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Disinhibited behaviors in dementia are associated with multiple negative outcomes. However, effective interventions are under-researched. This systematic review aims to provide an overview of intervention studies that report outcome measures of disinhibited behaviors in dementia.
Systematic searches of the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychINFO, Social Work Abstracts and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial databases were conducted for publications published between 2002 and March 2020. We included hand-searched reviews, original articles, case reports, cohort studies, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). All studies were rated for research quality. Statistical and clinical significance were considered for individual studies. Effect sizes were included where provided or calculated where possible. Mean effect sizes were calculated for RCTs only.
The systematic review included studies involving people living with dementia.
The Neuropsychiatric Inventory disinhibition subscale was used most often.
Nine pharmacological and 21 nonpharmacological intervention studies utilized different theoretical/clinical approaches. These included pain management, antidepressants, models of care, education and/or training, music-based approaches, and physical activity. The quality of research in RCTs was strong with a greater effect size in nonpharmacological compared to pharmacological approaches (mean Cohen’s d = 0.49 and 0.27, respectively). Disinhibition was a secondary outcome in all studies.
Pharmacological (including pain management and antidepressants) and, more so, nonpharmacological (models of care, education/training, physical activity, and music) approaches were effective in reducing disinhibition.
To examine if smaller size at birth, an indicator of growth restriction in utero, is associated with lower cognition in late life, and whether this may be mediated by impaired early life brain development and/or adverse cardiometabolic programming.
Longitudinal follow-up of a birth cohort.
CSI Holdsworth Memorial Hospital (HMH), Mysore South India.
721 men and women (55–80 years) whose size at birth was recorded at HMH. Approximately 20 years earlier, a subset (n = 522) of them had assessments for cardiometabolic disorders in mid-life.
Standardized measurement of cognitive function, depression, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors; blood tests and assessments for cardiometabolic disorders
Participants who were heavier at birth had higher composite cognitive scores (0.12 SD per SD birth weight [95% CI 0.05, 0.19] p = 0.001) in late life. Other lifecourse factors independently positively related to cognition were maternal educational level and participants’ own educational level, adult leg length, body mass index, and socioeconomic position, and negatively were diabetes in mid-life and current depression and stroke. The association of birth weight with cognition was independent cardiometabolic risk factors and was attenuated after adjustment for all lifecourse factors (0.08 SD per SD birth weight [95% CI −0.01, 0.18] p = 0.07).
The findings are consistent with positive effects of early life environmental factors (better fetal growth, education, and childhood socioeconomic status) on brain development resulting in greater long-term cognitive function. The results do not support a pathway linking poorer fetal development with reduced late life cognitive function through cardiometabolic programming.
While early diagnosis of younger-onset dementia (YOD) is crucial in terms of accessing appropriate services and future planning, diagnostic delays are common. This study aims to identify predictors of delay to diagnosis in a large sample of people with YOD and to investigate the impact of a specialist YOD service on this time to diagnosis.
A retrospective cross-sectional study.
The inpatient unit of a tertiary neuropsychiatry service in metropolitan Victoria, Australia.
People diagnosed with a YOD.
Measurements and methods:
We investigated the following predictors using general linear modeling: demographics including sex and location, age at onset, dementia type, cognition, psychiatric diagnosis, and number of services consulted with prior to diagnosis.
A total of 242 inpatients were included. The mean time to diagnosis was 3.4 years. Significant predictors of delay included younger age at onset, dementia type other than Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and increased number of services consulted. These predictors individually led to an increased diagnostic delay of approximately 19 days, 5 months, and 6 months, respectively. A specialized YOD service reduced time to diagnosis by 12 months.
We found that younger age at onset, having a dementia which was not the most commonly occurring AD or bvFTD, and increasing number of services were significant predictors of diagnostic delay. A novel result was that a specialist YOD service may decrease diagnostic delay, highlighting the importance of such as service in reducing time to diagnosis as well as providing post-diagnostic support.
This study seeks to identify Alzheimer’s and related dementias (ADRD) biomarkers associated with postoperative delirium (POD) via meta-analysis.
A comprehensive search was conducted. Studies met the following inclusion criteria: >18 years of age, identified POD with standardized assessment, and biomarker measured in the AT(N)-X (A = amyloid, T = tau, (N)=neurodegeneration, X-Other) framework. Exclusion criteria: focus on prediction of delirium, delirium superimposed on dementia, other neurologic or psychiatric disorders, or terminal delirium. Reviewers extracted and synthesized data for the meta-analysis.
Patients with POD.
Primary outcome: association between POD and ATN-X biomarkers. Secondary outcomes involved sample heterogeneity.
28 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Studies focused on inflammatory and neuronal injury biomarkers; there were an insufficient number of studies for amyloid and tau biomarker analysis. Two inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6, and CRP) showed a significant relationship with POD (IL-6 n = 10, standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.53, 95% CI: 0.36–0.70; CRP n = 14, SMD: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.33–0.74). Two neuronal injury biomarkers (blood-based S100B and NfL) were positively associated with POD (S100B n = 5, SMD: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.11–0.69; NFL n = 2, SMD: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.28–1.57). Of note, many analyses were impacted by significant study heterogeneity.
This meta-analysis identified an association between certain inflammatory and neuronal injury biomarkers and POD. Future studies will need to corroborate these relationships and include amyloid and tau biomarkers in order to better understand the relationship between POD and ADRD.
On May 11, the Dutch Government allowed 26 nursing homes to welcome 1 visitor per resident, after 2 months of lockdown. The study aimed to monitor in-depth the feasibility of the regulations and their impact on the well-being of residents, their visitors, and healthcare staff.
Mixed-methods study in 5 of the 26 facilities; the facilities were affiliated to an academic network of nursing homes.
Visitors and healthcare professionals.
Allowing visitors using local regulations based on national guidelines.
Digital questionnaire, analyzing documentation such as infection prevention control protocols, attending meetings of COVID-19 crisis teams, in-depth telephone or in-person interviews with visitors and healthcare professionals, and on-site observations.
National guidelines were translated with great variety into local care practice. Healthcare professionals agreed that reopening would increase the well-being of the residents and their loved ones. However, there were also great worries for increasing workload, increasing the risk of emotional exhaustion, and the risk of COVID-19 infections. Compliance with local regulations was generally satisfactory, but maintaining social distance and correctly wearing face masks appeared to be difficult. Care staff remained ambivalent for fear of infections. In general, allowing visitors was experienced as having a positive impact on the well-being of all stakeholders. Nevertheless, some residents with dementia showed negative effects.
The complete lockdown of Dutch nursing homes had a substantial impact on the well-being of the residents. The reopening was welcomed by all stakeholders, but provided a high organizational workload as well as feelings of ambivalence among care staff. In the second wave, a more tailored approach is being implemented. However, facilities are sometimes still struggling to find the right balance between infection control and well-being.
To investigate factors associated with suicidal ideation (SI) around the time of dementia diagnosis. We hypothesised relatively preserved cognition, co-occurring physical and psychiatric disorders, functional impairments, and dementia diagnosis subtype would be associated with a higher risk of SI.
Cross-sectional study using routinely collected electronic mental healthcare records.
National Health Service secondary mental healthcare services in South London, UK, serving a population of over 1.36 million residents.
Patients who received a diagnosis of dementia (Alzheimer’s, vascular, mixed Alzheimer’s/vascular, or dementia with Lewy bodies) between 1 Nov 2007–31 Oct 2021: 18,252 people were identified during the observation period.
A natural language processing algorithm was used to identify recorded clinician recording of SI around the time of dementia diagnosis. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were also measured around the time of diagnosis. We compared people diagnosed with non-Alzheimer’s dementia to those with Alzheimer’s and used statistical models to adjust for putative confounders.
15.1% of patients had recorded SI, which was more common in dementia with Lewy bodies compared to other dementia diagnoses studied. After adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors, SI was more frequent in those with depression and dementia with Lewy bodies and less common in those with impaired activities of daily living and in vascular dementia. Agitated behavior and hallucinations were not associated with SI in the final model.
Our findings highlight the importance of identifying and treating depressive symptoms in people with dementia and the need for further research into under-researched dementia subtypes.