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Protecting Victims of Terrorism in the Light of Global Criminology: International Experiences and Developments in the Early Third Millennium

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 April 2021

Mehrdad Rayejian Asli
Affiliation:
Institute for Research and Development in the Humanities (SAMT) Organization, Tehran, Iran
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Abstract

The relationship between terrorism and criminology illustrates the global feature of crime. Terrorism is presently at the top of the fields of interest of global criminology. However, the issue of victims of terrorism has been neglected in its research agenda. This article seeks to redefine global criminology and victimology by incorporating that issue into their fields of interest. It attempts to answer key questions like: What is the typical model for protecting the victims of terrorism? How could a more operative and effective system be created for that purpose? The European and the United Nations systems are two models that provide international experiences, developments and efforts. Since they generally form a soft law-based system, the author concludes that a protection-oriented system for victims of terrorism will be more operative and effective when it is transformed into one based on hard law.

Abstracto

Abstracto

La relación entre terrorismo y criminología ilustra la característica global del crimen. El terrorismo se encuentra actualmente en la cima de los campos de interés de la criminología global. Sin embargo, el tema de las víctimas del terrorismo ha sido descuidado en la agenda de investigación de la criminología global. El presente artículo busca redefinir la criminología y la victimología globales incorporando ese tema en sus campos de interés. Intenta responder preguntas clave como: ¿Cuál es el modelo típico para proteger a las víctimas del terrorismo? ¿Cómo podría hacerse una herramienta más operativa y eficaz para tal fin? Los sistemas europeo y de Naciones Unidas son dos modelos que aportan experiencias, desarrollos y esfuerzos internacionales. Dado que por lo general forman un sistema basado en la ley recomendada, el autor concluye que un sistema orientado a la protección de las víctimas del terrorismo será más operativo y eficaz cuando se transforme en uno basado en la ley obligatoria.

Abstrait

Abstrait

La relation entre le terrorisme et la criminologie illustre la caractéristique globale de la criminalité. Le terrorisme est actuellement au sommet des domaines d’intérêt de la criminologie mondiale. Cependant, la question des victimes du terrorisme a été négligée dans le programme de recherche de la criminologie mondiale. Le présent article cherche à redéfinir la criminologie et la victimologie mondiales en incorporant cette question dans leurs domaines d’intérêt. Il tente de répondre à des questions clés telles que: Quel est le modèle typique de protection des victimes du terrorisme? Comment créer un outil plus opérationnel et plus efficace à cette fin? Les systèmes européen et des Nations Unies sont deux modèles qui fournissent des expériences, des développements et des efforts internationaux. Puisqu’ils forment généralement un système fondé sur le droit non contraignant, l’auteur conclut qu’un système axé sur la protection des victimes du terrorisme sera plus opérationnel et efficace lorsqu’il sera transformé en un système fondé sur le droit obligatoire.

抽象的

抽象的

恐怖主义与犯罪学之间的关系说明了犯罪的全球特征。当前,恐怖主义是全球犯罪学最关注的领域。但是,全球犯罪学的研究议程中忽略了恐怖主义受害者的问题。本文旨在通过将该问题纳入其感兴趣的领域来重新定义全球犯罪学和全球受害者学。它试图回答一些关键问题,例如:保护恐怖主义受害者的典型模式是什么?为此目的,如何制作出更有效和有效的工具?欧洲和联合国系统是提供国际经验,发展和努力的两种模式。由于它们通常构成基于软法律的体系,因此作者得出结论,面向恐怖主义的受害者的面向保护的体系,如果将其转变为基于强制性法律的体系,将会更加有效和有效。

الملخص

الملخص

تمثل العلاقة بين الإرهاب وعلم الإجرام السمة العالمية للجريمة. كان الإرهاب على قمّة مجالات العناية في إطار علم الإجرام العالمي في أوان الألفية الثالثة. ومع ذلك، فقد تمّ طرح قضية ضحايا الإرهاب من جدول أعمال البحث في علم الإجرام العالمي. تسعى هذه المقالة إلى إعادة تعريف علم الإجرام العالمي وكذلك قضايا علم الضحايا العالمي من خلال تقييم مجالات الإهتمام المشترك بين العِلمَين. البحث یحاول الإجابة على بعض الأسئلة الرئيسية: ما الطريقة والإسلوب النموذجي لحماية ضحايا الإرهاب؟ وكيف يمكن صنع أداة أكثر فاعلية وکفاءة لأجل تحقیق هذا الغرض؟ كيف يمكن تصميم طريقة ناشطة بأعلی جودة من الكفاءة لتحقيق هذا الهدف بشكل أفضل؟ فيما يتعلق بالتجارب والتطورات الدولية، فإن النظام الأوروبي ومنظومة الأمم المتحدة على مستويين لمناقشة هذه الجهود الدولية. نظرًا لأنها تشكل عمومًا نظامًا غير ملزم قانونًا ، يخلص المؤلف إلى أن النظام الموجه نحو الحماية لضحايا الإرهاب سيكون أكثر نشاطا عندما يتحول إلى نظام قائم على قانون صارم. للنظر إلى الإنجازات والتطورات الدولية، فإن النظام الأوروبي ومنظومة الأمم المتحدة هما مستويان من المناقشة والخبرة حول هذه الجهود الدولية. وبما أن الإثنين يستندان بشكل عام إلى نظام قانوني إرشادي وغیرملزم، يخلص الباحث إلى أن النظام المثالي المرجّح لحماية ضحايا الإرهاب یجب أن يكون نظامًا قانونيًا ملزِمًا لکي یؤدي إلی زیادة فاعليتها وكفائتها.

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© International Society of Criminology 2021

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