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Published online by Cambridge University Press: 20 January 2017
Somalia, embroiled in civil war since the early 1990s, has been variously qualified as a failed state, a rogue state, or a collapsed state. Several peacekeeping operations by the United Nations (UN) have attempted to bring peace to the chaotic region. The latest UN Security Council Resolution pertaining to Somalia, Resolution 2093 (2013), partially lifts the twenty-one-year-old arms embargo imposed on Somalia, in an acknowledgement of the progress made by the current government towards stability.
* This text was reproduced and reformatted from the text available at the United Nations Web site (visited November 11, 2013), http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/RES/2093(2013).
1 See, e.g., Assessing the Consequences of the Failed State of Somalia: Joint Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health and Human Rights and the Subcommittee on Terrorism, Nonproliferation, and Trade of the Committee on Foreign Affairs , 112th Cong. (2011)Google Scholar, available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112hhrg67305/pdf/CHRG-112hhrg67305.pdf; International Crisis Group, Somalia: To Move Beyond the Failed State (2008)Google Scholar, http://www.crisisgroup.org/_/media/Files/africa/horn-of-africa/somalia/Somalia%20To%20Move%20Beyond%20the%20Failed%20State.pdf; Rotberg, Robert I., Failed States, Collapsed States, Weak States: Causes and Indicators , in State Failure and State Weakness in a Time of Terror Google Scholar ( Rotberg, Robert I. ed., 2003)Google Scholar; Leeson, Peter T., Better off Stateless: Somalia Before and After Government Collapse , 35 J. Comp. Econ. 689 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; USAID, Somalia, http://www.usaid.gov/somalia (last visited Dec. 13, 2013).
2 President of Somalia, Cable dated July 1, 1960 from the Provisional President of the Republic of Somalia to the Secretary-General, U.N. Doc. S/4360 (July 1, 1960) (application by Somalia to be admitted to the United Nations).
4 Greenfield, Richard, Obituary: Mohamed Said Barre , The Independent (Jan. 3, 1995)Google Scholar, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/obituary-mohamed-said-barre-1566452.html.
5 CIA, The World Factbook: Somalia Google Scholar, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/so.html (last visited Dec. 13, 2013).
6 Charge D’affaires of the Permanent Mission of Somalia, Letter dated Jan. 20, 1992 from the Charge D’affaires A.I. of the Permanent Mission of Somalia to the President of the Security Council, U.N. Doc. S/23445 (Jan. 20, 1992).
7 S.C. Res. 733, U.N. Doc. S/RES/733 (Jan. 23, 1992).
8 S.C. Res 751, U.N. Doc. S/RES/751 (Apr. 24, 1992).
9 S.C. Res. 794, U.N. Doc. S/RES/794 (Dec. 3, 1992).
10 See United Nations, Somalia – UNOSOM I, Background Google Scholar, http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unosom1backgr2.html (last visited Dec. 13, 2013); see also Stewart, Richard W., The United States Army in Somalia 1992–1994 8 (2002)Google Scholar, http://www.history.army.mil/brochures/Somalia/Somalia.htm.
12 S.C. Res. 814, U.N. Doc. S/RES/814 (Mar. 26, 1993).
13 S.C. Res. 954, U.N. Doc. S/RES/954 (Nov. 4, 1994).
14 Hanson, Stephanie & Kaplan, Eben, Council on Foreign Relations Backgrounder: Somalia’s Transitional Government (2008)Google Scholar, http://www.cfr.org/somalia/somaliastransitional-government/p12475.
17 Brankamp, Hanno, Not Just Islam: How Somalia’s Union of Islamic Courts Used Local Customs , Think Africa Press (July 22, 2013)Google Scholar, http://thinkafricapress.com/somalia/unionislamic-courts-prism-xeer.
18 Barnes, Cedric & Hassan, Harun, House, Chatham, The Rise and Fall of Mogadishu’s Islamic Courts (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar, http://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/files/public/Research/Africa/bpsomalia0407.pdf; Dagne, Ted, Somalia: Current Conditions and Prospects for a Lasting Peace (2010)Google Scholar, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33911.pdf.
22 International Crisis Group, The Kenyan Military Intervention in Somalia (Feb. 15, 2012)Google Scholar, http://www.crisisgroup.org/_/media/Files/africa/horn-of-africa/kenya/184%20-%20The%20Kenyan%20Military%20Intervention%20in%20Somalia.pdf; see also Bademosi, Jolaade, The Kenyan Intervention in Somalia: Ethical Dilemmas (Nov. 1, 2012)Google Scholar (unpublished M.A. thesis, Georgetown University), available at https://repository.library.georgetown.edu/bitstream/handle/10822/557695/Bademosi_georgetown_0076M_11961.pdf?sequence=1.
23 See United Nations, Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, United Nations Documents on Piracy (May 24, 2012)Google Scholar, http://www.un.org/depts/los/piracy/piracy_documents.htm.
25 S.C. Res. 2093, U.N. Doc. S/RES/2093 (Mar. 6, 2013).
26 Id. ¶ 1.
27 Id. ¶ 33.
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