Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-568f69f84b-4g88t Total loading time: 0.234 Render date: 2021-09-17T05:16:41.500Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

The impact of tectonic-style on marine transgression and evolution

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 April 2021

D. S. Stevenson*
Carlton le Willows Academy, Wood Lane, Gedling, Nottingham NG4 4AA, UK
Author for correspondence: D. S. Stevenson, E-mail:


Plate tectonics drives variation in sea-level, over intervals of approximately107–108 years. These variations may have significant effects on the pace of (biological) evolution through the elimination of terrestrial niches and the expansion of shallow-water marine niches. However, within the solar system, only the Earth experiences this kind of tectonism. Venus displays regional tectonism, characterized by rising diapirs within the plastic mantle. Impinging on the lithosphere, these plumes produce a range of structures of varying dimensions; the uplift of which would raise sea-level, were Venus to have oceans. Using Magellan observations of Venus, we model the impact of regional tectonism on sea-level for given areas of Venusian ocean, then compare the effect with terrestrial tectonic processes for similar oceanic area. We show that despite variation in the geographical extent of Venusian-style tectonic processes, the styles of regional tectonism on Venus can produce the same order of magnitude changes in sea-level, for a given area of ocean, as plate tectonics. Consequently, we examine some of the impacts of marine transgression on habitability and the evolution of life.

Research Article
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Azovsky, AI (2002) Size-dependent species-area relationships in benthos: is the world more diverse for microbes? Ecography 25, 273282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Banerjee, DM and Mazumdar, A (1999) On the late Neoproterozoic-early Cambrian transition events in parts of east Gondwanaland. Gondwana Research 2, 199211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Banerjee, DM, Schidlowski, M, Siebert, F and Brasier, MD (1997) Geochemical changes across the Proterozoic–Cambrian transition in the Durmala phosphorite mine section, Mussoorie Hills, Garhwal Himalaya, India. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 132, 183194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barash, MS (2014) Mass extinction of the marine biota at the Ordovician–Silurian transition due to environmental changes. Oceanology 54, 780787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Basilevsky, AT and Head, JW III (1998 a) The geologic history of Venus: a stratigraphic view. Journal of Geophysical Research 103, 85318544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Basilevsky, AT and Head, JW (1998 b) Onset time and duration of corona activity on Venus: stratigraphy and history from photogeologic study of stereo images. Earth, Moon and Planets 76, 67115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becker, RT, Königshof, P and Brett, CE (2016) Devonian climate, sea level and evolutionary events. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 423, 123169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bindeman, IN, Zakharov, DO, Palandri, J, Greber, ND, Dauphas, N, Retallack, GJ, Hofmann, A, Lackey, JS and Bekker, A (2018) Rapid emergence of subaerial landmasses and onset of a modern hydrologic cycle 2.5 billion years ago. Nature 557, 545548.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bolmont, E, Selsis, F, Owen, JE, Ribas, I, Raymond, SN, Leconte, J and Gillon, M (2017) Water loss from terrestrial planets orbiting ultracool dwarfs: implications for the planets of TRAPPIST-1. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 464, 37283741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bond, DPG and Wignall, PB (2008) The role of sea-level change and marine anoxia in the Frasnian–Famennian (Late Devonian) mass extinction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 263, 107118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brasier, MD (1980) The Lower Cambrian transgression and glauconite-phosphate facies in western Europe. Journal of the Geological Society 137, 695703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brasier, MD (1982) Sea-level changes, facies changes and the late Precambrian – early Cambrian evolutionary explosion. Precambrian Research 17, 105123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brocke, R, Fatka, O, Lindemann, RH, Schindler, E and Ver Straeten, CA (2015) Palynology, dacryoconarids and the lower Eifelian (Middle Devonian) Basal Choteč Event: case studies from the Prague and Appalachian basins. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 423, 123169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Budd, GE and Jackson, ISC (2016) Ecological innovations in the Cambrian and the origins of the crown group phyla. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 371, 20150287.