Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-gsnzm Total loading time: 0.445 Render date: 2022-10-04T08:12:18.433Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

The everyday emotional lives of aid workers: how humanitarian anxiety gets in the way of meaningful local participation

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 October 2021

Amoz J. Y. Hor*
Department of Political Science, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA
Author for correspondence: Amoz J. Y. Hor, E-mail:


Participatory approaches to humanitarianism, peacebuilding, and international development promise to listen to the voices of local aid beneficiaries. However, aid workers often listen to these voices through reductive narratives of aid beneficiaries, ventriloquizing their voice and inhibiting meaningful participation. Why do aid workers – despite humane intentions – continue to rely on reductive narratives? This paper inquires how the everyday emotional lives of aid workers make reductive narratives persist. Based on 65 semi-structured interviews in Singapore, Jakarta, and Aceh, and 40 aid worker books and blogs, I show how aid workers regularly experience emotional anxieties that question their complicity in the suffering of others and their powerlessness to do anything about it. Reductive narratives resonate and persist because they allow aid workers to cope with these anxieties. I illustrate the emotional resonance of three reductive narratives – civilizing; romanticized; and impersonal narratives – in three common practices of local participation in aid work: professionalized standards; visiting the field; and hiring locals. Given the emotional origins of reductive narratives, rational critique is insufficient for reforming or decolonizing aid work. Rather, change must also involve engaging the underlying emotions of aid workers.

Research Article
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Adler, Emanuel, and Pouliot, Vincent. 2011. “International Practices.” International Theory 3 (1): 136.10.1017/S175297191000031XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ahmed, Sara. 2004. The Cultural Politics of Emotion. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
Alexander, Jessica. 2013. Chasing Chaos: My Decade in and out of Humanitarian Aid. New York: Broadway Books.Google Scholar
Allan, Bentley B. 2018. Scientific Cosmology and International Orders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/9781108241540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, Benedict. 2001. “Sangley Di Philippines Dan Cino Di Indonesia.” Paper presented at Seminar “Tionghoa Dan Nasionalisme Di Asia Tenggara,” Surabaya.Google Scholar
Annan, Kent. 2011. After Shock: Searching for Honest Faith When Your World Is Shaken. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press.Google Scholar
Anonymous Aid Worker. 2014. “Convergences.” The Dream is the Truth. Accessed on 1 Aug 2016.Google Scholar
Arcaro, Thomas. 2016. Aid Worker Voices: Survey Results and Commentary. Carpe Viem Press.Google Scholar
Arendt, Hannah. 1959. The Human Condition. 2nd ed. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Autesserre, Séverine. 2014. Peaceland: Conflict Resolution and the Everyday Politics of International Intervention. New York: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9781107280366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Avant, Deborah D., Finnemore, Martha, and Sell, Susan K.. 2010. Who Governs the Globe? New York: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511845369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Babül, Elif. 2017. Bureaucratic Intimacies Translating Human Rights in Turkey. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Baird, Mark. 2010. “Transcript of Interview with Mark Baird.” In The World Bank Group Historian's Office: Oral History Program, interview by Ziegler, Charles.Google Scholar
Barnett, Michael N. 2002. Eyewitness to a Genocide: The United Nations and Rwanda. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Barnett, Michael N. 2011. Empire of Humanity: A History of Humanitarianism. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Barnett, Michael N. 2013. “Humanitarian Governance.” Annual Review of Political Science 16 (1): 379–98.10.1146/annurev-polisci-012512-083711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barnett, Michael N. 2018. “Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and the Practices of Humanity.” International Theory 10 (3): 314–49.10.1017/S1752971918000118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barnett, Michael N. Forthcoming. “The Humanitarian Club.” Unpublished Manuscript.Google Scholar
Barnett, Michael N., and Finnemore, Martha. 2004. Rules for the World: International Organizations in Global Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Beardsworth, Sara. 2004. Julia Kristeva, Psychoanalysis and Modernity. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
Bially Mattern, Janice. 2011. “A Practice Theory of Emotion for International Relations.” In International Practices, edited by Adler, Emanuel and Pouliot, Vincent, 6386. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511862373.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bleiker, Roland. 2009. Aesthetics and World Politics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.10.1057/9780230244375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bourdieu, Pierre. 1990. The Logic of Practice. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.10.1515/9781503621749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, Brene. 2015. Rising Strong: The Reckoning. The Rumble. The Revolution. New York: Spiegel & Grau.Google Scholar
Bulley, Dan. 2014. “Inside the Tent: Community and Government in Refugee Camps.” Security Dialogue 45 (1): 6380.10.1177/0967010613514788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burkhalter, Holly. 2013. Good God, Lousy World, and Me: The Improbably Journey of a Human Rights Activist from Unbelief to Faith. New York: Convergent Books.Google Scholar
Chandler, David. 2013. “‘Human-Centred’ Development? Rethinking ‘Freedom’ and ‘Agency’ in Discourses of International Development.” Millennium – Journal of International Studies 42 (1): 323.10.1177/0305829813492184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, Kuan-Hsing. 2010. Asia as Method: Toward Deimperialization. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
Clarke, Simon. 2003. Social Theory, Psychoanalysis, and Racism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.10.1007/978-1-137-09957-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohn, Carol. 1987. “Sex and Death in the Rational World of Defense Intellectuals.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 12 (4): 687.10.1086/494362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cooke, William and Uma, Kothari. 2001. Participation: The New Tyranny? London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
Cornwall, Andrea, and Brock, Karen. 2005. “Beyond Buzzwords: ‘Poverty Reduction’, ‘Participation’ and ‘Empowerment’ in Development Policy.” United Nations Research Institute for Social Development 21 (1): 2530.Google Scholar
Cornwall, Andrea, and Fujita, Mamoru. 2012. “Ventriloquising ‘the Poor’? Of Voices, Choices and the Politics of ‘Participatory’ Knowledge Production.” Third World Quarterly 33 (9): 1751–65.10.1080/01436597.2012.721274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crenshaw, Kimberlé. 2017. On Intersectionality: Essential Writings. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
Davis, Gloria. 2004a. “Transcript Interview with Gloria Davis.” In The World Bank Group Historian's Office: Oral History Program, interview by Zenni, Marie T.. Scholar
Davis, Gloria. 2004b. “A History of the Social Development Network in The World Bank, 1973–2002.” Social Development Papers (56): 19732002.Google Scholar
Ebrahim, Alnoor. 2003. NGOs and Organizational Change: Discourse, Reporting, and Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511488566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edkins, Jenny. 2000. Whose Hunger? Concepts of Famine, Practices of Aid. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
Edwards, Michael, and Hulme, David. 1996. Beyond the Magic Bullet: NGO Performance and Accountability in the Post-Cold War World. Connecticut: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
Escobar, Arturo. 1995. Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Eyben, Rosalind. 2010. “Hiding Relations: The Irony of ‘Effective Aid’.The European Journal of Development Research 22 (3): 382–97.10.1057/ejdr.2010.10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fanon, Frantz. 1952. Black Skins, White Masks. New York: Grove Press.Google Scholar
Fassin, Didier. 2012. Humanitarian Reason. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Fechter, Anne-Meike, and Hindman, Heather. 2011. Inside the Everyday Lives of Development Workers: The Challenges and Futures of Aidland. Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
Feldman, Gregory. 2011. “If Ethnography is More than Participant-Observation, Then Relations are More than Connections: The Case for Nonlocal Ethnography in a World of Apparatuses.” Anthropological Theory 11 (4): 375–95.10.1177/1463499611429904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feldman, Ilana. 2007. “The Quaker Way: Ethical Labor and Humanitarian Relief.” American Ethnologist 34 (4): 689705.10.1525/ae.2007.34.4.689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feldman, Ilana, and Ticktin, Miriam. 2010. In the Name of Humanity: The Government of Threat and Care. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
Ferguson, James. 1994. The Anti-Politics Machine: ‘Development,’ Depoliticization, and Bureaucratic Power in Lesotho. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
Fink, Bruce. 1995. The Lacanian Subject: Between Language and Jouissance. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Finnemore, Martha, and Sikkink, Kathryn. 1998. “Norm Dynamics International and Political Change and Kathryn.” International Organization 52 (4): 887917.10.1162/002081898550789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foucault, Michel. 1994. Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth. Edited by Rabinow, Paul and Hurley, Robert. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
Fountain, Philip. 2011. “Orienting Guesthood.” In Inside the Everyday Lives of Development Workers: The Challenges and Futures of Aidland, edited by Fechter, Anne-Meike and Hindman, Heather, 84105. Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
Fountain, Philip. 2014. “Development Things: A Case of Canned Meat.” Sites: A Journal of Social Anthropology and Cultural Studies 11 (1): 3973.10.11157/sites-vol11iss1id246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freire, Paulo. 2005. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Edited by Bergman Ramos, Myra. New York and London: Continuum.Google Scholar
Freud, Anna. 1937. The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence. London: Karnac Books.Google Scholar
Freud, Sigmund. 1960. The Ego and the ID. Edited by Riviere, Joan, Strache, James and Gay, Peter. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
Freud, Sigmund. 1963. Civilization and Its Discontents. Edited by Strachey, James. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
Galazzi, Sena. 2018. “Saving Myanmar One Day at a Time: Collaboration, Friendship, and Affect in the Every Day Life of INGO Offices in Yangon.” Paper presented at the ISA Annual Convention, San Francisco.Google Scholar
Giddens, Anthony. 1991. Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Goddard, Stacie E. 2009. “Brokering Change: Networks and Entrepreneurs in International Politics.” International Theory 1 (2): 249.10.1017/S1752971909000128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goetze, Catherine. 2017. The Distinction of Peace: A Social Analysis of Peacebuilding. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Grynaviski, Eric. 2014. “Brokering Cooperation: Intermediaries and US Cooperation with Non-State Allies, 1776–1945.” European Journal of International Relations 21 (3): 691717.10.1177/1354066114550661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haas, Peter. 1992. “Epistemic Communities and International Policy Coordination.” International Organization 46 (1): 135.10.1017/S0020818300001442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harrell-Bond, Barbara E. 2002. “Can Humanitarian Work with Refugees Be Humane?Human Rights Quarterly 24: 5185.10.1353/hrq.2002.0011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harrison, Elizabeth. 2013. “Beyond the Looking Glass? ‘Aidland’ Reconsidered.” Critique of Anthropology 33 (3): 263–79.10.1177/0308275X13490308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Head, Naomi. 2020. “Sentimental Politics or Structural Injustice? The Ambivalence of Emotions for Political Responsibility.” International Theory 12 (3): 337–57.10.1017/S175297192000007XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hilhorst, Dorothea, and Bram, J. Jansen. 2010. “Humanitarian Space as Arena: A Perspective on the Everyday Politics of Aid.” Development and Change 41 (6): 11171139.10.1111/j.1467-7660.2010.01673.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hollway, Wendy, and Jefferson, Tony. 2000. Doing Qualitative Research Differently: Free Association, Narrative and the Interview Method. London: Sage.10.4135/9781849209007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hopf, Ted. 2010. “The Logic of Habit in International Relations.” European Journal of International Relations 16 (4): 539–61.10.1177/1354066110363502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hopf, Ted. 2017. “Change in International Practices.” European Journal of International Relations 24 (3): 687711.10.1177/1354066117718041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hor, Amoz J. Y. 2019. “Emotions in-and-out of Equilibrium: Tracing the Everyday Defensiveness of Identity.” In Parsing the Passions: Methodology and Emotion in International Relations, edited by Van Rythoven, E. and Sucharov, M., 152171. New York: Routledge Intervention Series.10.4324/9780429443930-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hutchison, Emma. 2016. Affective Communities: Collective Emotions after Trauma. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9781316154670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hutchison, Emma, and Bleiker, Roland. 2014. “Theorizing Emotions in World Politics.” International Theory 6 (3): 491514.10.1017/S1752971914000232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hyndman, Jennifer. 2000. Managing Displacement: Refugees and the Politics of Humanitarianism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
Irvine, Graeme S. 1996. Best Things in the Worst Times. Wilsonville, Oregon: BookPartners, Inc.Google Scholar
J. 2014. Letters Left Unseen. Evil Genius Publishing, LLC.Google Scholar
Jakimow, Tanya, and Yumasdaleni, . 2016. “Affective Registers in Qualitative Team Research: Interpreting the Self in Encounters with the State.” Qualitative Research Journal 16 (2): 169180.10.1108/QRJ-04-2015-0026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kapoor, Ilan. 2004. “Hyper-Self-Reflexive Development? Spivak on Representing the Third World ‘Other’.” Third World Quarterly 25 (4): 627–47.10.1080/01436590410001678898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kapoor, Ilan. 2008. The Postcolonial Politics of Development. London and New York: Routledge.10.4324/9780203946145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kapoor, Ilan. 2020. Confronting Desire: Psychoanalysis and International Development. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Klein, Melanie. 1921. “The development of a child.” In Love, guilt and reparation and other works, by Klein, Melanie, 153. Delacorte Press.Google Scholar
Krause, Monika. 2010. “Accounting for State Intervention: The Social Histories of ‘Beneficiaries’.” Qualitative Sociology 33 (4): 533–47.10.1007/s11133-010-9165-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krause, Monika. 2014. The Good Project: Humanitarian Relief NGOs and the Fragmentation of Reason. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.10.7208/chicago/9780226131535.001.0001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kristeva, Julia. 1991. Strangers to Ourselves. New York and Oxford: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Kuhn, Thomas. 1970. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
Levi, Primo. 1986. The Drowned and the Saved. Edited by Rosenthal, Raymond. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
Leys, Ruth. 2007. From Guilt to Shame. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Li, Tania Murray. 2007. The Will to Improve: Governmentality, Development, and the Practice of Politics. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
Lo, Mun Hou. 2012. “Enough about You, What of Me? Or, Against Empathetic Learning.” Center for Development of Teaching and Learning, NUS 16 (2): 67.Google Scholar
Malkki, Liisa H. 2013. “A Tale of Two Affects: Humanitarianism and Professionalism in Red Cross Aid Work.” In Radical Egalitarianism: Local Realities, Global Relations, edited by Aulino, F., Goheen, M., Tambiah, S. J., and Fischer, M. M. J., 209–19. New York: Fordham University Press.10.2307/j.ctt1c5cjrj.16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malkki, Liisa H. 2015. The Need to Help. Duke University Press.Google Scholar
Meltzer, Françoise. 1990. “Unconscious.” In Critical Terms for Literary Study, edited by Lentricchia, Frank and Thomas, McLaughlin, 147–62. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Merry, Sally Engle. 2011. “Measuring the World Indicators, Human Rights, and Global Governance.” Current Anthropology 52 (3): S8395.10.1086/657241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Missbach, Antje. 2017. “Facets of Hospitality: Rohingya Refugees’ Temporary Stay in Aceh.” Indonesia October (104): 4164.10.1353/ind.2017.0010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitchell, Timothy. 2002. Rule of Experts: Egypt, Techno-Politics, Modernity. Berkley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.10.1525/9780520928251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitzen, Jennifer. 2006. “Ontological Security in World Politics: State Identity and the Security Dilemma.” European Journal of International Relations 12 (3): 341–70.10.1177/1354066106067346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mohan, Giles, and Stokke, Kristian. 2000. “Participatory Development and Empowerment: The Dangers of Localism.” Third World Quarterly 21 (2): 247–68.10.1080/01436590050004346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mosse, David. 2005. “Cultivating Development: An Ethnography of Aid Policy and Practice.” Anthropology Culture and Society 19: 315.Google Scholar
Mosse, David. 2006. “Localized Cosmopolitans: Anthropologists at the World Bank.” ASA Annual Conference, April, 127.Google Scholar
Mosse, David. 2011. Adventures in Aidland: The Anthropology of Professionals in International Development. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
Nandy, Ashis. 1983. The Intimate Enemy: Loss and Recovery under Colonialism. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Napier-Moore, Rebecca. 2011. “'Humanicrats’: The Social Production of Compassion, Indifference, and Hostility in Long-Term Camps.” Development in Practice 21 (1): 7384.10.1080/09614524.2011.530232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nielson, Daniel L., Tierney, Michael J., and Weaver, Catherine E.. 2006. “Bridging the Rationalist-Constructivist Divide: Re-Engineering the Culture of the World Bank.” Journal of International Relations and Development 9 (2): 107–39.10.1057/palgrave.jird.1800084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nietzsche, Friedrich. 2003. The Birth of Tragedy. Edited by Whiteside, Shaun and Tanner, Michael. London: Penguin Classics.Google Scholar
Noddings, Nel. 1984. Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics & Moral Education. Berkley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Nouvet, Elysée, and Jakimow, Tanya. 2016. “Moral Sentiments in Aidland: Aid and Development as Moral Experience.” Critique of Anthropology 36 (3): 223–27.10.1177/0308275X16646838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oh, Su-Ann. 2012. “Photofriend: Creating Visual Ethnography with Refugee Children.” Area 44 (3): 282–88.10.1111/j.1475-4762.2012.01111.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rafanelli, Lucia M. 2021. Promoting Justice Across Borders: The Ethics of Reform Intervention. New York: Oxford University Press.10.1093/oso/9780197568842.001.0001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Redfield, Peter. 2012. “The Unbearable Lightness of Ex-Pats: Double Binds of Humanitarian Mobility.” Cultural Anthropology 27 (2): 358–82.10.1111/j.1548-1360.2012.01147.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Redfield, Peter. 2013. Life in Crisis: The Ethical Journey of Doctors without Borders. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.10.1525/9780520955189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scollon, Ron. 2001. Mediated Discourse: The Nexus of Practice. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Scott, James C. 1985. Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Scott, James C. 1998. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Seabrooke, Leonard, and Broome, André. 2012. “Seeing Like an International Organisation.” New Political Economy 17 (1): 116.Google Scholar
Sending, Ole Jacob, and Neumann, Iver B.. 2006. “Governance to Governmentality: Analyzing NGOs, States, and Power.” International Studies Quarterly 50 (3): 651–72.10.1111/j.1468-2478.2006.00418.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shilliam, Robbie, 2014. “Race and Development.” In The Politics of Development. A Survey, edited by Weber, Heloise, 3148. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
Spivak, Gayatri. 1988. “Can the Subaltern Speak?” In Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, edited by Nelson, Cary and Grossberg, Lawrence, 271313. London: MacMillan.10.1007/978-1-349-19059-1_20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swidler, Ann. 1986. “Culture in Action: Symbols and Strategies.” American Sociological Review 51 (2): 273–86.10.2307/2095521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
The Grand Bargain Localization Agenda. 2019. “Pathways to Localisation: For Partnership-Based Humanitarian Action.” Inter-Agency Standing Committee. Accessed on 20 April 2021.Google Scholar
The Grand Bargain Participation Revolution. 2017. “Grand Bargain Participation Revolution Work Stream: Agreed, Practical Definition of the Meaning of ‘Participation’ within the Context of This Workstream.” Inter-Agency Standing Committee. Accessed on 20 April 2021.Google Scholar
The Grand Bargain Participation Revolution. 2019. “Success Indicators against Good Practices Related to Participation of People Affected by Crisis in Humanitarian Decisions.” Inter-Agency Standing Committee. Accessed on 20 April 2021.Google Scholar
The Start Network. 2017. “Localisation of Aid: Are INGOs Walking The Talk?Shifting the Power. Accessed on 20 April 2021.Google Scholar
Ticktin, Miriam. 2014. “Transnational Humanitarianism.” Annual Review of Anthropology (43): 273–89. Scholar
Ufford, Philip Quarles Van, and Giri, Ananta Kumar, ed. 2003. A Moral Critique of Development: In Search of Global Responsibilities. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1970–1995.” In The World Bank: Its First Half Century, edited by Kapur, Devesh, Lewis, John P., and Webb, Richard, 611734. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
Walkup, Mark. 1997. “Policy Dysfunction in Humanitarian Organizations: The Role of Coping Strategies, Institutions, and Organizational Culture.” Journal of Refugee Studies 10 (1): 3760.10.1093/jrs/10.1.37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waltz, Kenneth. 1979. Theory of International Politics. Reading: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
Weaver, Catherine. 2008. Hypocrisy Trap: The World Bank and the Poverty of Reform. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.10.1515/9781400837816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weber, Max. 1930. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (PESC). Edited by Parsons, Talcott. London and New York: Routledge Classics.Google Scholar
Weber, Max. 1958. “Politics as Vocation.” In Max Weber: Essays in Sociology edited by Gerth, H. H. and Mills, C. Wright, 77128. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Williams, Glyn. 2004. “Evaluating Participatory Development: Tyranny, Power and (Re)Politicisation.” Third World Quarterly 25 (3): 557–78.10.1080/0143659042000191438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winichakul, Thongchai. 1994. Siam Mapped: A History of a Geobody of a Nation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
Yanow, Dvora. 1997. How Does a Policy Mean? Interpreting Policy and Organizational Actions. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
Yayasan Geutanyoe. 2016. “Hidup Dalam Penantian: Setahun Pengungsi Rohingya Di Aceh.”Google Scholar
Zevnik, Andreja. 2021 “Anxiety: Political Transformation, Everyday Experience and the Politics of Race.” Paper presented at the ISA Annual Convention, Las Vegas.Google Scholar
Žižek, Slavoj. 1994. The Metastases of Enjoyment: On Women and Causality. London and New York: Verso.Google Scholar

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The everyday emotional lives of aid workers: how humanitarian anxiety gets in the way of meaningful local participation
Available formats

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

The everyday emotional lives of aid workers: how humanitarian anxiety gets in the way of meaningful local participation
Available formats

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

The everyday emotional lives of aid workers: how humanitarian anxiety gets in the way of meaningful local participation
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *