Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-564cf476b6-r9chl Total loading time: 0.713 Render date: 2021-06-20T07:48:46.008Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Howling “A Hot Time”: The Paradoxical Anthem of the Progressive Age

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 December 2020

DEIRDRE O'CONNELL
Affiliation:
History Department, University of Sydney. Email: deirdre.oconnell@sydney.edu.au.
Corresponding

Abstract

This study investigates the shifting meanings invested in the ragtime song “A Hot Time in the Old Time, Tonight” at the turn of the twentieth century. Complicating the tune's place in the canon of military, political, and national anthems was its associations with “vice,” black culture, and white supremacy. By mapping the ritual and representational uses of the song, this investigation demonstrates how “A Hot Time” served paradoxical functions that simultaneously affirmed and unsettled American exceptionalism. In doing so, this article traces the processes of obfuscation whereby black musical traditions and white supremacy defined America's distinctive national identity.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press and British Association for American Studies 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

1 “Cut This Out,” Topeka Daily Capital, 4 Sept. 1897, 5; “K.K.,” Topeka State Journal, 7 Sept. 1897, 1.

2 Hall, Stuart, “Notes on Deconstructing the ‘Popular’,” in Samuel, Raphael, ed., People's History and Socialist Theory (Boston: Routledge, 1981), 227–39Google Scholar, 228.

3 For example, see Perry, Imani, May We Forever Stand: A History of the Black National Anthem (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

4 Redmond, Shana L., Anthem! Social Movements and the Sound of Solidarity in the African Diaspora (New York: New York University Press, 2014), 7, 16Google Scholar.

5 Sullivan, Steve, Encyclopedia of Great Popular Song Recordings, Vol I (Lanham: Scarecrow Press, Inc, 2013), 513Google Scholar; Spaeth, Sigmund, A History of Popular Music (New York: Random House, 1948), 287Google Scholar.

6 Meacham, Jon and McGraw, Tim, Songs of America: Patriotism, Protest, and the Music that Made a Nation (New York: Random House, 2019)Google Scholar.

7 Morgan, Edmund S., American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia (New York: W. W. Norton & Co. Ltd, 1975)Google Scholar; Jamieson, D., “An American Paradox,” Climatic Change, 77, (2006), 97102CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Heini, A. F. and Weinsier, R. L., “Divergent Trends in Obesity and Fat Intake Patterns: The American Paradox,” American Journal of Medicine, 102 (1997), 259–64CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed; Wilber Caldwell, American Narcissism: The Myth of National Superiority (New York: Algora Publishing, 2006); Enobong Hannah Branch and Christina Renee Jackson, Black in America: The Paradox of the Color Line (Medford, MA: Polity, 2020).

8 Theodore Metz and Joe Hayden, Hot Time in the Old Town, Tonight (New York: Willis Woodward & Co., 1896), at https://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/hasm_b0570, added emphasis.

9 Donald Johns, “Funnel Tonality in American Popular Music, 1900–70,” American Music, 11, 4 (1993), 458–72.

10 Ronald Radano, “Hot Fantasies: American Modernism and the Idea of Black Rhythm,” in Ronald Radano and Philip V. Bohlman, eds., Music and the Racial Imagination (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2000), 462.

11 Stephen Cottrell, The Saxophone (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012), 131; David Gilbert, Product of Our Souls: Ragtime, Race, and the Birth of the Manhattan Musical Marketplace (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2016), 16–18.

12 Isaac Goldberg, Tin Pan Alley: A Chronicle Of American Popular Music Racket (New York: F. Ungar Publishing Co., 1961), 147.

13 “Jewish Granddaddy of Jazz Music,” Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle, 31 Jan. 1936, 1.

14 Metz and Hayden.

15 Trade Music Review, 11 Sept. 1896, 11, cited in Sullivan, Encyclopedia, 513.

16 Maxwell F. Marcuse, Tin Pan Alley in Gaslight (Watkins Glen: Century House, 1959), 192.

17 Washington Times, 2 Feb. 1897; “Famous Songs and Their History,” Houston Post, 10 April 1910, 33.

18 Washington Times, 23 Jan. 1899, 5; Times Democrat, 18 May 1897, 4; San Francisco Call, 19 April 1897, 5.

19 “Brownsville Republican Rally,” Brooklyn Times Union, 15 Oct. 1897, 4; “Women and George,” The World, 16 Oct. 1897, 2.

20 “New Traps a Set,” Chicago Tribune, 24 Oct. 1897, 4.

21 “A Hot Time in Greater New York,” New York Times, 27 Oct. 1897, 7.

22 “Cheers and Song for George and Dayton,” The World, 20 Oct. 1897, 2.

23 “Big Time in Tammany Hall,” New York Tribune, 3 Nov. 1897, 3; “Varied Din in the Town,” The Sun, 3 Nov. 1897, 3; “Scenes in New York City,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 3 Nov. 1897, 16; “Tammany Victory,” Fall River Daily Evening News, 3 Nov. 1897, 2.

24 “The Democrats Sweep City,” St. Louis Post Dispatch, 3 Nov. 1897, 3.

25 Democrat and Chronicle, 5 Nov. 1897, 6.

26 “Election in Greater New York,” Salina Sun, 20 Nov. 1897, 4.

27 Morning Review, 4 Nov. 1897, 1.

28 “Columbia Boys Celebrated,” Sun, 4 Nov. 1897, 3.

29 “Big Dale at the Hale Farm,” Kansas City Journal, 7 June 1897, 3; “Corn Is King,” Manhattan Mercury, 17 Nov. 1897, 8; “Ban Is on ‘A Hot Time’,” Chicago Daily Tribune, 24 June 1899, 1.

30 Topeka State Journal, 7 Sept. 1897, 1; “Went with a Whirl,” St. Paul Globe, 11 Sept. 1897, 5.

31 “Manhattan Carnival,” Randolph Enterprise, 18 Nov. 1897, 5; “Local Short Stops,” Lexington Intelligencer, 28 Aug. 1897, 3.

32 “West's Dream City,” Kansas City Journal, 12 Dec. 1897, 1.

33 “Salvation Army Rally,” St. Paul Globe, 28 Oct. 1897, 2.

34 Ed Cray, The Erotic Muse: American Bawdy Songs (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992), 274.

35 For example: “The County Seat Question,” White Cloud Kansas Chief, 24 Feb. 1859, 2; “Dear Brother-in-Law,” Weekly West, 31 Dec. 1859, 2. See, for example, Google Ngrams, Newspapers.com, Proquest Historical newspapers.

36 “From the Klondike Morning Times,” Semi-Weekly Gazette, 21 Aug. 1897, 4; “Hot Time at Holland,” Norfolk Virginian, 22 Feb. 1898, 6; “What a Drummer Saw and Thought,” Clarion Ledger, 5 July 1898, 7.

37 “Tune Was Too Warm,” Dwight Weekly, 1 Jan. 1898, 1.

38 “Hot Time in Bedford,” Wilkes Barre Times Leader, 15 April 1896, 1; “May Not Speak,” Summit County Beacon, 13 Aug. 1896, 1.

39 “The Mystery Is Solved,” Evening Journal, 4 Nov. 1897, 1.

40 “Takes the Medicine,” Lincoln Journal Star, 1 Sept. 1897, 1.

41 “Old Bay State Democrats,” Washington Times, 29 Sept. 1897, 1.

42 Salt Lake Herald, 22 June 1898, 2; Washington Times, 22 Sept. 1897, 1.

43 “The Negroes Want More of the Pie,” North Carolinian, 11 Nov. 1897, 2; “Williams Team Here,” Buffalo Evening News, 12 Nov. 1897, 11. “Trouble in the Air,” Buffalo Evening News, 25 Sept. 1897, 1; “Bradley in the Lead,” Richford Journal and Gazette, 17 April 1896; “Washakie Braves Win,” Salt Lake Herald, 12 Oct. 1897, 1; “Hot Time in Texas,” Stevens Point Journal, 27 March 1896, 2.

44 “May Not Speak,” Summit County Beacon, 13 Aug. 1896, 1; “Old Bay State Democrats,” Washington Times, 29 Sept. 1897, 1; “Platts Slate Will Go Through,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 28 Sept. 1897, 2.

45 “In the Face of Prosperity,” Sioux City Journal, 30 Aug. 1897, 5; “A Hot Old Time,” Hattiesburg Daily Progress, 26 June 1902, 3; “Plucky Macon Women,” Clarion Ledger, 3 Dec. 1898, 6; “A Hot Time Promised,” Delaware Republican, 1 Jan. 1898, 3.

46 “Third Ward Sees A Real Hot Time,” Atlanta Constitution, 7 Oct. 1897, 5.

47 “Hot Politics in Westchester,” New York Tribune, 11 Sept. 1897, 2.

48 “National in Theaters,” Washington Times, 7 April 1898, 4; Marcuse, Tin Pan Alley in Gaslight, 192–93.

49 “Alton Notes,” Illinois Record, 18 Feb. 1899, 3.

50 Houston Post, 10 April 1910, 33.

51 Marcuse, 192–93.

52 “Letter from a Soldier Boy,” Clarion Ledger, 11 June 1898, 8.

53 “Marine Battalions Off,” The Sun, 23 April 1898, 3.

54 “It Throws Gun Cotton,” Wichita Daily Eagle, 8 July 1898, 9.

55 “Shell the Spaniards Out,” Omaha Daily Bee, 6 May 1898, 1; “A Hot Time at Cienfuegos,” Columbus Telegram, 19 May 1898; “A Hot Time in New Orleans,” Afro American, 18 June 1898, 1.

56 Iola Register, 14 Oct. 1898.

57 Oscar King Davies, Conquest in the Pacific (New York: Frederick and Stokes Company, 1898), 43.

58 “Nebraska Boys Far Away,” Columbus Journal, 5 Oct. 1898, 1; “Concerning the Natives,” Nebraska State Journal, 16 Aug. 1898, 8; “His Efforts Appreciated,” Lincoln Journal Star, 15 Sept. 1897, 6; Marion Wilcox, Harpers History of a War in the Philippines (New York: Harpers and Brothers, 1900), 55; “Kansas Items of Interest,” Fair Play, 14 Oct. 1898.

59 “Nebraska boys far away,” Columbus Journal, 5 Oct. 1898, 1; “Letters from Soldiers,” Nebraska State Journal, 10 Oct. 1898, 8.

60 “Hot Time as a Great National American Air,” Denver Rocky Mountain News, 15 Sept. 1899, 10.

61 “New American Anthem,” Interocean, 27 Dec. 1898, 2.

62 “The Song of the War,” Harrisburg Telegraph, 4 Oct. 1898, 2; Harry W. Jones, Battle of Santiago (New York: Isaac Goldman Co, 1913), 35.

63 Omaha World-Herald, 5 July 1898, 8; Salt Lake Tribune, 5 July 1898, 2.

64 Iola Register, 14 Oct. 1898, 4.

65 Music Trade Review, 6 Aug. 1898, cited in Sullivan, Encyclopedia, 513.

66 Cited in John Cullen Grusser, The Empire Abroad and the Empire at Home: African American Literature and the Era of Overseas Expansion (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2012), 35.

67 Wichita Daily Eagle, 21 July 1898, 8.

68 Wichita Beacon, 8 July 1898, 4; M. Paul Holsinger, War and American Popular Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999), 191.

69 Amron, Andrew D., “Reinforcing Manliness: Black State Militias, the Spanish–American War and the Image of the African American Soldier,1891–1900,” Journal of African American History, 97, 4 (Fall 2012), 401–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

70 “Straws That Tell,” Enterprise, 16 May 1896, 2.

71 “Colored Republican League Meeting,” Kansas City Journal, 27 Feb. 1898, 9; “Negroes Loyal,” Kansas City Journal, 29 March 1898, 7.

72 “Antonio Maceo and How He Has Given His Life for Cuba,” Kansas City Journal, 18 Oct. 1896, 16; “Gen. Antonio Maceo,” Cleveland Gazette, 3 Oct. 1896, 2; “Cuban Question,” American Citizen, 1 Jan. 1897, 3.

73 Kansas City Journal, 29 March 1898, 7.

74 Herschel V. Cashin, Under Fire with the Tenth U.S. Cavalry (Chicago: American Publishing House, 1902), 136.

75 “The Negro as a Soldier,” Kansas City Journal, 29 June 1899, 4; “Two Incidences,” Broad Ax, 12 Nov. 1898, 4; Willard B. Gatewood Jr., Black Americans and White Man's Burden 1898–1903 (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1975), 59.

76 “Brave but Modest,” Afro-American, 1 Oct. 1898, 2.

77 “Editorial Comment,” Columbus Republican, 29 June 1899, 2.

78 “A Hot Time in New Orleans,” Afro-American, 18 June 1898, 1; “Mayfield Aroused Again,” Paducah Daily Sun, 28 Feb. 1898, 1.

79 “Race Problem His Subject,” Colored American, 22 April 1899, 1.

80 Booker T. Washington et al., A New Negro for a New Century: An Accurate and Up-to-Date Record of the Upward Struggles of the Negro Race (Chicago: American Publishing House, 1900), 36–71.

81 Theodore Roosevelt, The Rough Riders (New York, 1904), 141.

82 Evan Thomas, The War Lovers: Roosevelt, Lodge, Hearst, and the Rush to Empire, 1898 (New York: Little, Brown and Co., 2010).

83 Theodore Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge, Hero Tales from American History (New York: Century Co., 1915). Also see John Fiske, “Manifest Destiny,” Harper's Magazine, March 1885, 578–90; Frederick Jackson Turner, The Early Writings of Frederick Jackson Turner (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1938).

84 Daily Review, 5 March 1905, 1; Alejandro de Quesada, Roosevelt's Rough Riders (New York: Osprey Pub, 2009).

85 New York Times, 9 July 1899, SM14; “Buffalo Bill's Wild West,” Winfield Tribune, 2 Sept. 1898, 1.

86 Cited in Gatewood, Black Americans and White Man's Burden, 222.

87 “The Review of 1902,” St. Mary's Eagle Journal Consolidated, 8 Jan. 1903, 7; Parsons Weekly Blade, 11 June 1898, 2.

88 “Uncle Sam and the 10th Cavalry,” Richmond Planet, 3 Dec. 1898, 1, 8; Colored American, 22 April 1899, 1.

89 Joel Williamson, The Crucible of Race: Black–White Relations in the American South since Emancipation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 513.

90 “The Campaign in the 11th District” Atlanta Constitution, 9 Sept. 1898, 4; Clarion Ledger, 9 Dec. 1901, 4

91 “The Governor's Mouthpiece on the Lynching,” Vicksburg Evening Post, 1 Oct. 1902, 2; “Will Gibson Burned at the Stake,” Richland Beacon News, 4 Oct. 1902, 5.

92 Letter, Florence Bishop to Jonathan Bishop, 14 July 1898, University of Virginia Special Collections; “They Lynched Him,” Richmond Planet, 16 July 1898, 1; “Judge Lynch at Work,” Daily Press, 13 July 1898, 4.

93 “Plucky Macon Women,” Clarion Ledger, 3 Dec. 1898, 6.

94 Atchison Daily Globe, 12 Feb. 1901, 2; Christopher C. Lovett, “A Public Burning: Race, Sex, and the Lynching of Fred Alexander,” Kansas History, 33, 2 (2010), 94–115.

95 “A Hot Time!”, Cleveland Gazette, 1 Oct. 1898, 1.

96 “Mob Foiled,” Wichita Searchlight, 19 Jan. 1901, 2.

97 “The Regulars Camp,” Springfield News Leader, 12 Aug. 1897, 2.

98 Chicago Daily Tribune, 24 June 1899, 1.

99 “The Song of the War,” Harrisburg Telegraph, 4 Oct. 1898, 2.

100 Topeka Daily Capital, 15 Aug. 1897, 11.

101 Evening World, 24 June 1930, B1, cited in Goldberg, Tin Pan Alley, 114.

102 “A Hot Time in the Old Town,” New York Times, 28 Aug. 1898, 12.

103 Spaeth, A History of Popular Music, 287; David Ewen, The Life and Death of Tin Pan Alley: The Golden Age of American Popular Music (New York: Funk and Wagnalls Co., 1964), 82–85; Marcuse, Tin Pan Alley in Gaslight, 192.

104 “The Rosebud Ball,” St. Louis Palladium, 27 Feb. 1904, 1.

105 “Boodle for Blood,” St. Joseph News-Press, 1 June 1892, 2.

106 “They Took Exception,” St. Louis Post Dispatch, 10 Nov. 1889, 11.

107 “Settled by Judge Lynch,” St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 18 Jan. 1894, 12; “The Successor of Eph Houston,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 15 Nov. 1896, 33.

108 Walter Johnson, The Broken Heart of America: St. Louis and the Violent History of the United States (New York: Basic Books, 2020), 5.

109 Orrick Johns, Time of Our Lives: The Story of My Father and Myself (New York: Stackpole, 1937), 97; Marcuse, 192; “The Fabulous Babe Connors,” Afro American, 22 Dec. 1956, 3.

110 John Aaron Wright, Discovering African American St. Louis: A Guide to Historic Sites (St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society Press, 1994), 10.

111 “Song of the Day,” The Times, 10 April 1892, 14; “Amusements,” St. Joseph Herald, 14 Aug. 1892, 3.

112 Afro-American, 22 Dec. 1956, 3.

113 Johns, Time of Our Lives, 97; Ewen, Life and Death, 82-85.

114 Johns, Time of Our Lives, 97.

115 “Song of the Day,” The Times, 10 April 1892, 14; “Amusements,” St. Joseph Herald, 14 Aug. 1892, 3.

116 “Ta-ra-ra-boom-de-ay First Sung in Lincoln,” Sioux City Journal, 22 April 1892, 4; “Between Book Ends,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 8 Jan. 1953, 20; “Amusements,” St. Joseph Herald, 14 Aug. 1892, 3.

117 St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 12 Dec. 1885, 5.

118 Music Trade Review, 29 Sept. 1900, cited in Sullivan, Encyclopedia, 512.

119 Marcuse, Tin Pan Alley in Gaslight, 192.

120 “Detective S. Spaeth Finds No Evidence,” Variety, 12 April 1932, 61.

121 Afro-American, 22 Dec. 1956, 3; “Civil Courts,” St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 8 Aug. 1899, 14.

122 “Not a Real Cop,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 25 July 1887, 8.

123 Larry Karp, Brun Campbell: The Original Ragtime Kid (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company Inc., 2016), 147.

124 Lionel Feather, The Book of Jazz (New York: Horizon Press, 1957), 24.

125 “Wyer Was Wrong – WC Handy,” DownBeat, 21 May 1952, 9.

126 Imani Perry, More Beautiful and More Terrible: The Embrace and Transcendence of Racial Inequality in the United States (New York: New York University Press, 2011), 131.

127 “Hot Time in Coontown Notes,” Freeman, 14 April 1906, 5; “At the Globe,” Elmira Daily Gazette, 19 Sept. 1899, 7.

128 “Music and Drama,” Wichita Daily Eagle, 31 Aug. 1899, 6; El Paso Herald, 11 Jan. 1898, 3.

129 A Red Hot Show,” Parsons Daily, 16 March 1899, 3; “A Red Hot Show,” Ottawa Daily Republic, 29 March 1899, 2.

130 W. C. Handy, Father of the Blues (New York: Macmillan, 1941), 166; Lionel Feather, The Book of Jazz (New York: Horizon Press, 1957), 24; W. C. Handy, “I Would Not Play Jazz If I Could,” DownBeat 5 (Aug. 1938), 5.

131 “The Boys Are Fighters,” Nebraska State Journal, 26 Sept. 1898, 5.

132 “Hot Time as a Great National American Air,” Denver Rocky Mountain News, 15 Sept. 1899, 10; “Company D Boys in the Philippines,” Lincoln Journal Star, 30 Sept. 1898, 2; “Nebraska Boys Far Away,” Columbus Journal, 5 Oct. 1898, 1.

133 Richard Brinsley Sheridan, The Filipino Martyrs: A Story of the Crime of February 4, 1899 (London and J. Lane, 1900), 65; “Concerning the Natives,” Nebraska State Journal, 10 Oct. 1898, 8; Kramer, Paul A., “Race-Making and Colonial Violence in the U.S. Empire: The Philippine–American War as Race War,” Diplomatic History, 30, 2 (April 2006), 169210CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

134 “From Manila,” Cleveland Gazette, 3 Feb. 1900, 1.

135 “Etchings of Life in Manila,” Omaha Daily Bee, 11 June 1899, 20; “Filipinos Go upon the Stage,” Omaha Daily Bee, 10 Aug. 1899, 5; Denver Rocky Mountain News, 15 Sept. 1899, 10.

136 Albert G. Robinson, The Philippines: The War and the People (New York: McClure, Philippins & Co., 1901) 175–76; Andrew J. Rotter, Empires of the Senses: Bodily Encounters in Imperial India and the Philippines (New York: Oxford University Press, 2019), 151–52; Adjutant E. Hannaford, History and Description of the Picturesque Philippines (Springfield: The Crowell & Kirkpatrick, 1900), 34.

137 Mrs. William Howard Taft, Recollections of Full Years (New York: Dodd Mead, 1914), 161.

138 Florence Kimball Russel, A Woman's Journey through the Philippines (Boston: L. C. Page, 1907), 56.

139 “From over the Watars” (sic), Red Cloud Chief, 3 Feb. 1899, 4.

140 “Our National in Manila,” Beatrice Daily Express, 7 Jan. 1899, 4; Omaha Daily Bee, 10 Aug. 1899, 5.

141 “A Matter of Soul,” Broad Ax, 13 Nov. 1902, 7.

142 Nebraska State Journal, 10 Oct. 1898, 8; “How They Join,” Nebraska State Journal, 15 May 1899, 5.

143 “In the Bishop's Palace,” Wichita Daily Eagle, 29 Jan. 1899, 11; “Hot Time in the Jungle,” Omaha Daily Bee, 30 March 1899, 1; “Pursuit to Continue,” Lincoln Journal Star, 31 March 1899, 1.

144 “Camp Stotsenburg P.I,” Columbus Journal, 29 March 1899, 2.

145 Affairs in the Philippine Islands: Hearings before the Committee, Part 2, 25 Dec. 1901, 1551.

146 Nebraska State Journal, 30 June 1899, 4.

147 “From Manila,” Cleveland Gazette, 3 Feb. 1900, 1.

148 “News from Abroad,” Freeman, 18 Nov. 1899, 1.

149 “Washington D.C.,” Colored American, 24 March 1900, cited in Le'Trice Donaldson, “From Triumph to Tragedy: African American Soldiers Fight for Citizenship and Manhood in the Spanish–American–Cuban–Filipino War,” master's thesis, University of Tennessee, 2006, 48.

150 “Where We Stand,” Washington Bee, 28 Jan. 1899, 5; Washington Bee, 11 Feb. 1899, 4; “What Right Have We in the Philippines?”, American Citizen, 3 Nov. 1899, 2; “Why Annex the Philippines?”, Freeman, 24 Sept. 1898, 4.

151 W. E. B. Du Bois, “The Present Outlook for the Dark Races of Mankind,” in Du Bois, The Problem of the Color Line at the Turn of the Twentieth Century: The Essential Early Essays, ed. Nahum Dimitri Chandler (New York: Fordham University Press, 2014), 111–38, 112, 118.

152 For example: Marilyn Lake and Henry Reynolds, Drawing the Global Colour Line: White Men's Countries and the Question of Racial Equality (Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 2008); Vince Schleitwiler, Strange Fruit of the Black Pacific: Imperialism's Racial Justice and Its Fugitives (New York: New York University Press, 2017), 46; “American Negro Academy,” Cheyenne County Rustler, 4 Jan. 1900, 2; “The Negro Academy,” Evening Times, 28 Dec. 1899, 8.

153 “Voices from the Philippines,” Richmond Planet, 30 Dec. 1899, 1.

154 Ibid.

Ibid

155 Letter to parents, 17 Jan. 1899, cited in Thomas D. Thiessen, “The Fighting First Nebraska: Nebraska's Imperial Adventure in the Philippines, 1898–1899,” Nebraska History, 70 (1989), 234.

156 Theodore Roosevelt, Address of President Roosevelt at Arlington, Memorial Day, May 30, 1902 (Washington, DC, 1902); Kramer, “Race-Making and Colonial Violence,” 169–210; Stuart Creighton Miller, “Benevolent Assimilation”: The American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899–1903 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1982); Angel Velasco Shaw and Luis H. Francia, eds., Vestiges of War: The Philippine–American War and the Aftermath of an Imperial Dream, 1899–1999 (New York: New York University Press, 2002); Frederick J. Schenker, “Empire of Syncopation: Music, Race, and Labor in Colonial Asia's Jazz Age,” PhD thesis, University of Wisconsin, 2016.

157 “War Was Inevitable,” Washington Times, 25 March 1899, 1.

158 Wilcox, Harpers History of a War in the Philippines, 56–57. James F. Rusling, “Interview with President McKinley,” Christian Advocate, 22 Jan. 1903, 137–38.

159 Nebraska State Journal, 20 Feb. 1899, 5.

160 John White, Bullets and Bolos: Fifteen Years in the Philippine Islands (New York: Century Co., 1928), 121.

161 “Under Blankets,” Topeka State Journal, 28 Jan. 1906, 8.

162 John Bancroft Devins, An Observer in the Philippines: Or Life in Our New Possessions (New York: American Tract Society, 1905), 136.

163 Mary H. Fee, A Woman's Impressions of the Philippines (Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co., 1910), 264; Illinois Record, 18 Feb. 1899, 3.

164 Topeka State Journal, 28 Jan. 1906, 8.

165 Wilcox, 56–57; Hamilton M. Wright, A Handbook of the Philippines (Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co., 1907), 56; Topeka State Journal, 28 Jan. 1906, 8.

166 Fee, 264; Charles C. Pierce, “The Races of the Philippines: The Tagals”, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 18 (1901), 21–39, 37; William B. Freer, The Philippine Experiences of an American Teacher (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1906), 94.

167 Illinois Record, 18 Feb. 1899, 3.

168 Mojares, Resil B., “The Formation of Filipino Nationality under U.S. Colonial Rule,” Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society, 34, 1 (March 2006), 1132Google Scholar, 14.

169 Finis Farr, Black Champion: The Life and Times of Jack Johnson (New York: Fawcett Publications, 1969), 99; Randy Roberts, Jack Dempsey: The Manassa Mauler (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003), 23.

170 Birmingham News, 10 June 1931, 2.

171 Supreme Court Grants New Trials”, San Pedro News-Pilot, 7 Nov. 1932, 1.

172 For example, The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962), Citizen Kane (1941), Gore Vidal's Empire (1987).

173 Spaeth, A History of Popular Music, 287; Daily Review, 5 March 1905, 1.

174 Afro-American, 22 Dec. 1956, 3; Music Trades, 25 Jan. 1908, cited in Sullivan, Encyclopedia, 514.

175 Houston Post, 10 April 1910, 33; “Tune Adopted by Filipino,” Boston Daily Globe, 23 May 1915, 97; “How It Started,” Fayette County Leader, 27 Feb. 1930, 7; “Man about Manhattan,” Spring Daily Herald, 8 July 1936, 7; Variety, 12 April 1932, 61.

176 Spaeth, Sigmund, Read ’Em and Weep: The Songs You Forgot to Remember (New York: Doubleday Page, 1926), 164Google Scholar; Johns, Time of Our Lives, 97.

177 “No Popular Songs Produced in War Time”, The Pantograph, 21 April 1944, 16; Spaeth, A History of Popular Music, 232, 258, 287; Edward B. Marks, They All Sang: From Tony Pastor to Rudy Vallée (New York: The Viking Press, 1935), 101–5.

178 Wright, Discovering African American St. Louis, 10. Also see Locke, Alain, The Negro and His Music (Washington, DC: Associates in Negro Folk Education, 1936), 6263Google Scholar.

179 Marcuse, Tin Pan Alley in Gaslight, 192.

180 Columbia Records 14219 D, “There'll Be a Hot Time in Old Town, Tonight,” 3 Feb. 1927.

181 Sullivan, 513.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Howling “A Hot Time”: The Paradoxical Anthem of the Progressive Age
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Howling “A Hot Time”: The Paradoxical Anthem of the Progressive Age
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Howling “A Hot Time”: The Paradoxical Anthem of the Progressive Age
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *