Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-n6p7q Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-27T08:32:17.828Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

PATERNAL INVESTMENT AND STATUS-RELATED CHILD OUTCOMES: TIMING OF FATHER'S DEATH AFFECTS OFFSPRING SUCCESS

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 March 2012

MARY K. SHENK
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA
BROOKE A. SCELZA
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, University of California – Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Summary

Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2011

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Anderson, K., Kaplan, H., Lam, D. & Lancaster, J. (1999a) Paternal care by genetic fathers and stepfathers I: Reports from Albuquerque men. Evolution and Human Behavior 20, 405431.Google Scholar
Anderson, K. G., Kaplan, H., Lam, D. & Lancaster, J. (1999b) Paternal care by genetic fathers and stepfathers II: Reports by Xhosa high school students. Evolution and Human Behavior 20, 433451.Google Scholar
Apostolou, M. (2007) Sexual selection under parental choice: the role of parents in the evolution of human mating. Evolution and Human Behavior 28, 403409.Google Scholar
Apostolou, M. (2010a) Sexual selection under parental choice in agropastoral societies. Evolution and Human Behavior 31, 3947.Google Scholar
Apostolou, M. (2010b) Parental choice: what parents want in a son-in-law and a daughter-in-law across 67 pre-industrial societies. British Journal of Psychology 101, 695704.Google Scholar
Belsky, J., Steinberg, L. & Draper, P. (1991) Childhood experience, interpersonal development, and reproductive strategy – an evolutionary theory of socialization. Child Development 62, 647670.Google Scholar
Bergstrom, T. & Schoeni, R. F. (1996) Income prospects and age-at-marriage. Population Economics 9(2), 115130.Google Scholar
Bernard, H. (1995) Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA, USA.Google Scholar
Betzig, L. L. (1986) Despotism and Differential Reproduction: A Darwinian View of History. Aldine Publishing Co., Hawthorne, NY, USA.Google Scholar
Blurton Jones, N., Hawkes, K. & O'Connell, J. F. (1989) Modelling and measuring costs of children in two foraging societies. In Standen, V. & Foley, R. (eds) Comparative Socioecology: The Behavioural Ecology of Humans and Other Mammals. Blackwell, London, pp. 367390.Google Scholar
Broude, G. & Greene, S. (1983) Cross-cultural codes on husband–wife relationships. Ethnology 22, 263280.Google Scholar
Caplan, L. (1983) Bridegroom price in urban India: class, caste, and “dowry evil” among Christians in Madras. Man 19, 216233.Google Scholar
Caldwell, J., Reddy, P. & Caldwell, P. (1983) The causes of marriage change in South India. Population Studies 37, 343361.Google Scholar
Chisholm, J. S., Quinlivan, J. A., Petersen, R. W. & Coall, D. A. (2005) Early stress predicts age at menarche and first birth, adult attachment, and expected lifespan. Human Nature 16(3), 233265.Google Scholar
Dalmia, S. & Lawrence, P. G. (2005) The institution of dowry in India: why it continues to prevail. Journal of Developing Areas 38, 7193.Google Scholar
Dhesi, A. S. (2002) Expected life-earnings paths with and without higher education: the case of India. International Review of Applied Economics 16, 417433.Google Scholar
Dickemann, M. (1979) The ecology of mating systems in hypergynous dowry societies. Social Science Information 18, 163195.Google Scholar
Dickey, S. (2002) Anjali's prospects: class mobility in urban India. In Mines, D. P. & Lamb, S. (eds) Everyday Life in South Asia. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.Google Scholar
Draper, P. & Harpending, H. (1982) Father absence and reproductive strategy: an evolutionary perspective. Journal of Anthropological Research 38, 255273.Google Scholar
Duraisamy, P. (2002) Changes in returns to education in India, 1983–94: by gender, age-cohort and location. Economics of Education Review 21(6), 609622.Google Scholar
Edlund, L. (2006). The price of marriage: net vs gross flows and the South Asian dowry debate. Journal of the European Economic Association 4, 542551.Google Scholar
Ellis, B., Bates, J., Dodge, K., Fergusson, L., Horwood, J., Pettit, G. & Woodward, L. (2003) Does father absence place daughters at special risk for early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy? Child Development 74, 801821.Google Scholar
Fronstin, P., Greenberg, D. H. & Robins, P. K. (2001) Parental disruption and the labour market performance of children when they reach adulthood. Journal of Population Economics 14(1), 137172.Google Scholar
Gaulin, S. & Boster, J. (1990) Dowry as female competition. American Anthropologist 92, 9941005.Google Scholar
Gurven, M. & Hill, K. (2009) Why do men hunt? A re-evaluation of “man the hunter” and the sexual division of labor. Current Anthropology 50, 5162.Google Scholar
Harris, K. M., Furstenberg, F. F. Jr & Marmer, J. K. (1998) Paternal involvement with adolescents in intact families: the influence of fathers over the life course. Demography 35, 201216.Google Scholar
Haub, C. & Sharma, O. P. (2006) India's population reality: reconciling change with tradition. Population Bulletin 61(3), 120.Google Scholar
Hewlett, B. S. (1993) Intimate Fathers: The Nature and Context of Aka Pygmy Paternal Infant Care. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
Hurtado, A. M. & Hill, K. R. (1992) Paternal effect on offspring survivorship among Ache and Hiwi hunter-gatherers: implications for modeling pair-bond stability. In Hewlett, B. S. (ed.) Father–Child Relations: Cultural and Biosocial Contexts. Aldine de Gruyter, New York.Google Scholar
Kaplan, H. (1996) A theory of fertility and parental investment in traditional and modern human societies. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 39, 91135.Google Scholar
Kaplan, H. & Lancaster, J. (2000) Skills-based competitive labor markets, the demographic transition, and the interaction of fertility and parental human capital in the determination of child outcomes. In Cronk, L., Chagnon, N. A. & Irons, W. (eds) Adaptation and Human Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective. Aldine de Gruyter, New York.Google Scholar
Keith, V. M. & Finlay, B. (1988) The impact of parental divorce on children's educational attainment, marital timing and likelihood of divorce. Journal of Marriage and Family 50(3), 797809.Google Scholar
Kingdon, G. G. & Unni, J. (2001) Education and women's labour market outcomes in India. Education Economics 9, 173195.Google Scholar
Kokko, H. & Johnstone, R. A. (2002) Why is mutual mate choice not the norm? Operational sex ratios, sex roles, and the evolution of sexually dimorphic and monomorphic signalling. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 357, 319330.Google Scholar
Lamb, S. (2010) Love and aging in Bengali families. In Mines, D. P. & Lamb, S. (eds) Everyday Life in South Asia. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.Google Scholar
Lang, K. & Zagorsky, J. L. (2001) Does growing up with a parent absent really hurt? Journal of Human Resources 36(2), 253273.Google Scholar
Luttberg, B., Borgerhoff Mulder, M. & Mangel, M. (2000) To marry again or not: a dynamic model for demographic transition. In Cronk, L., Chagnon, N. A. & Irons, W. (eds) Adaptation and Human Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective. Aldine de Gruyter, New York, pp. 345368.Google Scholar
McLanahan, S. & Sandefur, G. D. (1994) Growing Up with a Single Parent: What Hurts, What Helps. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, USA.Google Scholar
Marlowe, F. (1999) Showoffs or providers? The parenting effort of Hadza men. Evolution and Human Behavior 20, 391404.Google Scholar
Marlowe, F. (2000) Paternal investment and the human mating system. Behavioural Processes 51, 4561.Google Scholar
Mace, R. (2000) An adaptive model of human reproductive rate where wealth is inherited: why people have small families. In Cronk, L., Chagnon, N. A. & Irons, W. (eds) Adaptation and Human Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective. Aldine de Gruyter, New York, pp. 261282.Google Scholar
Mukerjee, R. (1954) Social mobility and age at marriage. In Glass, D. V. (ed.) Social Mobility in Rritairi. Routledge, London.Google Scholar
Notestein, F. W. (1931) Differential age at marriage according to social class. American Journal of Sociology 37(1), 2248.Google Scholar
Oldenburg, V. T. (2002) Dowry Murder: The Imperial Origins of a Cultural Crime. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
Petrie, M. (1994) Improved growth and survival of offspring of peacocks with more elaborate trains. Nature 371, 598599.Google Scholar
Pong, S. L. (1996) School participation of children from single-mother families in Malaysia. Comparative Education Review 40(3), 231249.Google Scholar
Quinlan, R. (2003) Father absence, paternal care and female reproductive development. Evolution and Human Behavior 24(6), 376390.Google Scholar
Rao, V. (1993) Dowry ‘inflation’ in rural India: a statistical investigation. Population Studies 47, 283293.Google Scholar
Saraff, A. & Srivastava, H. C. (2008) Envisioning fatherhood: Indian fathers' perceptions of an ideal father. Population Review 47(1), 4155.Google Scholar
Scelza, B. (2010) Father's presence speeds the social and reproductive careers of sons. Current Anthropology 51(2), 295303.Google Scholar
Sear, R. & Mace, R. (2008) Who keeps children alive? A review of the effects of kin on child survival. Evolution and Human Behavior 29, 118.Google Scholar
Sharma, U. (1993) Dowry in north India: its consequences for women. In Uberoi, P. (ed.) Family, Kinship and Marriage in India. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 341356.Google Scholar
Shenk, M. (2004) Embodied capital and heritable wealth in complex cultures: a class-based analysis of parental investment in urban south India. Research in Economic Anthropology 23, 307333.Google Scholar
Shenk, M. (2005a) Kin networks in wage-labor economies: effects on child and marriage market outcomes. Human Nature 16, 81114.Google Scholar
Shenk, M. (2005b) The Evolutionary Economics of Marriage and Parental Investment in South India. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Washington.Google Scholar
Shenk, M. K. (2007) Dowry and public policy in contemporary India: the behavioral ecology of a social ‘evil’. Human Nature 18(2), 242263.Google Scholar
Sriram, R. (2011) The role of fathers in children's lives: a view from urban India. Childhood Education, Spring 2011.Google Scholar
Smith, E. A. (2004) Why do good hunters have higher reproductive success? Human Nature 15(4), 342363.Google Scholar
Srinivas, M. N. (1984) Some Reflections on Dowry. Oxford University Press, Delhi.Google Scholar
Steele, F., Sigle-Rushton, W. & Kravdal, O. (2009) Consequences of family disruption on children's educational outcomes in Norway. Demography 46(3), 553574.Google Scholar
Uberoi, P. (1994) Family, Kinship and Marriage in India. Oxford University Press, Delhi.Google Scholar
Wadley, S. S. (2010) One straw from a broom cannot sweep: the ideology and practice of the joint family in rural north India. In Mines, D. P. & Lamb, S. (eds) Everyday Life in South Asia. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.Google Scholar
Winking, J., Gurven, M. & Kaplan, H. (2011) Father death and adult success among the Tsimane: implications for marriage and divorce. Evolution and Human Behavior 32, 7989.Google Scholar