Published online by Cambridge University Press: 16 November 2018
We consider upper‒lower (UL) (and lower‒upper (LU)) factorizations of the one-step transition probability matrix of a random walk with the state space of nonnegative integers, with the condition that both upper and lower triangular matrices in the factorization are also stochastic matrices. We provide conditions on the free parameter of the UL factorization in terms of certain continued fractions such that this stochastic factorization is possible. By inverting the order of the factors (also known as a Darboux transformation) we obtain a new family of random walks where it is possible to state the spectral measures in terms of a Geronimus transformation. We repeat this for the LU factorization but without a free parameter. Finally, we apply our results in two examples; the random walk with constant transition probabilities, and the random walk generated by the Jacobi orthogonal polynomials. In both situations we obtain urn models associated with all the random walks in question.