Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7f7b94f6bd-rpk4r Total loading time: 0.317 Render date: 2022-06-30T17:42:52.333Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Lower Strata, Older Races, and Aboriginal Peoples: Racial Anthropology and Mythical History Past and Present

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 March 2010

Extract

As K. Sivaramakrishnan has pointed out in a paper published in 1993, one of the persistent ironies of postcoloniality “has been the way elites assuming the task of building a national culture and providing it with a liberatory/progressive history have turned to modes of knowledge and reconstruction produced in the colonial period.” And of the varied strands that have constituted the twentieth-century knowledge and self-knowledge of India, none is more central than the notion of the timeless, conservative caste, and its antediluvian ancestor, the unchanging primitive tribe (Sivaramakrishnan 1993; Inden 1990, 70–72). In this view South Asians, like other unprogressive people, did not change—they merely accumulated, with the latest addition to the population overlaying its predecessor, much as geological strata did. This paper will attempt to expose the historic roots and explore the contemporary ramifications of this model.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The Association for Asian Studies, Inc. 1998

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Allchin, B., and Allchin, R.. 1982. The Rise of Civilisation in India and Pakistan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Anon. 1848. “The Ruling Idea of the Present Political Era.” The Ethnological Journal l(June): 28–33.Google Scholar
Anthropological Society. 1863. Transactions of the Anthropological Society of London 1.Google Scholar
Bailey, Robert C., and Headland, Thomas N.. 1991. “The Tropical Rain Forest: Is It a Productive Environment for Human Foragers?Human Ecology 19(2): 261–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bates, Crispin. 1995. “Race, Caste and Tribe in Central India: The Early Origins of Indian Anthropometry.” In The Concept of Race in South Asia, edited by Robb, Peter. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Bayly, Christopher A. 1996. Empire and Information: Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in India 1780–1870 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Bayly, Susan. 1995. “Caste and ‘Race’ in the Colonial Ethnography of India.” In The Concept of Race in South Asia, edited by Robb, Peter. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Beddoe, John. 1883. “English Surnames from the Ethnological Point of View.Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 12.Google Scholar
Beddoe, John. 1905. “Colour and Race.Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 35.Google Scholar
Beteille, Andre. 1987. “The Concept of Tribe with Special Reference to India.European Journal of Sociology 27(2): 297318.Google Scholar
Breman, Jan. 1985. Of Peasants, Migrants and Paupers: Rural Labour Circulation and Capitalist Production in West India. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Butzer, K. W., and Freeman, L. G.. 1988. Preface to Foragers and Farmers by Gregg, Susan A.. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
CSE—Centre for Science and Environment 1986. The State of India's Environment 1984–85—The Second Citizen's Report. Delhi: The Centre.Google Scholar
Chakrabarti, Dilip K., and Lahiri, Nayanjot. 19931994. “The Iron Age in India: the Beginning and Consequences.Puratattva 24: 1232.Google Scholar
Chaudhuri, Binay B. 1993. “Tribal Society in Transition: Eastern India, 1757–1920.” In India's Colonial Encounter: Essays in Memory of Eric Stokes, edited by Hasan, Mushirul and Gupta, Narayani. Delhi: Manohar.Google Scholar
Chaudhuri, Binay B. 1994a. “The Myth of the Tribe.Calcutta Historical Journal 16: 125–56.Google Scholar
Chaudhuri, Binay B. 1994b. “Towards an Understanding of the Tribal World of Colonial Eastern India.” In Economic Changes and Social Transformation in Modern and Contemporary South India, edited by Taniguchi, Shinkichi. Tokyo: Hitotsubashi University.Google Scholar
Crawfurd, John. 1865. “On the Physical and Mental Characteristics of the African or Occidental Negro.Ethnological Journal 166–75.Google Scholar
Cuvier, Georges. 1829. A Discourse on the Revolutions of the Surface of the Globe. London: Whittaker, Treacher and Arnott.Google Scholar
Devalle, Susana C. B. 1992. Discourses of Ethnicity: Culture and Protest in Jharkhand. New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
Dhavaliker, M. K. 1988. First Farmers of the Deccan. Pune: Ravish.Google Scholar
Elliott, Henry M. 1869. Memoirs on the History, Folk-lore and Distribution of the Races of the North-Western Provinces. edited and revised by Beames, John. London: Trubner.Google Scholar
Fairservis, Walter A. 1971. The Roots of Ancient India. Macmillan: New York.Google Scholar
Frere, H. Bartle. 1882. “On the Laws Affecting the Relations between Civilized and Savage Life.Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 11.Google Scholar
Fuchs, Stephen. 1973. The Aboriginal Tribes of India. Bombay: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Ghosh, A. 1989. An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology. 2 vols. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.Google Scholar
Ghurye, G. S. 1963. The Scheduled Tribes. Bombay: Popular Prakashan.Google Scholar
Gould, Stephen J. 1978. “Uniformity and Catastrophe.” In Ever Since Darwin by Gould, Stephen J.. London: Burnett Books.Google Scholar
Gould, Stephen J. 1981. The Mismeasure of Man. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
Grant, Charles. 1870. The Gazetteer of the Central Provinces of India. Nagpur: Government Press.Google Scholar
Gregg, Susan A. 1988. Foragers and Farmers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Haddon, Alfred C. 1910. History of Anthropology. New York: Putnam.Google Scholar
Harris, Marvin. 1968. The Rise of Anthropological Theory. New York: Thomas Crowell.Google Scholar
Hunt, John. 1863. “On the Study of Anthropology.Transactions of the Anthropological Society of London 1:718.Google Scholar
Inden, Ronald. 1990. Imagining India. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
Iyer, L. K. Krishnan, Anantha. 1925. Lectures on Ethnography. Calcutta: The University of Calcutta.Google Scholar
Jacobson, Jerome. 1975. “Static Sites and Peripatetic Peoples.” In Pastoralists and Nomads in South Asia, edited by Lawrence, L.Leshnik and Gunther-Dietz Sontheimer. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
Jain, H. L. 1955. “Apabhramsha Language and Literature.” In The Age of Imperial Kanauj, edited by Majumdar, R. C.. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.Google Scholar
Kajale, M. D. 1989. “Archaeobotanical Investigations on Megalithic Bhagimohari and Its Significance for Ancient Indian Agricultural System.Man and Environment 13:87100.Google Scholar
Kosambi, D. D. 1956. An Introduction to the Study of Ancient Indian History. Bombay: Popular Prakashan.Google Scholar
Kroll, Jerome, and Bachrach, Bernard S.. 1990. “Medieval Dynastic Decisions: Evolutionary Biology and Historical Explanations.Journal of Interdisciplinary History 21(1): 128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kroll, Jerome, and Bachrach, Bernard S.. 1993. “A Reply.Journal of Interdisciplinary History 23(4):854–57.Google Scholar
Locke, John. 1988. Two Treatises of Government. edited by Laslett, Peter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyell, Charles. 1853. Principles of Geology. 9th ed. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
Majumdar, Ramesh C., ed. 1955. The Age of Imperial Kanauj. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.Google Scholar
Majumdar, Ramesh C., ed. 1960. The Classical Accounts of India. Calcutta: Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay.Google Scholar
Malcolm, John. [1823] 1970. A Memoir of Central India including Malwa. 2 vols. Reprint, Delhi: Sagar.Google Scholar
Mate, M. S. 1990. “The Clay Feet?Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute 49:243–49.Google Scholar
Mitra, Rajendralal. 1869. “On the Gypsies of Bengal.Memoirs Read before the Anthropological Society of London 1867–69 3:120–35.Google Scholar
Morse, Bradford. 1992. Sardar Sarovar: Report of the Independent Review. Bombay: Narmada Bachao Andolan.Google Scholar