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carr, MH and Head, JW (2015) Martian surface/near-surface water inventory: sources, sinks, and changes with time. Geophysical Research Letters 42, 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cawood, PA, McCausland, PJA and Dunning, GR (2001) Opening Iapetus: constraints from the Laurentian margin in Newfoundland. Geological Society of America Bulletin 113, 443453.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cawood, PA, Hawkesworth, CJ, Pisarevsky, SA, Dhuime, B, Capitanio, FA and Nebel, O (2018) Geological archive of the onset of plate tectonics. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 376, 20170405.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clemmensen, LB, Glad, AC, Gunver, K and Pedersen, GK (2017) Early Cambrian wave-formed shoreline deposits: the Hardeberga Formation, Bornholm, Denmark. International Journal of Earth Sciences (Geol Rundsch) 106, 18891903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coffin, MF and Eldholm, O (1994) Large igneous provinces: crustal structure, dimensions, and external consequences. Reviews of Geophysics 32, 136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colmenar, J and Rasmussen, CMØ (2017) A Gondwanan perspective on the ordovician radiation constrains its temporal duration and suggests first wave of speciation, fuelled by Cambrian clades. Lethaia 51(2), 286295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conrad, CP (2013) The solid Earth's influence on sea level. Geological Society of America Bulletin 125, 10271052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dohm, JM and Maruyama, S (2015) Habitable trinity. Geoscience Frontiers 6, 95101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Domeier, M (2016) A plate tectonic scenario for the Iapetus and Rheic oceans. Gondwana Research 36, 275295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duran, S, Coulthard, TJ and Baynes, ERC (2019) Knickpoints in Martian channels indicate past ocean levels. Nature Scientific Reports 9, 15153.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Flament, N, Coltice, N and Rey, PF (2008) A case for late-Archaean continental emergence from thermal evolution models and hypsometry. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 275, 326336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fox, D (2016) What sparked the Cambrian Explosion? Nature 530, 268270.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gerstner, K, Dormann, CF, Vaclavık, T, Kreft, H and Seppelt, R (2014) Accounting for geographical variation in species–area relationships improves the prediction of plant species richness at the global scale. Journal of Biogeography 41, 261273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gladczenko, TP, Coffin, MF and Eldholm, O (1997) Crustal structure of the Ontong Java Plateau: modeling of new gravity and existing seismic data. Journal of Geophysical Research 102, 2271122729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gray, JS (2001) Marine diversity: the paradigms in patterns of species richness examined. Scientia Marina 65, 4156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grazhdankin, D (2004) Patterns of distribution in the Ediacaran biotas: facies versus biogeography and evolution. Paleobiology 30, 203221.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grindrod, PM and Trudi Hoogenboom, T (2006) Venus: the corona conundrum. Astronomy and Geophysics, 47, 3.163.21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hashimoto, GL, Roos-Serote, M, Sugita, S, Gilmore, MS, Kamp, LW, Carlson, RW and Baines, KH (2008) Felsic highland crust on Venus suggested by Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer data. Journal of Geophysical Research 113, E00B24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heenan, PB and McGlone, MS (2013) Evolution of New Zealand alpine and open-habitat plant species during the late Cenozoic. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 37, 105113.Google Scholar
Heimann, M and Reichstein, M (2008) Terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics and climate feedbacks. Nature 451, 289292.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hodych, JP and Cox, RA (2007) Ediacaran U–Pb zircon dates for the Lac Matapédia and Mt. St.-Anselme basalts of the Quebec Appalachians: support for a long-lived mantle plume during the rifting phase of Iapetus opening. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 44, 565581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoffman, PF, MacDonald, FA and Halverson, GP (2011) Chapter 5 – chemical sediments associated with Neoproterozoic glaciation: iron formation, cap carbonate, barite and phosphorite. In Arnaud, E, Halverson, GP and Shields-Zhou, G (eds). The Geological Record of Neoproterozoic Glaciations. London: The Geological Society of London, pp. 04354052. doi: 10.1144/M36.5.Google Scholar
Hoggard, MJ, Parnell-Turnerc, R and Whited, N (2020) Hotspots and mantle plumes revisited: towards reconciling the mantle heat transfer discrepancy. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 542, 116317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kalousová, K, Souček, O and Čadek, O (2010) Global model of elastic lithosphere thickness on Mars. EPSC Abstracts 5, EPSC2010-608.Google Scholar
