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Charismatic Leadership and the Formation of Hate Groups

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 October 2020

Clairissa D. Breen*
SUNY Buffalo State College, Buffalo, NY, USA
Stephen Frezza
Gannon University, Erie, PA, USA
*Corresponding Author: Clairissa D. Breen, Department of Criminal Justice, Buffalo State College, 1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14222, USA. E-mail:
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As of 2019, there were 940 hate groups known to be active in the United States. Previous examinations of hate groups have assumed formation. This paper uses simulation modeling to test Weber’s 1947 socio-political theory of charismatic leadership. Simulation modeling creates a computer simulation that simplifies people and their interactions to mimic a real-world event or phenomena. Three models of hate group formation were created to test this theory. These experiments test the importance of personal and societal levels of hate in group formation and the influence of charismatic leadership. These experiments also tested hypotheses regarding the number of groups that form, the speed of formation, and group size. Data were collected from 13,000 model iterations to test these hypotheses. All models successfully generated hate groups. Hate groups formed at all levels of societal hate. An in-depth understanding of how hate groups form may assist in slowing the proliferation of these groups and decreasing their appeal.



A partir de 2019, había 940 grupos de odio activos en los Estados Unidos. Exámenes previos de grupos de odio han asumido la formación. Este documento utiliza modelos de simulación para probar la teoría sociopolítica de Weber (1947) sobre el liderazgo carismático. El modelado de simulación crea una simulación por computadora que simplifica a las personas y sus interacciones para imitar un evento o fenómeno del mundo real. Se crearon tres modelos de formación de grupos de odio para probar esta teoría. Estos experimentos prueban la importancia de los niveles personales y sociales de odio en la formación de grupos y la influencia del liderazgo carismático. Estos experimentos también probaron hipótesis con respecto al número de grupos que se forman, la velocidad de formación y el tamaño del grupo. Se recopilaron datos de trece mil iteraciones del modelo para probar estas hipótesis. Ambos modelos generaron con éxito grupos de odio. Grupos de odio formados en todos los niveles de odio social. Una comprensión profunda de cómo se forman los grupos de odio puede ayudar a frenar la proliferación de estos grupos y disminuir su atractivo.



En 2019, il y avait 940 groupes haineux connus pour être actifs aux États-Unis. Les examens antérieurs des groupes haineux ont supposé une telle formation. Cet article utilise la modélisation par simulation pour tester la théorie socio-politique de Weber (1947) sur le leadership charismatique. La modélisation de simulation crée une simulation informatique qui simplifie les personnes et leurs interactions pour imiter un événement ou des phénomènes du monde réel. Trois modèles de formation de groupes haineux ont été créés pour tester cette théorie. Ces expériences testent l’importance des niveaux personnels et sociétaux de haine dans la formation du groupe et l’influence du leadership charismatique. Ces expériences ont également testé des hypothèses concernant le nombre de groupes qui se forment, la vitesse de formation et la taille des groupes. Des données ont été collectées à partir de 13 000 itérations du modèle pour tester ces hypothèses. Les deux modèles ont réussi à générer des groupes haineux. Des groupes haineux se sont formés à tous les niveaux de haine sociétale. Une compréhension approfondie de la formation des groupes haineux peut contribuer à ralentir la prolifération de ces groupes et à diminuer leur attrait.




نبذة مختصرة

نبذة مختصرة

اعتبارًا من عام 2019 ، كان هناك 940 مجموعة كراهية معرو ة بنشاطها ي الولايات المتحدة. ا ترضت ال حوصات السابقة لجماعات الكراهية مثل هذا التكوين. تستخدم هذه الورقة نمذجة المحاكاة لاختبار نظرية ويبر (1947) الاجتماعية تقر للقيادة الكاريزمية. تقوم نماذج المحاكاة محاكاة كمبيوتر تبسط الأشخاص وت اعلاتهم لتقليد حدث أو ظاهرة ي العالم الحقيقي. تم إنشاء ثلاثة نماذج لتشكيل مجموعات الكراهية لاختبار هذه النظرية. تختبر هذه التجارب أهمية الممارسات الشخصية والمجتمعية من الكراهية ي تكوين المجموعة وتأثير القيادة الالهامية. اختبرت هذه التجارب أيضًا ال رضيات المتعلقة بعدد المجموعات التي تتشكل ، وسرعة التكوين ، وحجم المجموعة. تم جمع البيانات من ثلاثة عشر أل نموذج تكرار لاختبار هذه ال رضيات. نجح كلا النموذجين ي إنشاء مجموعات كراهية. تشكلت مجموعات الكراهية على جميع مستويات الكراهية المجتمعية. إن ال هم المتعمق لكي ية تشكيل مجموعات الكراهية قد تساعد ي إبطاء انتشار هذه الجماعات وتقليل جاذبيتها.

© 2020 International Society of Criminology

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