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Amendments to the Case-Zablocki Act Concerning Reporting and Publication of International Agreements and Related Regulations (U.S.)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 January 2024

Curtis Bradley*
Affiliation:
Allen M. Singer Professor, University of Chicago Law School, United States

Extract

Congress recently enacted significant reforms to the laws governing the reporting and publication of international agreements in the United States. These reforms were adopted in December 2022 and took effect in September 2023, and the State Department issued regulations implementing them in early October 2023.

Type
International Legal Documents
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The American Society of International Law

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References

ENDNOTES

1 U.S. Const. art. II, § 2.

2 See Congressional Research Service, Treaties and Other International Agreements: The Role of the United States Senate, S. Prt. 106-71, 106th Cong., 2d Sess. at 39 (Comm. Print 2001).

3 See Curtis Bradley, Jack Goldsmith, and Oona Hathaway, The Death of Article II Treaties?, Lawfare (Dec. 13, 2018), https://www.lawfaremedia.org/article/death-article-ii-treaties.

4 Pub. L. 92-403, § 1, 86 Stat. 619 (Aug. 22, 1972).

5 See 46 Fed. Reg. 35916, 35921, § 181.7(c) (July 13, 1981).

6 1 U.S.C. § 112a.

7 See Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995, Pub. L. 103-236, § 138, 108 Stat. 382, 397 (Apr. 30, 1994).

8 See Pub. L. 108–458, § 7121(a), 118 Stat. 3638, 3807 (Dec. 17, 2004).

9 Pub. L. 95-426, § 708, 92 Stat. 963, 993 (Oct. 7, 1978).

10 See, e.g., Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989, Pub L. 100–204, § 139, 101 Stat. 1331, 1347 (Dec. 22, 1987).

11 Pub. L. 95–45, 91 Stat. 221, 224 (June 15, 1977).

12 Pub. L. 95–426, § 708, 92 Stat. 963, 993 (Oct. 7, 1978).

13 See Oona A. Hathaway, Curtis A. Bradley, and Jack L. Goldsmith, The Failed Transparency Regime for Executive Agreements: An Empirical and Normative Analysis, 134 Harv. L. Rev. 629 (2020).

14 The three of us recently developed this point further in another empirical project. See Curtis A. Bradley, Jack Goldsmith, and Oona A. Hathaway, The Rise of Nonbinding International Agreements: An Empirical, Comparative, and Normative Analysis, 90 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1281 (2023).

15 See James M. Inhofe National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2023, Pub. L. 117-263, § 5947, 136 Stat. 2395, 3476 (Dec. 23, 2022) (amending 1 U.S.C. § 112b). See also Curtis Bradley, Jack Goldsmith, and Oona Hathaway, Congress Mandates Sweeping Transparency Reforms for Executive Agreements, Lawfare (Dec. 23, 2022), https://www.lawfaremedia.org/article/congress-mandates-sweeping-transparency-reforms-international-agreements.

16 See 1 U.S.C. § 112b(a).

17 Id. § 112(k)(5).

18 Id. § 112b(k)(5)(B).

19 1 U.S.C. § 112b(b).

20 Id. § 112b(b)(3).

21 See 1 U.S.C. § 112b(d).

22 Id. § 112b(e).

23 See Dep't of State, Publication, Coordination, and Reporting of International Agreements: Amendments, 88 Fed. Reg. 67643 (Oct. 2, 2023).

24 22 C.F.R. § 181.4(b)(3).

25 See 22 C.F.R. § 181.6; id. § 181.7.