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Soil Pests of Groundnut in Sub-Saharan Africa—A Review

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 September 2011

V. C. Umeh
Affiliation:
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) B.P. 320, Bamako, Mali
O. Youm
Affiliation:
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) Sahelian Center, B.P. 12404, Niamey, Niger
F. Waliyar
Affiliation:
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) B.P. 320, Bamako, Mali

Abstract

Termites (Isoptera: Termidae), white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and millipedes (Myriapoda: Odontopygidae) are the major groups of soil pests that are widespread and of economic importance in groundnut production in sub-Saharan Africa. Other Coleopteran pests such as wireworms (Elateridae) and false wireworms (Tenebrionidae) are found to be of occasional importance. Farmers' cultural practices such as improper application of organic manure, leaving crop residues in farms, delay in planting and harvesting, and abiotic factors such as rainfall and soil texture also influence soil pest occurrence and damage. Groundnut farmers in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa seldom apply effective control measures against soil pests. This paper reviews the major soil pests of groundnuts and their damage, and discusses adopted control practices and their applicability in integrated pest management (IPM) modules, with an emphasis on the use of resistant groundnut varieties, cultural practices, botanicals and minimal application of synthetic insecticides.

Résumé

Les termites (Isoptère: Termitidae), les vers blancs (Coléoptère: Scarabaeidae) et les millipedes (Myriapode: Odontopygidae) sont les groupes majeurs des nuisibles du sol les plus répandus et économiquement importants en Afrique sous-sahara. Les autres Coléoptères identifiés, tels que les vulgaires de Taupins (Elateridae) et les Tenebrionidae sont occasionnellement importants. Les pratiques culturelles des cultivateurs tels que l'application incorrecte de fumure organique, l'abandonment de résidus des cultures aux champs, retardement du semis et de la récolte, ainsi que des facteurs environnementaux corne la pluviométrie et texture du sol enfluencaient la presence et l'endommagement causés par les nuisibles du sol. La plupart des cultivateurs arachidiers en Afrique sous-sahara applique rarement les mesures de lutte contre les nuisibles du sol. Ce rapport explique les methodes de lutte adoptées contre les nuisibles du sol et propose leur incorporation dans la lutte intégrée avec un appui sur l'utilisation de la résistance varietale, les pratiques culturelles, les produits botaniques et l'application minimale des produits chimiques.

Type
Mini Review
Copyright
Copyright © ICIPE 2001

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