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Instructions for authors

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Instructions for Contributors

The International Annals of Criminology is an international and multidisciplinary journal devoted to the study of crime and crime prevention. Published by the International Society of Criminology, the Annals is one of the oldest continuously published scholarly journals in the area of criminology. Its mission is to further the dissemination of original international material on criminology and criminal justice, with a particular focus on different contexts beyond Europe and North America.

The Annals welcomes contributions relating to crime, cybercrime, crime prevention, criminal law, medico-legal subject matters, and the administration of criminal justice and provides a platform for learning, debate, and collaboration among criminologists, policy makers, professionals, and practitioners worldwide.

How to submit

Email submissions to the editor, Emilio Viano at

Manuscript Preparation

The manuscript should be submitted in MS Word. All pages must be double-spaced (including notes and references) with margins measuring at least 1 inch/2.5 cm (i.e., line length must not exceed 6-1/2 inches/16.5 cm). Please use 12-point Times New Roman font.

Articles may not exceed 20,000 words in length including text, references, and footnotes (excluding tables and figures).


A manuscript should include the following sections:

  • Title Page
  • Abstract
  • Main text
  • Footnotes
  • Tables
  • Figures
  • Appendices
  • Permissions
  • Biography page

Title Page

Please include the following:

  • Full article title
  • Acknowledgments and credits
  • Competing interests statement
  • Each author’s complete name and institutional affiliation(s)
  • Grant numbers and/or funding information, if pertinent
  • Key words (four or five)
  • Corresponding author (name, address, phone/fax, e-mail of the author we can contact about the manuscript, if needed)


The abstract should be 150 to 200 words and should not include author names or other identifying information.

Main Text

See below for the style guide.


Footnotes should be typed, double-spaced, in a separate “ENDNOTES” section. Many software programs do this automatically. Footnotes should be numbered sequentially in the body of the chapter (e.g. Migration 1). The software will create the space for the note with its superscript number.

Please keep the number of footnotes to a reasonable level. Notes are justified if they explain or amplify the text, cite materials of limited availability, and append information presented in a table or figure.

Notes should not exceed 100 words. For longer notes, consider stating in the note that more information is available from the author, depositing the information in a national retrieval centre and adding a short footnote or citation in the text, or adding an appendix.


References should be in a separate section at the end of the paper. All in-text citations should be listed in the References section, and vice versa. The Reference section is NOT bibliography listing material not mentioned in text. Please check this carefully, as it is one of the most common errors in manuscripts.

Publication information for each entry must be complete and correct. List the references in alphabetical order by authors’ last names. Include first names and middle initials when available. List two or more entries by the same author(s) by year of publication.

See References in the style section below for specific examples.

Competing interests

All authors must include a competing interest declaration in their title page. This declaration will be subject to editorial review and may be published in the article. Competing interests are situations that could be perceived to exert an undue influence on the content or publication of an author’s work. They may include, but are not limited to, financial, professional, contractual or personal relationships or situations. If the manuscript has multiple authors, the author submitting must include competing interest declarations relevant to all contributing authors. 

Example wording for a declaration is as follows: “Competing interests: Author A is employed at company B. Author C owns shares in company D, is on the Board of company E and is a member of organisation F. Author G has received grants from company H.” If no competing interests exist, the declaration should state “Competing interests: The author(s) declare none”. 


Tables should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text and must include table titles. Each table must include a descriptive title and headings for all columns and rows. Gather general notes to tables as “Note:”; use a, b, c, etc., for table footnotes. Use asterisks *, **, and *** to indicate significance at the p < .05, p < .01, and p < .001 levels, respectively, and always specify one-tailed or two-tailed tests. Generally, results at p > .05 (such as p < .10) should not be indicated as significant. Please indicate in the text the approximate location of the table.


Figures should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text and must include figure captions. Figures will appear in the published article in the order in which they are numbered initially. Preferred programs and formats for figures include the following: Excel, Word, PowerPoint, .wmf, .emf, and .tif (300 dpi).More information on figures is available here.

Colour images may be submitted, but will normally only be appear on the online version of the journal. Charges apply for all colour figures that appear in the print version. At the time of submission, contributors should clearly state whether their figures should appear in colour in the online version only, or whether they should appear in colour online and in the print version. There is no charge for including colour figures in the online version of the Journal. If you request colour figures in the printed version, you will be contacted by CCC-Rightslink who are acting on our behalf to collect Author Charges. Please follow their instructions in order to avoid any delay in the publication of your article.


Appendixes should be lettered to distinguish them from numbered tables and figures. Include a descriptive title for each appendix (e.g., “Appendix A. Variable Names and Definitions”).


The author(s) are responsible for securing permissions to reproduce all copyrighted figures or materials. A copy of the written permission must be included with the manuscript submission.

Biography Page

Please provide a short biography (maximum 100 words) for each auhtor.



Either British or American English can be used, but should be consistent throughout.

Check for consistent spelling of names, terms, and abbreviations, including in tables and figure captions. For American spelling please consult Merriam–Webster's Collegiate Dictionary; for British spelling you should refer to Collins English Dictionary.

Authors, particularly those whose first language is not English, may wish to have their English-language manuscripts checked by a native speaker before submission. This is optional, but may help to ensure that the academic content of the paper is fully understood by the editor and any reviewers. Cambridge offers a language editing service for manuscripts and abstracts in partnership with a trusted provider of author services:

Please note that the use of these services is voluntary, and at the author's own expense. Use of these services does not guarantee that the manuscript will be accepted for publication, nor does it restrict the author to submitting to a Cambridge published journal.

Headings and Subheadings

Articles should have no more than three heading levels. Headings should be all caps and bold. Subheadings should be italic and title cased.

In-Text Citations

Citations in the text should provide the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. Include page numbers for direct quotes or specific passages. Cite only those works needed to provide evidence for your assertions and to refer to important sources on the topic.

See the following citation examples:

When author’s name is in the text, follow it with the year in parentheses — Duncan (1959).

When author’s name is not in the text, enclose the last name and year in parentheses — (Gouldner 1963).

Pages cited follow the year of publication after a colon — (Ramirez and Weiss 1979:239–40).

Provide last names for joint authors — (Martin and Bailey 1988).

For three authors, list all three last names in the first citation in the text — (Carr, Smith, and Jones 1962). For all subsequent citations use “et al.” — (Carr et al. 1962). For works with four or more authors, use “et al.” throughout.

For institutional authorship, supply minimal identification from the complete citation — (U.S. Bureau of the Census 1963:117).

List a series of citations in alphabetical order or date order separated by semicolons — (Burgess 1968; Marwell et al. 1971).

Use “forthcoming” to cite sources scheduled for publication. For dissertations and unpublished papers, cite the date. If no date, use “n.d.” in place of the date — Smith (forthcoming) and Oropesa (n.d.).

For machine-readable data files, cite authorship and date—... (Institute for Survey Research 1976).


Publication information for each must be complete and correct.

List the references in alphabetical order by authors’ last names; include first names and middle initials for all authors when available.

List two or more entries by the same author(s) in order of the year of publication. When the cited material is not yet published but has been accepted for publication, use “Forthcoming” in place of the date and give the journal name or publishing house. For dissertations and unpublished papers, cite the date and place the paper was presented and/or where it is available. If no date is available, use “n.d.” in place of the date.

If two or more cited works are by the same author(s) within the same year, list them in alphabetical order by title and distinguish them by adding the letters a, b, c, etc., to the year.

For works with more than one author, only the name of the first author is inverted (e.g., “Jones, Arthur B., Colin D. Smith, and James Petersen”). List all authors; using “et al.” in the reference list is not acceptable.

References for data sets should include a persistent identifier, such as a Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Persistent identifiers ensure future access to unique published digital objects, such as a text or data set. Persistent identifiers are assigned to data sets by digital archives.



Bernard, Claude. [1865] 1957. An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine. Translated by H. C. Greene. New York: Dover.

Mason, Karen O. 1974. Women’s Labor Force Participation and Fertility. Research Triangle Park, NC: National Institutes of Health.

U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1960. Characteristics of Population. Vol. 1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Goodman, Leo A. 1947a. “The Analysis of Systems of Qualitative Variables When Some of the Variables Are Unobservable. Part I—A Modified Latent Structure Approach.” American Journal of Sociology 79(5):1179–1259.

Goodman, Leo A. 1947b. “Exploratory Latent Structure Analysis Using Both Identifiable and Unidentifiable Models.” Biometrika 61(2):215–31.

Szelényi, Szonja and Jacqueline Olvera. Forthcoming. “The Declining Significance of Class: Does Gender Complicate the Story?” Theory and Society.


Sampson, Robert J. 1992. “Family Management and Child Development: Insights from Social Disorganization Theory.” Pp. 63–93 in Advances in Criminology Theory. Vol. 3, Facts, Frameworks, and Forecasts, edited by J. McCord. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.


Charles, Maria. 1990. “Occupational Sex Segregation: A Log-Linear Analysis of Patterns in 25 Industrial Countries.” PhD dissertation, Department of Sociology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.


American Sociological Association. 1997. “Call for Help: Social Science Knowledge on Race, Racism, and Race Relations” (ASA Action Alert, October 15). Washington, DC: American Sociological Association. Retrieved October 15, 1997 (

Kao, Grace and Jennifer Thompson. 2003. “Racial and Ethnic Stratification in Educational Achievement and Attainment.” Annual Review of Sociology 29:417–42. Retrieved October 20, 2003 (

Data Sets

Deschenes, Elizabeth Piper, Susan Turner, and Joan Petersilia. Intensive Community Supervision in Minnesota, 1990–1992: A Dual Experiment in Prison Diversion and Enhanced Supervised Release [Computer file]. ICPSR06849-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2000. doi:10.3886/ICPSR06849.


Proofs are supplied to contributors to ensure that the printed version coincides with the manuscript accepted and that there are no copy-editing mistakes in the final version. Rewriting sections of an article in proof is not possible. Please make sure that your accepted manuscript is in its final form before it is sent to the printer. All authors should try to return their proofs within three days of receipt.


Authors will recieve a PDF of the published paper which will be sent to the corresponding author.

Open Access

Please visit for information on our open access policies, compliance with major funding bodies, and guidelines on depositing your manuscript in an institutional repository.

Last updated 18th June 2021