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The ECO computerized cognitive battery: collection of normative data using elderly New Zealanders

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 April 2004

Paul l. Merrick
Massey University at Albany, Auckland, New Zealand
David l. Secker
Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK
Renee Fright
Waitemata District Health Board, Auckland, New Zealand
Pamela Melding
Waitemata District Health Board, Auckland, New Zealand


Background: Computerized testing in the elderly has multiple advantages, including increased time-efficiency, a wider range of stimulus options and response forms, and increased psychometric reliability. The French-language ECO (Examen Cognitif par Ordinateur, Ritchie et al., 1993) computerized cognitive battery is investigated in this study.

Objective: The purpose of the study was to yield normative data for an English-language version of the ECO, test the effects of age and education on test scores, to observe individual subtest sensitivity to cognitive impairment, and to examine participants' receptivity to this form of testing.

Method: A sample of 129 community-dwelling elderly with normal cognitive functioning and 56 cognitively impaired older adults living in both independent and supported accommodation were tested using the ECO at either their own residence or an outpatient facility.

Results: Standardized scores for three different age bands are given for both impaired and non-impaired groups. Age and education effects varied between subtests. A discriminant analysis of subtest-sensitivity to group prediction is reported using a stepwise regression model.

Conclusion: The English version of the ECO appears to be a sensitive and practical cognitive battery that is highly acceptable to older people.

Research Article
© International Psychogeriatric Association 2004

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