Karlstrom, K, Hagadorn, J, Gehrels, G, Matthews, W, Schmitz, M, Madronich, L, Mulder, J, Pecha, M, Giesler, D and Crossey, L (2018) Cambrian Sauk transgression in the Grand Canyon region redefined by detrital zircons. Nature Geoscience 11, 438443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kasting, JF and Holm, NG (1992) What determines the volume of the oceans? Earth and Planetary Science Letters 109, 507515.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keller, CB, Husson, JM, Mitchell, RN, Bottke, WF, Gernon, TM, Boehnke, P, Bell, EA, Swanson-Hysell, NL and Peters, SE (2019) Neoproterozoic glacial origin of the Great Unconformity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116, 11361145.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kereszturi, Á, Hagen, TH, Bleamaster, LF and Hargitai, H (2015) Corona (Venus). In Hargitai, H and Kereszturi, Á (eds). Encyclopedia of Planetary Landforms. New York, NY: Springer. Scholar
King, SD and Adam, C (2014) Hotspot swells revisited. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 235, 6683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kirschner, JP, Kominz, MA and Mwakanyamale, KE (2010) Quantifying extension of passive margins: implications for sea level change. Tectonics 29, TC4006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kiselev, A, Bachmann, F, Pedevilla, P, Cox, SJ, Michaelides, A, Gerthsen, D and Leisner, T (2017) Active sites in heterogeneous ice nucleation – the example of K-rich feldspars. Science (New York, N.Y.) 355, 367371.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kite, ES, Manga, M and Gaidos, E (2009) Geodynamics and rate of volcanism on massive Earth-like planets. The Astrophysical Journal 700, 17321749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klein, FW (2016) Lithospheric flexure under the Hawaiian volcanic load: internal stresses and a broken plate revealed by earthquakes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 121, 24002428.Google Scholar
Korenaga, J (2011) Thermal evolution with a hydrating mantle and the initiation of plate tectonics in the early Earth. Journal of Geophysical Research 116, B12403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Korenaga, J, Planavsky, NJ and Evans David, AD (2017) Global water cycle and the coevolution of the Earth's interior and surface environment. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 375, 20150393.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krassilnikov, AS and Head, JW (2003) Novae on Venus: geology, classification, and evolution. Journal of Geophysical Research 108, 5108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kurokawa, H, Foriel, J, Laneuville, M, Houser, C and Usui, T (2018) Subduction and atmospheric escape of Earth’s seawater constrained by hydrogen isotopes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 497, 149160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landing, E and Kouchinsky, A (2016) Correlation of the Cambrian evolutionary radiation: geochronology, evolutionary stasis of earliest Cambrian (Terreneuvian) small shelly fossil (SSF) taxa, and chronostratigraphic significance. Geological Magazine 153, 750756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Latif, K, Xiao, E, Riaz, M, Wang, L, Khan, MY, Hussein, AA and Khan, MU (2018) Sequence stratigraphy, sea-level changes and depositional systems in the Cambrian of the North China Platform: a case study of Kouquan section, Shanxi Province. China. Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences 51, 116.Google Scholar
Lee, MYS, Soubrier, J and Edgecombe, GD (2013) Rates of phenotypic and genomic evolution during the Cambrian explosion. Current Biology 23, 18891895.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lenardic, A, Moresi, LN, Jellinekc, AM and Manga, M (2005) Continental insulation, mantle cooling, and the surface area of oceans and continents. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 234, 317333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lomolino, MV (2000) Ecology's most general, yet protean pattern: the species-area relationship. Journal of Biogeography 27, 1726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
López-Villalta, JS (2016) Testing the predation-diversification hypothesis for the Cambrian–Ordovician radiation. Paleontological Research 20, 312321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyle, M (2015) Deep-sea sediments. Encyclopaedia of marine geosciences, 20pp, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-6644-0_53-2. Available at Scholar
Monnereau, M and Cazenave, A (1990) Depth and geoid anomalies over oceanic hotspot swells: a global survey. Journal of Geophysical Research 95, 1542915438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Müller, RD, Sdrolias, M, Gaina, C, Steinberger, B and Heine, C (2008) Basin dynamics long-term sea-level fluctuations driven by ocean. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319, 13571362.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Munnecke, A, Calner, M, Harper, DAT and Servais, T (2010) Ordovician and Silurian sea–water chemistry, sea level, and climate: a synopsis. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 296, 389413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Musiol, S, Holohan, EP, Cailleau, B, Platz, T, Dumke, A, Walter, TR, Williams, DA and van Gasselt, S (2016) Lithospheric flexure and gravity spreading of Olympus Mons volcano, Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 121, 255272.Google Scholar
Neigel, JE (2003) Species-area relationship and marine conservation. Ecological Applications 13, 138145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Niu, Y (1997) Mantle melting and melt extraction processes beneath ocean ridges: evidence from abyssal peridotites. Journal of Petrology 38, 10471074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Niu, Y, Shi, X, Li, T, Wu, S, Sun, W and Zhu, R (2017) Testing the mantle plume hypothesis: an IODP effort to drill into the Kamchatka-Okhotsk Sea basement. Science Bulletin 62, 14641472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olson, P, Reynolds, E, Hinnov, L and Goswami, A (2016) Variation of ocean sediment thickness with crustal age. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 17, 13491369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paterson, JR, Edgecombe, GD and Lee, MSY (2019) Trilobite evolutionary rates constrain the duration of the Cambrian explosion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116, 43944399.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Percival, LME, Davies, JHFL, Schaltegger, U, De Vleeschouwer, D, Da Silva, A-C and Föllmi, KB (2018) Precisely dating the Frasnian–Famennian boundary: implications for the cause of the Late Devonian mass extinction. Nature Scientific Reports 8, 9578.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peters, SE and Gaines, RR (2012) Formation of the ‘great unconformity’ as a trigger for the Cambrian explosion. Nature 484, 363366.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Philippot, P, Ávila, J, Killingsworth, B, Killingsworth, BA, Tessalina, S, Baton, F, Caquineau, T, Muller, E, Pecoits, E, Cartigny, P, Lalonde, SV, Ireland, TR, Thomazo, C, van Kranendonk, MJ and Busigny, V (2018) Globally asynchronous sulphur isotope signals require re-definition of the great oxidation event. Nature Communications 9, 2245.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pistone, K, Eisenman, I and Ramanathan, V (2019) Radiative heating of an ice-free Arctic ocean. Geophysical Research Letters 46, 74747480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pitman, WC (1978) Relationship between eustasy and stratigraphic sequences of passive margins. Geological Society of America Bulletin 89, 13891403.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Portenga, EW and Bierman, PR (2011) Understanding Earth's eroding surface with 10Be. GSA Today 21, 410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rahbek, C, Borregaard, MK, Colwell, RK, Dalsgaard, B, Holt, BG, Morueta-Holme, N, Nogues-Bravo, D, Whittaker, RJ and Fjeldså, J (2019) Humboldt's enigma: what causes global patterns of mountain biodiversity? Science (New York, N.Y.) 365, 11081113.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramalho, R, Helffrich, G, Cosca, M, Vance, D, Hoffmann, D and Schmidt, DN (2010) Episodic swell growth inferred from variable uplift of the Cape Verde hotspot islands. Nature Geoscience 3, 774777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenblatt, P, Pinet, P and Thouvenot, E (1994) Comparative hypsometric analysis of Earth and Venus. Geophysical Research Letters 21, 465468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosing, MT, Bird, DK, Sleep, NH and Bjerrum, CJ (2010) No climate paradox under the faint early Sun. Nature 464, 744747.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rozel, AB, Golabek, GJ, Jain, C, Tackley, PJ and Gerya, T (2017) Continental crust formation on early Earth controlled by intrusive magmatism. Nature 545, 332335.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sames, B, Wagreich, M, Conrad, CP and Iqbal, S (2020) Aquifer-eustasy as the main driver of short-term sea-level fluctuations during Cretaceous hothouse climate phases. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 498, 938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saunders, RS, Spear, AJ, Allin, PC, Austin, RS, Berman, AL, Chandlee, RC, Clark, J, Decharon, AV, De Jong, EM, Griffith, DG, Gunn, JM, Hensley, S, Johnson, WTK, Kirby, CE, Leung, KS, Lyons, DT, Michaels, GA, Miller, J, Morris, RB, Morrison, AD, Piereson, RG, Scott, JF, Shaffer, SJ, Slonski, JP, Stofan, ER, Thompson, TW and Wall, SD (1992) Magellan mission summary. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 97, 1306713090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schaefer, L and Sasselov, D (2015) The persistence of oceans on earth-like planets: insights from the deep-water cycle. The Astrophysical Journal 801, 40 (13pp).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scheffer, M, Brovkin, V and Cox, P (2006) Positive feedback between global warming and atmospheric CO2 concentration inferred from past climate change. Geophysical Research Letters 33, L10702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sim, SJ, Stegman, DR and Coltice, N (2016) Influence of continental growth on mid-ocean ridge depth. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 17, 44254437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sleep, NH (2007) Origins of the plume hypothesis and some of its implications. Book chapter, in The Geological Survey of America, 430, ISBN print: 9780813724300.Google Scholar
Smrekar, SE and Stofan, ER (1997) Corona formation and heat loss on Venus by coupled upwelling and delamination. Science 277, 12891294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Solé, RV, Fernández, P and Kauffman, SA (2003) Adaptive walks in a gene network model of morphogenesis: insights into the Cambrian explosion. The International Journal of Developmental Biology 47, 685693.Google Scholar
Squire, RJ, Campbell, IH, Allen, CM and Wilson, CJL (2006) Did the Transgondwanan Supermountain trigger the explosive radiation of animals on Earth? Earth and Planetary Science Letters 250, 116133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Squyres, SW, Janes, DW, Baer, G, Bindschadler, DL, Schubert, G, Sharpton, VL and Stofan, ER (1992) The morphology and evolution of coronae on Venus. JGR Planets 97, 1361113634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stevenson, DS and Wallace, R (2021) Biogeographical modelling of exoplanets. Astrobiology, in press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stofan, ER, Sharpton, VL, Schubert, G, Baer, G, Bindschadler, DL, Janes, DL and Squyres, SW (1992) Global distribution and characteristics of coronae and related features on Venus: implications for origin and relation to mantle processes. Journal of Geophysical Research 97, 1334713378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vodráqková, S, Frýda, J, Suttner, TJ, Koptíková, L and Tonarová, P (2013) Environmental changes close to the Lower–Middle Devonian boundary; the Basal Choteč Event in the Prague Basin (Czech Republic). Facies 59, 425449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walker, JCG, Hays, PB and Kasting, JF (1981) A negative feedback mechanism for the long-term stabilization of Earth's surface temperature. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres 86, 97769782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wei, GY, Planavsky, NJ, Tarhan, LG, Chen, X, Wei, W, Li, D and Ling, H-F (2018) Marine redox fluctuation as a potential trigger for the Cambrian explosion. Geology 46, 587590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wheatley, PJ, Louden, T, Bourrier, V, Ehrenreich, D and Gillon, M (2017) Strong XUV irradiation of the Earth-sized exoplanets orbiting the ultracool dwarf TRAPPIST-1. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 465, L74L78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, JJ, Mills, BJW and Lenton, TM (2019) A tectonically driven Ediacaran oxygenation event. Nature Communications 10, 2690.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilson, DJ, Peirce, C, Watts, AB, Grevemeyer, I and Krabbenhoeft, A (2010) Uplift at lithospheric swells – I: seismic and gravity constraints on the crust and uppermost mantle structure of the Cape Verde mid-plate swell. Geophysical Journal International 182, 531550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, DJ, Peirce, C, Watts, AB and Grevemeyer, I (2013) Uplift at lithospheric swells – II: is the Cape Verde mid-plate swell supported by a lithosphere of varying mechanical strength? Geophysical Journal International 193, 798819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wood, R, Liu, AG, Bowyer, F, Wilby, PR, Dunn, FS, Kenchington, CG, Cuthill, JFY, Mitchell, EG and Penny, A (2019) Integrated records of environmental change and evolution challenge the Cambrian Explosion. Nature Ecology & Evolution 3, 528538.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yakubchuk, AS (2019) From Kenorland to modern continents: tectonics and metallogeny. Geotecton 53, 169192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zahnle, K, Arndt, N, Cockell, C, Halliday, A, Nisbet, E, Selsis, F and Sleep, NH (2007) The emergence of a habitable planet. Space Science Reviews 129, 3578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, K (1998) Twentieth Century Storm Activity and Sea Level Rise Along the U.S. East Coast and their Impact on Shoreline Position (Ph.D. Thesis). University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 266.Google Scholar
Zhang, K, Douglas, BC and Leatherman, SP (2004) Global warming and coastal erosion. Climatic Change 64, 4158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhong, S, Ritzwoller, M, Shapiro, N, Landuyt, W, Huang, J and Wessel, P (2007) Bathymetry of the Pacific plate and its implications for thermal evolution of lithosphere and mantle dynamics. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, 01480227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The impact of tectonic-style on marine transgression and evolution
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

The impact of tectonic-style on marine transgression and evolution
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

The impact of tectonic-style on marine transgression and evolution
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *