Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-fv566 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-17T23:47:47.775Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Chiang Kai-shek and the Anti-Japanese Movement in China: Zou Tao-fen and the National Salvation Association, 1931–1937

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 March 2011

Get access

Abstracts

Japanese imperialism relentlessly besieged the Nationalist government of China during the Nanking decade. Chiang Kai-shek, believing that China was not ready to confront Japanese military power and obsessed with the desire to eliminate the Communists, adopted a policy of consistent appeasement toward the.Japanese. This enraged public opinion in urban China, and Zou Tao-fen, a popular journalist, led the cry for resistance to Japan. He and his associates were continually suppressed by the Nanking government; nevertheless, they published several journals in succession, each of which denounced Chiang's policy toward Japan and all of which achieved enormous circulation. Late in 1935 Zou and his followers helped organize the National Salvation Movement, which demanded that Chiang suspend the civil war against the Communists and fight the Japanese. When Chiang Kai-shek, acting under Japanese pressure, arrested Zou and the leaders of the association in 1936, they became national heroes, the legendary “Seven Gentlemen.” Zou's martyrdom and that of his associates transformed their movement into a powerful political force, one that opposed Chiang and increasingly favored the Chinese Communists.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The Association for Asian Studies, Inc. 1985

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

List of References

Akio, Baba. 1943. Shina seiji keizai nempyo [Chronological tables on Chinese politics and economics]. Tokyo: Keioshobo.Google Scholar
Ji-ying, Chen. 1981. “Ji Mao Dun” [Remembering Mao Dun]. Zhuan-ji wen-xue [Biographical literature] 39, no. 1 (July).Google Scholar
Tuan-sheng, Ch'ien. 1950. The Government and Politics of China, 1912–1949. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
China Weekly Review. 19351936. Shanghai.Google Scholar
China Year Book. 1936. Shanghai: North-China Daily News and Herald, Ltd.Google Scholar
Crowley, James B. 1966. Japan's Quest for Autonomy: National Security and Foreign Policy, 1930–1938. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Da-zhong sheng-huo [Life of the masses]. 19351936. Shanghai.Google Scholar
Di-hu? You-hu?” [Enemy or friend]. 1934. Wai-jai ping-lun [Foreign affairs discussion] 3, nos. 11–12 (Nov.-Dec). Supplement.Google Scholar
Zhong-yuan, Du. 1938. Yu-zhong za-gan [Various feelings in prison]. Canton: Published by the author.Google Scholar
Eastman, Lloyd E. 1974. The Abortive Revolution: China Under Nationalist Rule, 1927–1937 Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Fairbank, John K. 1982. Chinabound: A Fifty-Year Memoir. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
Gerwurtz, Margo S. 1972. “Tsou T'ao-fen: The Sheng-huo Years, 1925–1933” Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University.Google Scholar
Gerwurtz, Margo S. 1975. Between America and Russia: Student Radicalism and the Travel Books of Tsou T'ao-fen, 1933–1937. Toronto: University of Toronto—York University, Joint Centre on Modern East Asia.Google Scholar
Grieder, Jerome. 1970. Hu Shih and the Chinese Renaissance. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kenichi, Hatano. 1937. Gendai Shina no seiji to jimbutsu [Leaders and politics of contemporary China]. Tokyo: Kaizo-sha.Google Scholar
You-wen, He. 1957. “Shen Jun-ru de si-xiang yu sheng-huo” [Shen Jun-ru's life and thought]. Chun-qiu [”The Observation Post Semi-Monthly”], no. 10, Dec. 1.Google Scholar
Ishii, Osamu. 1977. “Cotton-Textile Diplomacy: Japan, Great Britain, and the United States, 1930–1936” Ph.D. dissertation, Rutgers University.Google Scholar
Noriyuki, Ishijima. 1971. “Konichi minzoku toitsu sensen to chishiki jin” [The anti-Japanese people's united front and the intellectuals]. Rekishi hyoron [Historical discussion], pt. 1, Nov.Google Scholar
Israel, John. 1966. Student Nationalism in China, 1927–1937. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Shotaro, Kojima. 1942. Shina saikin daiji nempyo [Chronological tables of major events in modern China]. Tokyo: Yuhikaku.Google Scholar
Jin, Li. 1963Cong so-wei ‘Qi-jun-zi’ tan-dao ‘Jiu-guo-hui’ [From the so-called “Seven Gentlemen” speaking of the “National Salvation Association”]. Chun-qui [”The Observation Post Semi-Monthly”], no. 144, July 1.Google Scholar
Yun-han, Li. 1977a. Kang-zhan-qian Zhong-guo zhi-shi fen-zi de jiu-guo yun-dong [The national salvation movement of Chinese intellectuals before the war of resistance]. Taipei: Jiao-yu-bu she-hui-si.Google Scholar
Yun-han, Li. 1977b. “The Origins of the War: Background to the Lukouchiao Incident, July 7, 1937.” In Nationalist China During the Sino-Japanese War, ed. Sih, Paul. Hicksville, NY: Exposition Press.Google Scholar
Gong-cang, Liang. 1961. Tong-lu-ren depei-ju [The tragedy of fellow travelers]. Taipei: Guang-hua chu-ban-she.Google Scholar
Yu-tang, Lin. 1936. A History of Press and Public Opinion in China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Linebarger, Paul M. A. 1941. The China of Chiang Kai-shek. Boston: World Peace Foundation.Google Scholar
Zanchen, Mi. 1981. The Life of General Yang Hucheng. Hong Kong: Joint Publishing Co.Google Scholar
Xin, Mu. 1959. Zou Tao-fen. Hong Kong: San-lian shu-dian.Google Scholar
Ping-zhang, . 1958. “Zhang Nai-qi bu-kan ren-cuo” [Zhang Nai-qi is not willing to recognize errors]. Chun-qui [”The Observation Post Semi-Monthly”], no. 26, Aug. 1.Google Scholar
Qian-li, Sha. 1938. Qi-ren zhi-yu [The imprisonment of seven people]. Shanghai: Sheng-huo.Google Scholar
Jun-ru, Shen, Nai-qi, Zhang, Xing-zhi, Tao, and Tao-fen, Zou. 1936. Duan-jieyu-wu de ji-ge ji-ben tiao-jian yu zui-di yao-qiu [A number of essential conditions and minimum demands for a united resistance to invasion]. Np.Google Scholar
Sheng-huo zhou-kan [Life weekly]. 19311933 Shanghai.Google Scholar
wen-xian, Shi-dai, ed. 1937. Jiu-guo wu-zui qi-jun-zi shi-jian [The incident of the seven gentlemen who were without crime and tried to save the nation]. N.p.Google Scholar
Kanae, Tanaka. 1936. “Shina no konichi sensen ni tsuite” [On China's anti-Japanese united front]. Shina 27, no. 11 (Nov.).Google Scholar
Ting, Lee-hsia Hsu. 1974. Government Control of the Press in Modern China, 1900–1949. Cambridge: Harvard University, East Asian Monograph Series.Google Scholar
kenkyujo, Toa. 1940. Shina kindai hyakunen hyo [A chart of China in the last one hundred years]. Tokyo: Toa kenkyujo.Google Scholar
Tien-wei, Wu. 1976. The Sian Incident: A Pivotal Point in Modern Chinese History. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Center for Chinese Studies.Google Scholar
Van Slyke, Lyman R 1967. Enemies and Friends: The United Front in Chinese Communist History. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Xin she-hui [New society]. 1933. Vol. 3, no. 5 (Sept. 1).Google Scholar
Xin-sheng zhou-kan [New life weekly. 19341935. Shanghai.Google Scholar
Yong-sheng [Eternal life]. 1936. Shanghai.Google Scholar
Nai-qi, Zhang. 1934. Zhang Nai-qi lun-wen-ji [A collection of essays by Zhang Nai-qi]. Shanghai: Sheng-huo.Google Scholar
Nai-qi, Zhang. 1936. Ji-liu-ji [A turbulent collection]. Shanghai: Sheng-huo.Google Scholar
Guang-cheng, Zhao. 1981. “Wang Zao-shi te pei-ju xia-chang” [The tragedy of Wang Zao-shi]. Zhuan-ji wen-xue [Biographical literature] 39, no. 2 (Aug.).Google Scholar
Tao-fen, Zou. 1936. Tan-bai-ji [A collection of frank talk]. Shanghai: Published by the author.Google Scholar
Tao-fen, Zou. 1946. Huan-nan yu-sheng ji [A record of an old age of troubles and tribulations]. Yan'nan: Tao-fen shu-dian.Google Scholar