Available data, although fragmentary, indicate that infections impose a large burden on long-term–care facilities (LTCFs) in the United States. Endemic infections occur with frequencies estimated to range between 1.64 and 3.83 million per year. These estimates rival or exceed the annual tally for nosocomial infections in acute-care settings. Infections associated with outbreaks caused by respiratory, gastrointestinal, and antimicrobial-resistant pathogens burden LTCFs even further. As judged by antimicrobial use, transfers to hospital, and mortality figures, infections in LTCFs are not trivial. Moreover, annual costs associated with these infections appear to exceed $1 billion. Recognition of the burden associated with infection in LTCFs helps to identify research priorities for this rapidly growing area of healthcare.