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Unholy Alliances and their Threat: The Convergence of Terrorism, Organized Crime and Corruption

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 November 2020

Emilio C. Viano*
Affiliation:
President, International Society of Criminology
*
*Corresponding Author: Emilio C. Viano, International Society of Criminology, PO Box 58186, Washington, DC 20037, USA. E-mail: emilio.viano@gmail.com
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Abstract

Since the tragedy of September 11, 2001 (9/11) there have been a growing awareness and recognition of the expanding threat presented by the transmutation and convergence of international organized crime and terrorist groups. There is a semantic debate on whether these organizations are “converging” or “transforming.” Regardless, this worrisome development is complicated and progressively difficult to combat and calls for law enforcement, intelligence and military interventions. While the United States and other countries have been dealing with the post-9/11 world of persistent problems like Iraq, Afghanistan, al Qaeda, “Islamic State in Iraq and Syria” (ISIS), Syria, and more, the links between organized crime and terrorism could prolong these challenges and generate further disruptions and menace to global security and development. There are strong operational needs and requirements that bring organized crime and terrorists together for collaboration and even seamless transitions within the same general operation. However, there are substantial hurdles that make a total teamwork between the two groups not so easily achievable. For example, organized crime normally avoids the publicity and the indiscriminate killings often used by terrorists. However, it is clear that the merging of international organized crime and terrorist groups is growing and presents unique challenges and opportunities. This paper examines this ongoing transmutation, convergence and cooperation between transnational organized crime and terrorism, and offers examples and recommendations on how to prevent it and defeat it.

Abstracto

Abstracto

Desde el 11 de septiembre 2001 ha habido una creciente conciencia y reconocimiento de la creciente amenaza presentada por la transmutación y la convergencia de la delincuencia organizada internacional y los grupos terroristas. Existe un debate semántico sobre si estas organizaciones están “convergiendo” o “transformándose”. En cualquier caso, este desarrollo preocupante es complicado y progresivamente difícil de combatir y requiere la aplicación de la ley, la participación de servicios de inteligencia y las intervenciones militares. Si bien Estados Unidos y otros países han estado lidiando con el mundo posterior al 11 de septiembre con problemas persistentes como Irak, Afganistán, al Qaeda, ISIS, Siria y más, los vínculos entre el crimen organizado y el terrorismo podrían prolongar estos desafíos y generar más interrupciones y amenazas a la seguridad global y el desarrollo. Existen fuertes necesidades y requisitos operativos que unen al crimen organizado y a los terroristas para la colaboración e incluso transiciones sin interrupciones dentro de la misma operación general. Sin embargo, existen obstáculos importantes que hacen que el trabajo en equipo total entre los dos grupos no sea tan fácil de lograr. Por ejemplo, el crimen organizado normalmente evita la publicidad y los asesinatos indiscriminados que suelen utilizar los terroristas. Sin embargo, está claro que la fusión de la delincuencia organizada internacional y los grupos terroristas está creciendo y presenta desafíos y oportunidades únicos. Este articulo examina la transmutación, convergencia y cooperación continua entre el crimen organizado transnacional y el terrorismo y ofrece ejemplos y recomendaciones sobre cómo prevenirlo y derrotarlo.

Abstrait

Abstrait

Depuis le 11 septembre 2001, il y a eu une prise de conscience et une reconnaissance croissantes de la menace que représentent la transmutation et la convergence du crime organisé international et des groupes terroristes. Il y a un débat sémantique sur la question de savoir si ces organisations «convergent» ou «se transforment». Quoi qu’il en soit, cette évolution inquiétante est compliquée et de plus en plus difficile à combattre et nécessite des interventions policières, de renseignement et militaires. Alors que les États-Unis et d’autres pays ont été confrontés au monde post-11 septembre plein de problèmes persistants tels que l’Irak, l’Afghanistan, Al-Qaïda, Daech, la Syrie, etc., les liens entre le crime organisé et le terrorisme pourraient prolonger ces défis et générer davantage de perturbations et menaces pour la sécurité mondiale et le développement. Il existe de forts besoins et exigences opérationnels qui réunissent le crime organisé et les terroristes pour une collaboration et même des transitions harmonieuses au sein d’une même opération générale. Cependant, il ya des obstacles importants qui font qu’un travail d’équipe total entre les deux groupes n’est pas si facilement réalisable. Par exemple, le crime organisé évite normalement la publicité et les meurtres aveugles souvent utilisés par les terroristes. Mais il est clair que la fusion du crime organisé international et des groupes terroristes se développe et présente des défis et des opportunités uniques. Cet article examine cette transmutation, cette convergence et cette coopération en cours entre la criminalité transnationale organisée et le terrorisme et propose des exemples et des recommandations sur la manière de les prévenir et de les vaincre.

抽象

抽象

自9/11以来,人们日益认识到并认识到国际有组织犯罪和恐怖组织的 trans 变和 融合所带来的不断扩大的威胁。 关于这些组织是融合还是转型,存在着语义上的争论。 无论如何,这种令人担忧的事态发展是复杂的,而且难以战胜,因此需要执法, 情报和军事干预。

尽管美国和其他国家/地区一直在处理充满伊拉克问题的 9-11 后世界,例如伊拉 克,阿富汗,基地组织,伊斯兰国,叙利亚等,但有组织犯罪与恐怖主义之间的 联系可能会延长这些挑战并产生进一步破坏和威胁全球安全与发展。 强烈的行动需求和要求将有组织犯罪和恐怖分子聚集在一起,以在同一一般行动 中进行协作,甚至实现无缝过渡。

但是,存在很大的障碍,很难在两个小组之间实现整体团队合作。例如,有组织 犯罪通常避免宣传和恐怖分子经常使用的滥杀滥伤。但是,很明显,国际有组织 犯罪和恐怖集团的合并正在增长,并提出了独特的挑战和机遇。 本文研究了跨国有组织犯罪,恐怖主义之间这种持续不断的,变,融合与合作, 并就如何预防和击败它提供了实例和建议。

نبذة مختصرة

نبذة مختصرة

منذ الحادي عشر من سبتمبر ، كان هناك وعي متزايد واعتراف متزايد بالتهديد المتزايد الذي يمثله تحويل وتقارب الجريمة المنظمة الدولية والجماعات الإرهابية.

هناك نقاش دلالي حول ما إذا كانت هذه المنظمات “تتلاقى” أو “تحول”.

بغض النظر ، فإن هذا التطور المقلق معقد ويصعب مكافحته تدريجيًا ويدعو إلى إنفاذ القانون والاستخبارات والتدخلات العسكرية.

في الوقت الذي تتعامل فيه الولايات المتحدة ودول أخرى مع عالم ما بعد الحادي عشر من سبتمبر المليء بالمشاكل المستمرة مثل العراق وأفغانستان والقاعدة وداعش وسوريا وغير ذلك ، فإن الروابط بين الجريمة المنظمة والإرهاب يمكن أن تطيل هذه التحديات وتولد المزيد من الاضطرابات والتهديد للأمن والتنمية العالميين.

هناك احتياجات ومتطلبات تشغيلية قوية تجمع بين الجريمة المنظمة والإرهابيين معًا للتعاون وحتى عمليات الانتقال السلسة داخل نفس العملية العامة.

ومع ذلك ، هناك عقبات كبيرة تجعل العمل الجماعي بين المجموعتين غير قابل للتحقيق بسهولة. على سبيل المثال ، عادة ما تتجنب الجريمة المنظمة الدعاية والقتل العشوائي الذي غالبًا ما يستخدمه الإرهابيون. ومع ذلك ، من الواضح أن اندماج الجريمة المنظمة الدولية والجماعات الإرهابية آخذ في الازدياد ويطرح تحديات وفرص فريدة.

تبحث هذه الورقة في هذا التحويل والتقارب والتعاون المستمر بين الجريمة المنظمة عبر الوطنية والإرهاب وتقدم أمثلة وتوصيات حول كيفية منعها وهزيمتها.

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Article
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© 2020 International Society of Criminology

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