Natarajan, D. n.d. [1972] Indian Census Through a Hundred Years. 2 vols. New Delhi: Office of the Registrar-General.Google Scholar
Pathy, Jagannath. 1984. Tribal Peasantry—Dynamics of Development. New Delhi: Inter India Publications.Google Scholar
Pereira, Winin, and Seabrook, Jeremy. 1990. Asking the Earth. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
Poliakov, Leon. 1974. The Aryan Myth. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Raghaviah, V. 1968. Nomads. Secunderabad: Bharatiya Adeemjati Sevak Sangh.Google Scholar
Ripley, William Z. 1900. The Races of Europe: A Sociological Study. London: Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
Ripley, William Z. 1908. “The European Population of the United States.Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 38.Google Scholar
Risley, Herbert H. 1890. “The Study of Ethnology in India.Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 20:235–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, F. Bruce. 1978. “Adaptation to Colonial Rule by the ‘Wild Tribes’ of the Bombay Deccan 1818–1880: From Political Competition to Social Banditry.” Ph.D. diss., University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
Rubbee, Khondkar Fuzli. [1895] 1968.“The Origins of the Mussulmans of Bengal.Journal of the East Pakistan History Association 1(1):2656.Google Scholar
Select Committee on Aborigines 1836. British Parliamentary Papers (Commons) No. 538.Google Scholar
Singh, K. Suresh. 1987. “Chotanagpur Raj: Mythology, Structure and Ramifications.” In Tribal Politics and State Systems in Pre-Colonial Eastern and North-Eastern India, edited by Sinha, Surajit. Calcutta: K. P. Bagchi.Google Scholar
Sircar, Dines C., ed. and trans. 1957. Inscriptions of Asoka. Delhi: Government of India.Google Scholar
Sivaramakrishnan, K. 1993. “Unpacking Colonial Discourse: Notes on Using the Anthropology of Tribal India for an Ethnography of the State.Yale Graduate Journal of Anthropology 5: 5768.Google Scholar
Steele, Arthur T. 1868. The Law and Custom of Hindoo Castes of the Dekkan. London: Smith Elder.Google Scholar
Stepan, Nancy. 1982. The Idea of Race in Science: Great Britain 1800–1960. Hamden Conn: Archon Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stocking, George W. 1987. Victorian Anthropology. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Thapar, B. K. 1985. Recent Archaeological Discoveries in India. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
Thapar, Romila. 1968. A History of India. Harmonds worth: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
Thapar, Romila. 1995. “The First Millennium B.C. in Northern India.” In Recent Perspectives of Early Indian History, edited by Thapar, Romila. Bombay: Popular Prakashan.Google Scholar
Topinard, Paul. 1892. “L'Anthropologie du Bengale.L'Anthropologie 3:282315.Google Scholar
Vakaskar, V. S., ed. Shri Shivachhatrapatichi 91-Kalmi Bakhar. Pune: Venus Prakashan.Google Scholar
Walpole, Horace. 1963. Memoirs and Portraits. edited by Hodgart, Matthew. London: B. T. Batsford.Google Scholar
Edwin, Wilmsen. 1989. Land Filled With Flies: A Poilitical Economy of the Kalahari. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Wilson, John. 1854. “Exposure of Hindu Caste.The Oriental Christian Spectator. January.Google Scholar
Wilson, John. 1878. Aboriginal Tribes of the Bombay Presidency: A Fragment. Bombay: Bombay Government Press.Google Scholar
Wolpert, Stanley. 1993. A New History of India. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Zimmerman, Francis. 1987. The Jungle and the Aroma of Meats. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
24
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Lower Strata, Older Races, and Aboriginal Peoples: Racial Anthropology and Mythical History Past and Present
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Lower Strata, Older Races, and Aboriginal Peoples: Racial Anthropology and Mythical History Past and Present
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Lower Strata, Older Races, and Aboriginal Peoples: Racial Anthropology and Mythical History Past and Present
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *