Published online by Cambridge University Press: 16 January 2009
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7 Atlantic Coast; Atlantic Ten; Big East; Big Eight; Big Sky; Big South; Big Ten; Central States; College Athletic; Colonial; Dixie; East Coast; ECAC-Metro Division; ECAC-North Atlantic Division; Gulf South; Gulf Star; Ivy; Metro; Metro Atlantic; Mid American; Mid Eastern; Mid Continent; Middle Atlantic States; Midwest Collegiate; Midwestern City; Missouri Valley; Ohio Valley; Pacific Ten; Rocky Mountain; Southeastern; Southern; Southland; Southwest; Southwestern; Sunbelt; Trans-America; Western; West Coast; Yankee.
8 Gastil's regions are grouped as Northeast (New England, Pennsylvania, New York Metropolitan); Middle West (Upper Midwest, Central Midwest); South (South); West (Interior Southwest, Pacific Southwest, Pacific Northwest, Mormon, Rocky Mountain).
9 Trans-regional athletic conferences according to census region boundaries are: Northeast-South (Atlantic Ten, Big East, East Coast, ECAC-Metro, Middle Atlantic); Middle West-South (College Athletic, Metro, Midwestern City, Missouri Valley, Ohio Valley); West-South-Middle West (Big Eight); West-South (Western). Use of Gastil's boundaries adds the Central States and Mid-Continent conferences to those spanning Middle West-South and eliminates the Western Conference as a trans-regional league.
11 Using census regions, the states participating only in regionally isolated leagues are as follows: Northeast (Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont); South (North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana); Middle West (Minnesota, Wisconsin); West (Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Arizona). Use of Gastil's regions requires no changes for the Northeast and South; elimination of Wisconsin for the Middle West; and addition of Wyoming, Utah, New Mexico, California, and Hawaii for the West.
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17 The zone of greatest athletic interaction reflects such efforts to define a Mid-American cultural region as Elazar, Daniel, American Federalism: The View from the States (New York: Thomas Crowell, 1972), 103–26Google Scholar, or Jordan, Terry and Rowntree, Lester, The Human Mosaic (3rd ed.; New York: Harper and Row, 1986), 10.Google Scholar