Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768dbb666b-9qwsl Total loading time: 0.358 Render date: 2023-02-03T21:30:35.595Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Mild behavioral impairment as a predictor of cognitive functioning in older adults

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 May 2020

Hillary J. Rouse*
Affiliation:
School of Aging Studies, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
Brent J. Small
Affiliation:
School of Aging Studies, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
John A. Schinka
Affiliation:
School of Aging Studies, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
David A. Loewenstein
Affiliation:
Wien Center for Alzheimer’s Disease and Memory Disorders, Mount Sinai Medical Center, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA
Ranjan Duara
Affiliation:
Wien Center for Alzheimer’s Disease and Memory Disorders, Mount Sinai Medical Center, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA
Huntington Potter
Affiliation:
Department of Neurology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA
*
Correspondence should be addressed to: Hillary Rouse, University of South Florida, College of Behavioral and Community Sciences, School of Aging Studies, 4202 E Fowler Ave, Tampa, FL33620, USA. Email: hrouse@usf.edu.

Abstract

Objective:

To assess the influence of mild behavioral impairment (MBI) on the cognitive performance of older adults who are cognitively healthy or have mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

Methods:

Secondary data analysis of a sample (n = 497) of older adults from the Florida Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center who were either cognitively healthy (n = 285) or diagnosed with MCI (n = 212). Over half of the sample (n = 255) met the operationalized diagnostic criteria for MBI. Cognitive domains of executive function, attention, short-term memory, and episodic memory were assessed using a battery of neuropsychological tests.

Results:

Older adults with MBI performed worse on tasks of executive function, attention, and episodic memory compared to those without MBI. A significant interaction revealed that persons with MBI and MCI performed worse on tasks of episodic memory compared to individuals with only MCI, but no significant differences were found in performance in cognitively healthy older adults with or without MBI on this cognitive domain. As expected, cognitively healthy older adults performed better than individuals with MCI on every domain of cognition.

Conclusions:

The present study found evidence that independent of cognitive status, individuals with MBI performed worse on tests of executive function, attention, and episodic memory than individuals without MBI. Additionally, those with MCI and MBI perform significantly worse on episodic memory tasks than individuals with only MCI. These results provide support for a unique cognitive phenotype associated with MBI and highlight the necessity for assessing both cognitive and behavioral symptoms.

Type
Original Research Article
Copyright
© International Psychogeriatric Association 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Beekly, D. et al. (2007). The National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center (NACC) Database: the Uniform Data Set. Alzheimer’s Disease and Associated Disorders, 21, 249258. https://doi.org/10.1097/WAD.0b013e318142774eCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benton, A.H. (1967). Problems of test construction in the field of aphasia. Cortex, 3, 3258. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-9452(67)80005-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brandt, J. and Benedict, R. (1991). Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised. Professional Manual. Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
Brodaty, H. et al. (2012). Neuropsychiatric symptoms in older people with and without cognitive impairment. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 31, 411420. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-2012-120169CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burhanullah, M. et al. (2020). Neuropsychiatric symptoms as risk factors for cognitive decline in clinically normal older adults: the Cache County Study. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28, 6471. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2019.03.023CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, J. (1973). Eta-squared and partial eta-squared in fixed factor ANOVA designs. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 33, 107112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Creese, B. et al. (2019). Mild behavioral impairment as a marker of cognitive decline in cognitively normal older adults. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 27, 823834. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2019.01.215CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cummings, J. (1997). The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: assessing psychopathology in dementia patients. Neurology, 48, S10S16. https://doi.org/10.1212/wnl.48.5_suppl_6.10sCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duara, R. et al. (2010). Reliability and validity of an algorithm for the diagnosis of normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia: implications for multicenter research studies. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18, 363370. https://doi.org/10.1097/jgp.0b013e3181c534a0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duara, R. et al. (2008). Medial temporal lobe atrophy on MRI scans and the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. Neurology, 71, 19861992. https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000336925.79704.9fCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Enders, C. (2010). Applied Missing Data Analysis. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Geda, Y. et al. (2014). Baseline neuropsychiatric symptoms and the risk of incident mild cognitive impairment: a population-based study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 572581. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13060821CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldman, J., Williams-Gray, C., Barker, R., Duda, J. and Galvin, J. (2014). The spectrum of cognitive impairment in Lewy body diseases. Movement Disorders, 29, 608621. https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.25866CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jessen, F. et al. (2014). A conceptual framework for research on subjective cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 10, 844852. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2014.01.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johns, E. et al. (2009). Executive functions in frontotemporal dementia and Lewy body dementia. Neuropsychology, 23, 765777. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016792CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ismail, Z. et al. (2017). The mild behavioral impairment checklist (MBI-C): a rating scale for neuropsychiatric symptoms in pre-dementia populations. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 56, 929938. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-160979CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ismail, Z. et al. (2016). Neuropsychiatric symptoms as early manifestations of emergent dementia: provisional diagnostic criteria for mild behavioral impairment. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 12, 195202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2015.05.017CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ivnik, R., Malec, J, Smith, G., Tangalos, E. and Petersen, R. (1996). Neuropsychological tests’ norms above age 55: COWAT, BNT, MAE token, WRAT-R reading, AMNART, STROOP, TMT, and JLO. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 10, 262278. https://doi.org/10.1080/13854049608406689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lo, T. et al. (2019). Association between neuropsychiatric symptom trajectory and conversion to Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s Disease & Associated Disorders, 17. https://doi.org/10.1097/wad.0000000000000356Google Scholar
Lucas, J., Ivnik, R., Bohac, D., Tangalos, E., Graff-Radford, N. and Petersen, R. (1998). Mayo’s older Americans normative studies: category fluency norms. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20, 194200. https://doi.org/10.1076/jcen.20.2.194.1173CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matsuoka, T., Ismail, Z. and Narumoto, J. (2019). Prevalence of mild behavioral impairment and risk of dementia in a psychiatric outpatient clinic. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 70, 505513. https://doi.org/10.3233/jad-190278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matthews, K. et al. (2019). Racial and ethnic estimates of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias in the United States (2015-2060) in adults aged ≥65 years. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 15, 1724. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2018.06.3063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morris, J. et al. (2006). The Uniform Data Set (UDS): clinical and cognitive variables and descriptive data from Alzheimer Disease Centers. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, 20, 210216. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.wad.0000213865.09806.92CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mortby, M., Burns, R., Eramudugolla, R., Ismail, Z. and Anstey, K. (2017). Neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment: understanding the importance of co-morbid symptoms. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 59, 141153. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-170050CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mortby, M.E., Ismail, Z. and Anstey, K.J. (2018). Prevalence estimates of mild behavioral impairment in a population-based sample of pre-dementia states and cognitively healthy older adults. International Psychogeriatrics, 30, 221232. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1041610217001909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Okura, T., Plassman, B., Steffens, D., Llewellyn, D., Potter, G. and Langa, K. (2010). Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and their association with functional limitations in older adults in the United States: the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 58, 330337. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-1545.2009.02680.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peters, M. et al. (2013). Neuropsychiatric symptoms as risk factors for progression from CIND to dementia: the Cache County Study. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 11161124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2013.01.04CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petersen, R.C., Smith, G.E., Waring, S.C., Ivnik, R.J., Tangalos, E.G. and Kokmen, E. (1999). Mild cognitive impairment. Archives of Neurology, 56, 303308. https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.56.3.303CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reitan, R. (1958). Validity of the trail-making test as an indicator of organic brain damage. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 8, 271276. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1958.8.3.271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenberg, P., Mielke, M., Appleby, B., Oh, E., Leoutsakos, J. and Lyketsos, C. (2011). Neuropsychiatric symptoms in MCI subtypes: the importance of executive dysfunction. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26, 364372. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.2535CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosenberg, P., Mielke, M., Appleby, B., Oh, E., Geda, Y. and Lyketsos, C. (2013). The association of neuropsychiatric symptoms in MCI with incident dementia and Alzheimer disease. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 685695. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2013.01.006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schinka, J. et al. (2010). Defining mild cognitive impairment: impact of varying decision criteria on neuropsychological diagnostic frequencies and correlates. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18, 684691. https://doi.org/10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181e56d5aCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stroop, J.R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643662. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0054651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sheikh, F. et al. (2017). Prevalence of mild behavioral impairment in mild cognitive impairment and subjective cognitive decline, and its association with caregiver burden. International Psychogeriatrics, 30, 233244. https://doi.org/10.1017/s104161021700151xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taragano, F. et al. (2018). Risk of conversion to dementia in a mild behavioral impairment group compared to a psychiatric group and to a mild cognitive impairment group. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 62, 227238. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-170632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taragano, F., Allegri, R. and Lyketsos, C. (2008). Mild behavioral impairment: a prodromal stage of dementia. Dementia & Neuropsychology, 2, 256260. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1980/57642009DN20400004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tombaugh, T., Kozak, J. and Reese, L. (1999). Normative data stratified by age and education for two measures of verbal fluency: FAS and animal naming. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 14, 167177. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0887-6177(97)00095-4Google ScholarPubMed
Vespa, J., Armstrong, D. and Medina, L. (2018). Demographic Turning Points for the United States: Population Projections for 2020 to 2060, Current Population Reports (P25-1144). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from: https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2020/demo/p25-1144.pdfGoogle Scholar
Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edition. Revised. Texas: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Wise, E., Rosenberg, P., Lyketsos, C. and Leoutsakos, J. (2019). Time course of neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive diagnosis in National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Centers volunteers. Alzheimer’s and Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Disease Monitoring, 11, 333339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dadm.2019.02.006Google ScholarPubMed
Wittenberg, D., Possin, K., Rascovksy, K., Rankin, K., Miller, B. and Kramer, J. (2008). The early neuropsychological and behavioral characteristics of frontotemporal dementia. Neuropsychology Review, 18, 91102. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-008-9056-zCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
13
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Mild behavioral impairment as a predictor of cognitive functioning in older adults
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Mild behavioral impairment as a predictor of cognitive functioning in older adults
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Mild behavioral impairment as a predictor of cognitive functioning in older adults
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *