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Determinants of hypertension in Nepal using odds ratios and prevalence ratios: an analysis of the Demographic and Health Survey 2016

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 July 2020

Rajat Das Gupta*
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, USA Center for Non-Communicable Diseases and Nutrition, BRAC James P. Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh Center for Science of Implementation & Scale Up, BRAC James P. Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Animesh Talukder
Center for Non-Communicable Diseases and Nutrition, BRAC James P. Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shams Shabab Haider
Center for Science of Implementation & Scale Up, BRAC James P. Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Gulam Muhammed Al Kibria
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
*Corresponding author. Email:


This cross-sectional study investigated the factors associated with hypertension among Nepalese adults aged 18 years or above using data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2016. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and odds ratios (ORs) were obtained using log-binomial regression and logistic regression, respectively. Initially, unadjusted PRs and ORs were obtained. The variables that yielded a significance level below 0.2 in unadjusted analyses were included in the multivariable analysis. The overall prevalence of hypertension among the 13,393 participants (58% male and 61.2% urban) was 21.1% (n = 2827). In the adjusted analysis, those aged 30–49 years (adjusted PR [APR]: 3.1, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.6, 3.7; adjusted OR [AOR]: 3.6, 95% CI: 2.9, 4.5), 50–69 years (APR: 5.3, 95% CI: 4.4, 6.6; AOR: 8.2, 95% CI: 6.4, 10.4) and ≥70 years (APR: 7.3, 95% CI: 5.8, 9.2; AOR: 13.6, 95% CI: 10.1, 18.3) were more likely to be hypertensive than younger participants aged 18–29 years. Males (APR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.4; AOR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 1.7), overweight/obese participants (APR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.7, 2.0; AOR: 2.4, 95% CI: 2.2, 2.8) and those in the richest wealth quintile (APR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.5; AOR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9) had higher prevalences and odds of hypertension than their female, normal weight/underweight and poorest wealth quintile counterparts, respectively. Those residing in Province 4 (APR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.5; AOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.8) and Province 5 (APR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.4; AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.7) were more likely to be hypertensive than those residing in Province 1. The point estimate was inflated more in magnitude by ORs than by PRs, but the direction of association remained the same. Public health programmes in Nepal aimed at preventing hypertension should raise awareness among the elderly, males, individuals in the richest wealth quintile and the residents of Provinces 4 and 5.

Research Article
© The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press

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These authors contributed equally to this work.


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