as a “magazine of texts,” used to prop up a Calvinist “systematic theology” (White, William Hale, The Autobiography of Mark Rutherford and the Deliverance of Mark Rutherford, Edited by His Friend Reuben Shapcott [London, 1888], 14)Google Scholar.

87 Unitarians called Davidson's dismissal a “wretched display of ignorant bigotry” ([Tayler, John James], “Old Creeds and New Beliefs,” National Review 12 [1861]: 153)Google Scholar.

88 See, e.g., Binney and Reynolds's evident discomfiture with Cheshunt's heavily doctrinal trust deeds: Two Addresses Delivered at Cheshunt College, 20–22, 52–55.

89 Peel, These Hundred Years, 69–74.

90 “The Evangelical Alliance at Berlin,” 741.

91 See Srebrenik, Patricia Thomas, Alexander Strahan: Victorian Publisher (Ann Arbor, MI, 1986), 10, 151–52Google Scholar, for perceptive comments on the role of Scots in England. Lewis, Donald, Lighten Their Darkness: The Evangelical Mission to Working-Class London, 1828–1860 (London, 1986), 248Google Scholar, notes the affinity that united the Record and Campbell against Miall.

92 The wrangles in committee that preceded the decision, and reactions to it, are related in detail in Davidson, Anne Jane, ed., The Autobiography and Diary of Samuel Davidson, D.D., with an Account of the Davidson Controversy of 1857 by J. Allanson Picton, M.A. (Edinburgh, 1899), 4580Google Scholar, and in Thompson, Lancashire, 128–45.

93 As Campbell explained in December 1856, “new combinations” had formed during the year, symbolized by Jowett's commentaries on St. Paul, which showed that “heresiarchs” spreading the “Theology of Germany” were replacing the “Popish priest” or “philosophical Infidel” as the chief threat to evangelicals ([Campbell], “The ‘British Standard,’” British Banner, 11 December 1856, 401, col. A).

94 Bebbington, Dominance of Evangelicalism, 162.

95 [Vaughan, Robert], “Naturalism versus Inspiration,” British Quarterly Review 14 (1851): 178256Google Scholar, contained endorsements of the Old Testament's partial inspiration that were resurrected by Nicholas, Dr. Davidson's Removal. Vaughan had tried to backtrack in The Doctrine of Inspiration,” British Quarterly Review 24 (1856): 212–51Google Scholar, and did so again in [Vaughan, ], “John William Donaldson, Christian Orthodoxy Reconciled with the Conclusions of Modern Learning,” British Quarterly Review 26 (July–October 1857): 273Google Scholar, and Vaughan, “Theological Liberalism,” 492–93.

96 On this process, see Glover, Willis B., Evangelical Nonconformists and Higher Criticism in the Nineteenth Century (London, 1954)Google Scholar.

97 For these views, see Brown, James Baldwin, The Divine Life in Man (London, 1859)Google Scholar, and First Principles, 73–100. Johnson, Changing Shape, 125–62, argues these changes be seen as positive reconstruction, instead of (as is often the case) as decline.

98 Allon, Henry, Within and Without: A Church Retrospect of Thirty Years (London, 1874), 24Google Scholar. At Brown's anniversary at Claylands Chapel, Brixton, in 1871, it was likewise claimed that a “silent but mighty change” had taken place in which “narrow Calvinism” and “human systems” were giving way to the “older truth as it is in the New Testament” (Nonconformist, 22 November 1871, 1149–50).

99 Dale, Robert William, The Atonement: The Congregational Union Lecture for 1875 (1875; London, 1924), 9Google Scholar. Dale's role in rejecting older doctrines of atonement is noted in Thompson, David, “R. W. Dale in Context,” in The Cross and the City: Essays in Commemoration of R. W. Dale, 1829–1895, ed. Binfield, Clyde, Journal of the United Reformed Church History Society, suppl., 6 (1999): 2125Google Scholar.

100 Allon, Henry, The Church of the Future (London, 1881), 1516Google Scholar. Such questions were subordinate to the “great moral conception of the formal and developing purpose of the whole.”

101 See “The Bible: A Library, not a Book,” Congregationalist, January 1873, 51–55; “The Old Testament and the New,” Congregationalist, June 1873, 321–24.

102 Allon, Henry, The Argument for the Supernatural Character of Christianity, from Its Existence and Achievements: A Lecture, Delivered in Connection with the Christian Evidence Society (London, 1872), 1926Google Scholar; [Simon], “Ewald,” 167–78. Another of Ewald's merits was his intemperate opposition to Baur's Tübingen School.

103 [Hood, Edwin Paxton], “Dr. Colenso,” Eclectic Review 116 (1862): 506–24Google Scholar; Timothy Larsen, “Biblical Criticism and the Desire for Reform: Bishop Colenso on the Pentateuch,” in his Contesting Christianity, 59–77.

104 On these publications, see Munson, James, The Nonconformists: In Search of a Lost Culture (London, 1991), 71Google Scholar; Altholz, Religious Press, 62.

105 See the 1864 Congregational Union address by Allon, Henry, “The Christ, the Book, and the Church,” in Harwood, William Hardy, Henry Allon, D.D., Pastor and Teacher: The Story of His Ministry with Selected Sermons and Addresses (London, 1894), 224–55Google Scholar; [Simon], “Baur,” 335; Paton, John Brown, “Supernatural Religion: The History and Results of Modern Negative Criticism,” British and Foreign Evangelical Review 24 (1875): 344–79Google Scholar.

106 “Christology,” 146; Vaizey and Reynolds, Reynolds, 183.

107 Paton, John Brown, A Review of the “Vie de Jésus” of M. Renan (London, 1864), 1Google Scholar. The Vie, argued some other writers, was as seductive and materialistic as Paris itself (“Christology,” 157; “Renan's Life of Christ,” Eclectic Review 117 [1863]: 269).

108 Paton, Review, 8, 16–17. His skepticism about the assumption that miracles cannot happen reflects the influence of his onetime tutor Rogers, to whom this book was dedicated.

109 Ibid., 40–53, 155; “Christology,” 145.

110 Robert William Dale, “On Christ and the Controversies of Christendom,” Congregational Year Book for 1870, 6–7.

111 Johnson, Dale A., “The End of the ‘Evidences’: A Study in Nonconformist Theological Transition,” Journal of the United Reformed Church History Society 2, no. 3 (April 1979): 6272Google Scholar.

112 See, e.g., Allon, Supernatural Character, 37–42, “Spiritual Powers: False and True,” in Sermons Preached at the Dedication of Union Chapel, Islington, with a Historical Sketch by Henry Allon (London, 1878), 5860Google Scholar, and “The Christ of Experience,” in his The Vision of God, and Other Sermons (London, 1876), 81Google Scholar.

113 Allon, Within and Without, 28.

114 D.W.S. [David Worthington Simon], “Religion in Germany,” English Independent, 26 August 1869, 838.

115 On the critique of Continental statism, see, in general, Porter, Bernard, “‘Bureau and Barrack’: Early Victorian Attitudes towards the Continent,” Victorian Studies 27, no. 4 (Summer 1984): 407–33Google Scholar.

116 [Jones, Martha], “French, Germans, and English,” British Quarterly Review 13 (1851): 334Google Scholar. On national character and its libertarian bias, see generally Mandler, Peter, The English National Character: The History of an Idea from Edmund Burke to Tony Blair (London, 2006), chaps. 2–3Google Scholar.

117 The Downfall of Bonapartism,” British Quarterly Review 53 (1871): 409–41Google Scholar.

118 “France—Ideal and Religious,” 322.

119 [Vaughan], “Donaldson,” 265.

120 [Simon], “Memoir of Baron Bunsen,” 486–87, and “Ewald,” 167–68. On the interpenetration of theology and politics in Germany in the first half of the nineteenth century, see Bußmann, Walter, Zwischen Preußen und Deutschland: Friedrich Wilhelm IV, eine Biographie (Berlin, 1990), 119Google Scholar.

121 [Vaughan], “German Philosophy,” 305. As Brown, James Baldwin, “The Church and Dissenters,” Contemporary Review 16 (1870–71): 299303Google Scholar, noted, the call for the state to stop interfering in religion was quite consistent with rejecting a “narrow and shallow view” of state action in other spheres.

122 Smith, “German Neologism” (1827), 7–12. Smith hoped that Bible societies might open up the prospect of a believing Protestant sphere beyond state churches ([Smith, John Pye], “Bretschneider's Vindication of the German Divines,” Eclectic Review 46 [1827]: 409)Google Scholar.

123 [Conder, Josiah], “Hoppus's Sketches on the Continent,” Eclectic Review 64 (1836): 473–74Google Scholar; The Present State of German Protestantism,” British Quarterly Review 23 (1856): 426Google Scholar. On the Silesian Lutherans, see Clark, Christopher, Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 1600–1947 (London, 2006), 417–19Google Scholar.

124 The people, noted one observer at Magdeburg in 1848, “sometimes become inclined towards Rationalism by the mode in which government opposes it” (F.B., “A letter from Germany,” Biblical Review 4 [1847–48]: 404–5).

125 “Bible Truth and Its Opponents,” Eclectic Review 104 (1856): 355.

126 On neo-Lutheranism, see Hope, German and Scandinavian Protestantism, 449–55.

127 [Paton, John Brown], “Quarterly Review of German Literature,” Eclectic Review 105 (1857): 336Google Scholar. An obituary on Hengstenberg in 1869 claimed that he had been the head of the “sacerdotal section of the High Lutheran Church,” whose intolerance had “corrupt[ed] simple spiritual truth” as badly as had the rationalists (English Independent, 5 August 1869, 764).

128 They represented “ultra-Puseyism, the continental counterpart of English Puseyism” (Review of Friedrich Julius Stahl, Der Christliche Staat, British Quarterly Review 28 [July–October 1858]: 262).

129 [Vaughan, Robert], “Theology—New versus Old,” British Quarterly Review 24 (1856): 307Google Scholar.

130 von Bunsen, Christian Carl Josias, The Signs of the Times: Letters to Ernst Moritz Arndt on the Dangers to Religious Liberty in the Present State of the World, trans. Winkworth, Susanna (London, 1856)Google Scholar; “Signs of the Times,” British Quarterly Review 24 (1856): 248; “Bunsen's Signs of the Times,” Eclectic Review 104 (1856): 243–57.

131 Bunsen's God in History,” British Quarterly Review 25 (1857): 491, 497Google Scholar.

132 “Bunsen's God,” 488; Baron Bunsen's Bible,” British Quarterly Review 29 (1859): 423–34Google Scholar.

133 [Paton], “Quarterly Review,” 339, and Quarterly Review of German literature,” Eclectic Review 107 (1858): 577Google Scholar.

134 [Simon, David Worthington], “Comprehension,” British Quarterly Review 67 (1878): 157–61Google Scholar. On the ideas of the Protestantenverein, see Motzkin, “Säkularisierung,” 152–53; and Lepp, Claudia, Protestantisch-liberaler Aufbruch in die Moderne: Der deutsche Protestantenverein in der Zeit der Reichsgründung und des Kulturkampfes (Gütersloh, 1996)Google Scholar.

135 A widely circulated pamphlet produced by the head of the Congregational Board of Education pointedly noted these charges (Unwin, William John, ed., Prussian Primary Education, Its Organisation and Results [London, 1855])Google Scholar.

136 See, e.g., Henry Richard's speech on the second reading of Forster's education bill, arguing that, despite being force-fed the Bible and Luther's catechism in schools, “there is probably no people in Europe so utterly indifferent to the doctrines and observances of Christianity than the Prussians” (Nonconformist, 23 March 1869, 273).

137 Fortunately, the bullet, which the student had cast himself from a melted-down medal of Schiller, missed the clergyman, doing no more damage than to graze a choirboy's cheek (The Times, 14 August 1869, col. a, 22 December 1869, col. a).

138 “Honesty in the Pulpit,” English Independent, 19 August 1869, 807–8.

139 “On Clerical Sincerity,” Nonconformist, 25 August 1869, 801; “Religion in Germany,” Nonconformist, 25 August 1869, 803. The German correspondent for The Times drew a similar moral, though this was contested by correspondents who included Bunsen's son Ernest (“The Prussian Clergy,” The Times, 17 August 1869, col. d; Ernest de Bunsen, “German Protestantism,” The Times, 16 August 1869, 7, col. f; “Religion in Germany,” The Times, 19 August 1869, 4, col. f).

140 Hölscher, “Bürgerliche Religiosität,” 197–99, links cooling religious commitment in Germany during this period with the failure of free congregations to win supporters.

141 Congregational Yearbook for 1864, 33–34; Congregational Yearbook for 1866, 223–24; Congregational Yearbook for 1871, 289.

142 Paton, Lewis, John Brown Paton: A Biography (London, 1914), 70Google Scholar; Dale, A. W. W., The Life of R. W. Dale (London, 1899), 162Google Scholar; Congregational Yearbook for 1862, 81.

143 Edmund Prust, “The State of Voluntary Protestant Churches on the Continent,” Congregational Yearbook for 1854, 97; Gordon, Alexander, Impressions of Paris: With an Account of Socialism, Popery, and Protestantism, in the French Capital (London, 1851), 190–92Google Scholar.

144 Davies, “On Protestantism in France,” 59; Gordon, Impressions of Paris, 193.

145 Dale, Life of R. W. Dale, 155–60.

146 Wemyss, Histoire du Réveil, pt. 5; Cordey, Henri and Bridel, Philippe, Edmond de Pressensé et Son Temps (Lausanne, 1916), 140–47Google Scholar; Davies, “On Protestantism in France,” 60; Gordon, Impressions of Paris, 198–200.

147 He was a “Liberation Society in himself” (“The Church and the French Revolution,” Nonconformist, 14 April 1866, 355).

148 See Edmond de Pressensé, “The Authority of Christ in Relation to Religious Truth,” Congregationalist, January 1872, 49–49, “The Authority of Holy Scripture,” Congregationalist, February 1872, 98–103, and “The Authority of Holy Scripture,” Congregationalist, March 1872, 149–56.

149 de Pressensé, Edmond, Jésus Christ: Son Temps, Sa Vie, Son Oeuvre (Paris, 1864), translated by Harwood, Annie as Jesus Christ: His Life, Times, and Work (London, 1866)Google Scholar; Pals, Victorian “Lives,” 62–63.

150 Pressensé, “Authority of Christ,” 39.

151 “M. Le Pasteur de Pressensé on Liberty of Conscience,” English Independent, 21 April 1870, 378; [de Pressensé, Edmond], “The Council of the Vatican,” British Quarterly Review 53 (1871): 169Google Scholar.

152 de Pressensé, Edmond, Histoire des Trois Premiers Siècles de l’Eglise Chrétienne (Paris, 1858–77)Google Scholar, translated by Annie Harwood-Holmden as The Early Years of Christianity: A Comprehensive History of the First Three Centuries of the Christian Church, 3 vols. (London, 1869–80); Cordey and Bridel, Pressensé, 211; [de Pressensé, Edmond], “The Council of the Vatican,” British Quarterly Review 51 (1870): 441–73Google Scholar; de Pressensé, Edmond, La Concile du Vatican: Son Histoire et Ses Conséquences Politiques et Religieuses (Paris, 1872)Google Scholar.

153 de Pressensé, Edmond, L’Eglise et la Révolution Française (Paris, 1864)Google Scholar, translated by Stroyan, J. as The Church and the French Revolution: A History of the Relations of Church and State, from 1789 to 1802 (London, 1869)Google Scholar. [, Pressensé], “The Reformed Church of France,” British Quarterly Review 43 (1866): 479529Google Scholar, is a summary of his argument.

154 Cordey and Bridel, Pressensé, 315–20; “De Pressensé on Church and State in France,” Liberator, 1 November 1872, 172; Paton, Paton, 135; [R.W. Dale], “The Editor on His Travels: From Birmingham to Turin,” Congregationalist, January 1874, 39.

155 The Battle of Creed and Freedom in French Protestantism,” British Quarterly Review 57 (1873): 430–63Google Scholar. Reports from the pastor of the Rue Royale church had explained how the rationalist party of Athanase Coquerel fils had exploited the “yoke” imposed by “Caesar” for its own ends (Thomas Baron Hart, “Ecclesiastical Affairs in France,” English Independent, 18 February 1869, 155–56, 24 March 1870, 274, 7 April 1870, 321–22).

156 John Brown Paton, “On the Religious Condition of the Continent,” Congregational Yearbook for 1862, 77.

157 “Evangelical Continental Society,” Nonconformist, 1 June 1870, 515–16; “Our Notebook,” Liberator, 1 January 1872, 1. The decision of the Swiss canton of Neuchatel to disestablish its Protestant church also aroused much interest (“Separation of Church and State in Neuchatel,” English Independent, 23 June 1870, 614).

158 “Belgian Evangelical Synod,” English Independent, 26 August 1869, 835.

159 Paparchy and Nationality,” British Quarterly Review 60 (1874): 1112Google Scholar; Ultramontanism and Civil Allegiance,” British Quarterly Review 60 (1874): 443Google Scholar; Paton, John Brown, “The New Relations of Church and State in Germany,” Contemporary Review, n.s., 17 (1875): 169–99Google Scholar.

160 Alexander Vinet,” British Quarterly Review 65 (1877): 86Google Scholar.

161 Larsen, Friends, and “Free Church Politics.”

162 On educational issues, see Jonathan Parry, “Nonconformity, Clericalism, and ‘Englishness’: The United Kingdom,” in Kaiser and Clark, Culture Wars, 152–80.

163 Ingham, S. M., “The Disestablishment Movement in England, 1868–1874,” Journal of Religious History 3, no. 3 (June 1964–65): 3860CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

164 “The Congregational Union and Baptist Union and Disestablishment,” Liberator, 2 November 1868, 185–86; “The Rev. J. Baldwin Brown's Anniversary,” Nonconformist, 22 November 1871, 1149. [Allon, Henry], “The Liberation Society,” British Quarterly Review 66 (1877): 196Google Scholar, pillories the “now silly distinction” between religious and political dissenters.

165 Alford, Henry, “The Church and the Age,” Contemporary Review 14 (1870): 291Google Scholar.

166 Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn, “What Is Disestablishment?Contemporary Review 17 (1871): 282–98Google Scholar, and An Address on the Connection of Church and State, Delivered at Sion College, on February 15, 1868 (London, 1868), 23Google Scholar.

167 Marsh, Peter T., The Victorian Church in Decline: Archbishop Tait and the Church of England, 1868–1882 (London, 1969), 60Google Scholar; Alford, Henry, “The Union of Christendom in Its Home Aspect,” Contemporary Review 7 (1868): 161–73Google Scholar, and The Church of the Future,” Contemporary Review 9 (1868): 161–78Google Scholar. Stanley provided a survey of what had been achieved to date in Stanley, “Introduction,” in Church and Chapel: Sermons on the Church of England and Dissent, ed. Hadden, R. H. (London, 1881)Google Scholar.

168 These views are most clearly expressed in Arnold, Matthew, St. Paul and Protestantism (London, 1869)Google Scholar, and Literature and Dogma (London, 1873)Google Scholar.

169 Super, Matthew Arnold: Dissent and Dogma, 231–57.

170 [Allon, Henry], “Church Principles and Prospects,” British Quarterly Review 49 (1869): 110–12Google Scholar. For a similarly pragmatic approach, see Conder, Eustace, “The Relation of the Church to the State,” in Ecclesia: Church Problems Considered, in a Series of Essays, ed. Reynolds, Henry Robert (London, 1870), 195242Google Scholar.

171 Allon, Henry, “Why Nonconformists Desire Disestablishment,” Contemporary Review 17 (1871): 383, 391Google Scholar.

172 [Allon], “Some National Aspects of Established Churches,” 140–44.

173 See Walter Ralls, “The Papal Aggression of 1850: A Study in Victorian Anti-Catholicism,” in Parsons, Interpretations, 115–34.

174 [Allon, Henry], “Disestablishment and Disendowment,” British Quarterly Review 64 (1876): 386–89Google Scholar.

175 See, e.g., Batchelor, Henry, “Rules of Faith; or, Creeds and Creed,” in Ecclesia: A Second Series of Essays on Theological and Ecclesiastical Questions, ed. Reynolds, Henry Robert (London, 1871), 243–98Google Scholar.

176 Parry, Jonathan, The Politics of Patriotism: English Liberalism, National Identity, and Europe, 1830–1886 (Cambridge, 2006), 304–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

177 See, e.g., [Dale, Robert William], “The Working of the Education Act,” British Quarterly Review 55 (1872): 178–79Google Scholar, The Conference of Nonconformists,” British Quarterly Review 55 (1872): 520–22Google Scholar, and The Politics of Nonconformity: A Lecture (London, 1872), 89Google Scholar.

178 See Ellis, Ieuan, Seven against Christ: A Study of ‘Essays and Reviews’ (Leiden, 1980)Google Scholar.

179 [Vaughan, Robert], “The Church of England in 1862: What Next?British Quarterly Review 36 (1862): 420–21Google Scholar. This was also a leitmotif of such Anglican responses to the essayists as [Wilberforce, Samuel], “Essays and Reviews,” Quarterly Review 109 (1861): 294–95Google Scholar; Rawlinson, George, “On the Genuineness and Authority of the Pentateuch,” in Aids to Faith: A Series of Theological Essays by Several Writers, ed. Thomson, William (London, 1861), 238–40Google Scholar; and Rose, Henry John, “Bunsen, the Critical School and Dr. Williams,” in Replies to “Essays and Reviews,” ed. Goulburn, Edward M. et al. (London, 1861), 7078Google Scholar.

180 “Dr. Temple's Explanation,” English Independent, 17 February 1870, 150–51. As Bebbington, Dominance of Evangelicalism, 163, points out, Essays and Reviews was a problem for the established church, not for dissenters.

181 See Shea, Victor and Whitla, William, eds., “Essays and Reviews”: The 1860 Text and Its Reading, (London, 2000), 688, 806Google Scholar; Altholz, Josef L., Anatomy of a Controversy: The Debate over “Essays and Reviews,” 1860–1864 (Aldershot, 1994), 86130Google Scholar; Machin, G. I. T., Politics and the Churches in Great Britain, 1869 to 1921 (Oxford, 1987), 5, 20Google Scholar.

182 “France—Ideal and Religious,” 311–12; [Vaughan], “The Church of England,” 420–21, 427–33.

183 “Honesty in the Pulpit,” 808.

184 Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn, A Letter to the Lord Bishop of London [i.e., A. C. Tait] on the State of Subscription in the Church of England and the University of Oxford (London, 1863)Google Scholar, is a stirring manifesto along these lines.

185 Brown, “Church and Dissenters,” 304.

186 “Alexander Vinet,” 89–91. See “How the Disestablishment of the Irish Church Is Viewed in Germany,” Nonconformist, 18 August 1869, 780–81, for a parallel between broad church Erastianism and the views of the Protestantenverein.

187 Dale, Robert William, “Mr. Matthew Arnold and the Nonconformists,” Contemporary Review 14 (1870): 538–50Google Scholar; “Matthew Arnold and Protestantism,” Nonconformist, 10 November 1869, 1081; [Allon, Henry], “Mr. Matthew Arnold and Puritanism,” British Quarterly Review 52 (1870): 386412Google Scholar; “Mr. Matthew Arnold and Puritanism,” English Independent, 17 February 1870, 149–50; “Matthew Arnold's New Gospel,” Congregationalist, June 1873, 342–43.

188 [Allon], “Mr. Matthew Arnold,” 395; “Mr. Matthew Arnold and the Dissenters,” Congregationalist, July 1873, 428–29.

189 [Brown, James Baldwin], “The Genius of Nonconformity and the Progress of Society,” British Quarterly Review 55 (1871): 147–48Google Scholar.

190 “Dean Stanley on the Controversies of the Last Twenty Years,” English Independent, 4 August 1870, 761.

191 For discussions of this shift, see “Ecclesia,” English Independent, 3 May 1870, 199–200; Binfield, Clyde, “‘There Was a Festival in Rome’: The Shaping of a Congregational Temper,” Journal of the United Reformed Church History Society 6, no. 3 (December 1998): 198202Google Scholar; Johnson, Changing Shape, 167–68.

192 Robert William Dale, “The Idea of the Church in Relation to Modern Congregationalism,” in Reynolds, Ecclesia: A Second Series, 375, 384, 386–88; [Dale], “Congregationalism,” British Quarterly Review 73 (1881): 273–75.

193 [Robert William Dale], “Congregationalism,” Congregationalist, January 1872, 3; “Is the Congregation the Church?” English Independent, 15 April 1869, 343.

194 On removing the doctrinal content of trust deeds, see James Baldwin Brown, “The True Principles of Trust Deeds,” Congregational Yearbook for 1872, 95–102; on the experience demanded of members, see James Guinness Rogers, “The Congregationalism of the Future,” in Reynolds, Ecclesia, 462–531.

195 [Allon, ], “Mr. Hughes,” British Quarterly Review 67 (1878): 445–46Google Scholar; Rogers, James Guinness, The Age and Our Work in It (London, 1874), 27Google Scholar.

196 For this point, see, e.g., Joshua Clarkson Harrison's chairman's address at the Congregational Union, English Independent, 6 October 1870, 999–1000; [Simon], “Comprehension,” 162–63.

197 “New Congregational Church, Brixton Road,” English Independent, 15 July 1869, 700–701.

198 Batchelor, “Rules of Faith,” 293. See Parry, Politics of Patriotism, 115–17, on Nonconformist appropriation of “Englishness.”

199 Brown, “Genius,” 151.

200 Larsen, Timothy, “Victorian Nonconformity and the Memory of the Ejected Ministers: The Importance of the Bicentennial Commemorations of 1862,” in The Church Retrospective, ed. Swanson, R. N. (London, 1997), 459–73Google Scholar; Hora, Mary, “English Nonconformity and the Invention of Tradition: Robert Vaughan and the Bicentenary of 1662,” Journal of the United Reformed Church History Society 6, no. 6 (May 2000): 409–28Google Scholar; Dale, Life of R. W. Dale, 164–77; “Ecclesiastical History of England,” English Independent, 21 April 1870, 367.

201 Ingham, “Disestablishment Movement”; Machin, Politics, 94–113.

202 Richard, Henry, The Relations of the Temporal and Spiritual Power in the Different Nations of Europe (London, 1877), 4Google Scholar.

203 See the survey articles in Dale's Congregationalist: “The French Reformed Church,” January 1876, 27–31; “The Lutheran, Methodists, and Free Churches of France,” February 1876, 103–9; “Religious Struggles in German Switzerland,” May 1876, 294–301; “Religious Life in French Switzerland,” 353–61; “A Glance at the Protestant Work in Spain,” July 1876, 414–24; “The Evangelical Movement in Italy,” 489–99; “Protestantism in Austria,” October 1876, 617–26; “The Religious Future of Belgium,” December 1876, 712–21.

204 See Oliphant, Margaret, Chronicles of Carlingford: Salem's Chapel (London, 1863)Google Scholar, for a highly popular fictional exposé of the college-trained preacher's struggles with his self-satisfied deacons.

205 See, e.g., T. H. Williams, “State Protection of Free Thought,” Nonconformist, 24 November 1869, 1118; George Vance Smith, “Comprehension or Disestablishment?” Nonconformist, 23 August 1871, 826–27; Davies, J. Llewelyn, “Congregationalism and the Church of England,” Contemporary Review 17 (1871): 29Google Scholar; Stanley, On the Connection, 23.

206 Eustace Conder, “The Decay of Theology,” Congregational Yearbook for 1874, 66–70; Vaizey and Reynolds, Reynolds, 250–51, notes his anguish about the spiritual and intellectual chaos endured by young Congregationalists.

207 [Simon], “Comprehension,” 160.

208 Johnson, Dissolution of Dissent, 63–114.

209 The Congregational View of Religious Communion,” British Quarterly Review 68 (1878): 192209Google Scholar, protests against what it sees as this misconstruction.

210 “Dr. Allon, Dr. Green, and Mr. Thomas on the Nonconformist Ministry,” Nonconformist, 1 November 1871, 1061–62.

211 Kaye, Elaine, Mansfield College, Oxford: Its Origin, History, and Significance (Oxford, 1996), 3031Google Scholar. Not long after his retirement, Reynolds's Cheshunt likewise relocated to Cambridge (1905; Mayor, Stephen, “The Crisis at Cheshunt College,” Journal of the United Reformed Church History Society 6, no. 5 [November 1999]: 336–46)Google Scholar.

212 Brown, Nonconformist Ministry, 80–85; Johnson, Dissolution of Dissent, 116–20; Munson, Nonconformists, 91, 121–24.

213 The last major work of Strauss tellingly rejected idealist efforts to reinvent Christianity from within in favor of outright rejection of it as incompatible with modern science (David Friedrich Strauss, Der Alte und der neue Glaube: Ein Bekenntnis [1872], translated by Mathilde Blind as The Old Faith and the New: A Confession [London, 1873]; Harris, Strauss, 470–72).

214 On lay and scientific challenges to the clergy, see Turner, Frank M., Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England (New Haven, CT, 1974)Google Scholar, “Victorian Conflict,” and “Victorian Scientific Naturalism and Thomas Carlyle,” in his Contesting Cultural Authority, 140–45; Moore, “Theodicy.”

215 Allon, “Why Nonconformists,” 381. Stanley seized on a “few ragamuffins from Belleville,” fumed the Nonconformist, to insinuate that disestablishment was “un-English” (“Questioning the Spectre,” Nonconformist, 4 May 1871, 414–15).

216 Bebbington, David, The Nonconformist Conscience: Chapel and Politics, 1870–1914 (London, 1982), 27Google Scholar; Thompson, David, “The Liberation Society, 1844–1868,” in Pressure from Without in Early Victorian England, ed. Hollis, Patricia (London, 1974), 233Google Scholar.

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223 Stanley, “Introduction,” xxx–xxxii.

224 Vaizey and Reynolds, Reynolds, 318. Stoughton was a pallbearer at Stanley's funeral, just as he had been at Alford's in 1871, Allon being a prominent mourner on both occasions (“Funeral of Dean Stanley,” The Times, 26 July 1881, 5, col. d; “The Late Dean Alford,” English Independent, 19 January 1871, 105).